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The Acoustic Bubble - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124419209, 9780323144131

The Acoustic Bubble

1st Edition

Author: T Leighton
eBook ISBN: 9780323144131
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th November 1993
Page Count: 640
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The Acoustic Bubble describes the interaction of acoustic fields with bubbles in liquid.

The book consists of five chapters. Chapter 1 provides a basic introduction to acoustics, including some of the more esoteric phenomena that can be seen when high-frequency high-intensity underwater sound is employed. Chapter 2 discusses the nucleation of cavitation and basic fluid dynamics, while Chapter 3 draws together the acoustics and bubble dynamics to discuss the free oscillation of a bubble and acoustic emissions from such activity. The acoustic probes that are often applied to study the behavior of a bubble when an externally-applied acoustic field drives it into oscillation is deliberated in Chapter 4. The last chapter outlines a variety of effects associated with acoustically-induced bubble activity. The bubble detection, sonoluminescence, sonochemistry, and pulse enhancement are also covered.

This publication is a good reference for physics and engineering students and researchers intending to acquire knowledge of the acoustic interactions of acoustic fields with bubbles.

Table of Contents


Symbols and Abbreviations

1 The Sound Field

1.1 The Acoustic Wave

Introduction: Acoustic Regimes

1.1.1 The Longitudinal Wave

1.1.2 Acoustic Impedance

1.1.3 Acoustic Intensity

1.1.4 Radiation Pressure

1.1.5 Reflection

1.1.6 Standing Waves

1.1.7 Attenuation

1.2 Practical Ultrasonic Fields

1.2.1 Characteristics

1.2.2 Transducers: the Generation and Detection of Underwater Sound

1.2.3 Nonlinear Effects in Underwater Ultrasound Beams



2 Cavitation Inception and Fluid Dynamics

2.1 The Bubble

2.1.1 Surface Tension Pressure

2.1.2 Cavitation Inception

2.1.3 Response of a Bubble to a Static Pressure

2.2 Fluid Dynamics

2.2.1 The Equation of Continuity

2.2.2 Eulers Equation

2.2.3 The General Wave Equation

2.2.4 Laplace's Equation

2.3 The Translating Bubble

2.3.1 Fluid Dynamics of a Rigid Sphere

2.3.2 Flow in Viscous Liquids


3 The Freely-Oscillating Bubble


3.1 The Unforced Oscillator

3.1.1 The Equilibrium Position

3.1.2 The Undamped Oscillator

3.1.3 The Damped Oscillator

3.2 The Pulsating, Spherical Bubble

Introduction: The Minnaert Frequency

3.2.1 The Pulsating Bubble as a Simple Oscillator

3.3 The Radiating Spherical Bubble

3.3.1 The Pressure Radiated by a Pulsator

3.3.2 Monopole Close to Boundaries

3.4 Damping

3.4.1 Basic Physics

3.4.2 Damping of a Spherical Pulsating Bubble

3.5 Experimental Investigations of Bubble Injection

3.5.1 A Simple Experiment for a Pulsating Spherical Bubble

3.5.2 The Injection Process

3.6 Nonspherical Bubble Oscillations

3.7 Bubble Entrapment in the Natural World

3.7.1 Babbling Brooks, Rain and the Sea: Situations and Applications

3.7.2 The Underwater Sound of Rain

3.7.3 Bubble Entrainment from a Free Surface: The Excitation Mechanism

3.8 Oceanic Bubbles

3.8.1 Characteristics of Oceanic Bubble Populations

3.8.2 Acoustic Effects of Oceanic Bubbles



4 The Forced Bubble

4.1 The Forced Linear Oscillator

4.1.1 The Undamped Driven Oscillator

4.1.2 The Damped Forced Oscillator

4.2 Nonlinear Equations of Motion for the Spherical Pulsating Bubble

4.2.1 The Rayleigh-Plesset Equation

4.2.2 Other Equations of Motion

4.2.3 Numerical Solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset Equation: Stable and Unstable Cavitation

4.3 Transient Cavitation

4.3.1 Transient Cavitation Threshold

4.3.2 Definition of Transient Cavitation

4.3.3 Surface Instabilities

4.3.4 Experimental Observation of Cavitation

4.4 Stable Cavitation

4.4.1 Radiation Forces

4.4.2 The Damping of Bubbles

4.4.3 Rectified Diffusion

4.4.4 Thresholds and Regimes for the Spherical Pulsating Bubble

4.4.5 Microstreaming During Stable Cavitation

4.4.6 Shape and Surface Mode Oscillations During Stable Cavitation

4.4.7 Acoustic Emissions from Driven Bubbles

4.4.8 Classes of Stable Cavitation

4.4.9 Summary of the Theory for a Single Bubble

4.4.10 Population Phenomena


5 Effects and Mechanisms

5.1 Bubble Detection

5.1.1 The Detection of Pre-Existing Stable Bubbles

5.1.2 The Ultrasonic Detection of Short-Lived Transient Cavitation

5.2 Sonoluminescence

5.2.1 Mechanisms

5.2.2 Characteristics of Sonoluminescence

5.2.3 Sonoluminescence from Stable Cavitation

5.2.4 Cavitation in Standing-Wave Fields

5.3 The Enhancement of Cavitation by Acoustic Pulsing and Sample Rotation

5.3.1 Pulse Enhancement

5.3.2 Rotation Enhancement of Acoustic Cavitation

5.3.3 Summary

5.4 Acoustic Cavitation: Effects on the Local Environment

5.4.1 Erosion and Damage

5.4.2 Bioeffects of Ultrasound: The Role of Cavitation




No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1994
24th November 1993
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

T Leighton

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