Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9788131234587

Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

2nd Edition

Authors: Biren Shah
Paperback ISBN: 9788131234587
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 12th April 2013
Page Count: 586
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Description

Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

This comprehensive textbook is primarily aimed at the course requirements of the B. Pharm. students. This book is specially designed to impart knowledge alternative systems of medicine as well as modern pharmacognosy. It would also serve as a valuable resource of information to other allied botanical and alternative healthcare science students as well as researchers and industrialists working in the field of herbal technology.

Key Features

Salient Features

  • Illustrated biosynthetic pathways of metabolites as well as extraction and isolation methodologies of medicinal compounds
  • Bioactivity determination and synthesis of herbal products of human interest
  • Information on Ayurvedic plants and Chinese system of medicine
  • Simple narrative text that will help students quickly understand important concepts
  • Over 300 illustrations and 120 tables to help students easily memorize and quickly recall vital concepts

Table of Contents

Contents

 

Preface to the Second Edition v

Preface to the First Edition vii

List of Reviewers ix

PART 1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy 1

Chapter 1 History, Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy 3

Meaning of Pharmacognosy 3

Origin of Pharmacognosy 4

History of Pharmacognosy 4

Scope of Pharmacognosy 8

Future of Pharmacognosy 8

Pharmacognostical Scheme 9

Chapter 2 Alternative Systems of Medicine 10

Introduction 10

Traditional Chinese Medicine System 11

Indian Systems of Medicine 12

Siddha System of Medicine 14

Unani System of Medicine 15

Homoeopathic System of Medicine 16

Aromatherapy 18

Bach Flower Remedies 20

Tibetan System of Medicine 20

Chapter 3 Classification of Drugs of Natural Origin 22

Introduction 22

Classification of Crude Drugs 23

PART 2 Pharmaceutical Botany 27

Chapter 4 Morphology of Different Plant Parts 29

Introduction 29

History 29

Study of Different Tissue Systems 31

Cell Contents 38

Cell Division 40

Morphological Study 42

Chapter 5 Study of Different Families 58

Introduction 58

Apocynaceae 60

Compositae 60

Convolvulaceae 61

Cruciferae 61

Gramineae 61

Labiatae 62

Leguminosae 62

Liliaceae 64

Papaveraceae 64

Rubiaceae 64

Rutaceae 65

Scrophulariaceae 65

Solanaceae 66

Umbelliferae 66

PART 3 Cultivation, Collection, Production and Utilization of Herbal Drugs 67

Chapter 6 Cultivation, Collection and Processing of Herbal Drugs 69

Introduction 69

Soils, Seeds and Propagation Material 70

Good Agricultural Practices 72

Factors Affecting Cultivation 73

Plant Hormones and Growth Regulators 76

Collection of Crude Drugs 85

Harvesting of Crude Drugs 86

Drying of Crude Drugs 86

Garbling (Dressing) 87

Packing of Crude Drugs 87

Storage of Crude Drugs 87

Quality Management 88

Documentation 88

Chapter 7 Indian Trade in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 89

Introduction 89

Indian Herbal Trade in World Scenario 91

Medicinal Plant-Based Industries in Indigenous System of Medicine 91

Export Potential of Indian Phytopharmaceutical Products 93

Indian Medicinal Plants Used in Cosmetic and Aromatherapy 93

Indian Medicinal Plants in Crude Form 93

Spices 94

Export of Spices From India 94

Chapter 8 Utilization of Aromatic Plants and Derived Products 97

Introduction 97

Impact of Industrialization 98

Toxicity of Essential Oils 100

Utilization of Aromatic Plants 100

Chapter 9 Role of Medicinal Plants in National Economy 103

Introduction 103

Economic Growth Potential in Natural Health and Cosmetic Products 105

Future Economic Growth 105

Development of Herbal Medicinal Industry 106

Contribution to Economy of the People 106

PART 4 Analytical Pharmacognosy 109

Chapter 10 Drug Adulteration 111

Introduction 111

Adulteration 111

Chapter 11 Evaluation of Crude Drugs 115

Introduction 115

Organoleptic Evaluation 115

Microscopical Evaluation 116

Chemical Evaluation 117

Physical Evaluation 117

Biological Evaluation 119

Chapter 12 Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs 120

Introduction 120

Need for Phytopharmacological Evaluation 121

New Strategies for Evaluating Natural Products 122

Errors in Screening Procedures 122

Screening Methods for Analgesic Agents 123

Screening Methods for Antidiabetic Agents 125

Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Agents 127

Screening Methods for Antifertility Agents 128

Screening Methods for Anti-inflammatory Agents 135

Screening Methods for Antipyretic Agents 138

Screening Methods for Antiulcer Agents 139

Screening Methods for Diuretic Agents 140

Screening Methods for Hepatoprotective Agents 141

Screening Methods for Wound-Healing Agents 143

PART 5 Biogenesis of Phytopharmaceuticals 145

Chapter 13 General Biosynthetic Pathways of Secondary Metabolites 147

Introduction 147

The Building Blocks 148

Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates 154

Biosynthesis of Glycosides 154

Biosynthesis of Alkaloids 154

Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds 162

PART 6 Pharmacognostical Study of Crude Drugs 163

Chapter 14 Drugs Containing Carbohydrates and Derived Products 165

Introduction 165

Classification 166

Tests for Carbohydrates 167

Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates 168

Acacia Gum 169

Guar Gum 171

Honey 172

Tragacanth 174

Sodium Alginate 176

Pectin 177

Karaya Gum 178

Bael 179

Agar 181

Manna 182

Xanthan Gum 183

Ghatti Gum 183

Ispaghula 184

Tamarind 187

Chitin 188

Carrageenan 189

Locust Bean Gum 190

Starch 191

Chapter 15 Drugs Containing Alkaloids 193

Introduction 193

Definition 194

History 194

Classification 194

Occurrence in Nature 195

Properties 197

Extraction 197

Chemical Tests 198

Tropane Alkaloids 198

Belladonna 198

Datura Herb 200

Stramonium 201

Hyoscyamus 203

Coca Leaves 205

Duboisia 206

Indole Alkaloids 207

Ergot 207

Rauwolfia 209

Nux Vomica 212

Vinca 215

Physostigma 217

Pyridine and Piperidine Alkaloids 218

Lobelia 218

Tobacco 219

Areca Nuts 220

Imidazole Alkaloids 221

Pilocarpus 221

Quinoline Alkaloids 222

Cinchona 222

Isoquinoline Alkaloids 225

Ipecac 225

Opium 228

Curare 230

Steroidal Alkaloids 230

Veratrum 230

Kurchi Bark 232

Ashwagandha 233

Purine Alkaloids 236

Coffee 236

Tea 237

Cocoa 238

Diterpene Alkaloids 239

Aconite 239

Amino Alkaloids 240

Ephedra 241

Colchicum 242

Chapter 16 Drugs Containing Glycosides 244

Introduction 244

Classification 245

Distribution of Glycosides 245

Chemical Tests of Glycosides 245

Isolation 247

Anthracene Glycosides 247

Senna Leaf 248

Aloe 251

Rhubarb 253

Cascara Bark 256

Frangula 258

Sterol or Cardiac Glycosides 259

Digitalis Leaves 260

Digitalis lanata 263

Thevetia 264

Squill 265

Red Squill 266

Indian Squill 266

Strophanthus 267

Oleander 268

Saponin Glycosides 269

Dioscorea 270

Liquorice 271

Shatavari 274

Brahmi 275

Ginseng 277

Senega 278

Quillaia 279

Gokhru 280

Sarsaparilla 282

Cyanogenic Glycosides 282

Almond 283

Wild Cherry Bark 284

Isothiocyanate Glycosides 284

Mustard 284

Flavone Glycosides 285

Ginkgo 285

Coumarin and Furanocoumarin Glycosides 286

Visnaga 286

Ammi 287

Psoralea 288

Aldehyde Glycosides 289

Vanilla 289

Phenol Glycosides 290

Bearberry 290

Steroidal Glycosides 290

Solanum 290

Bitter and Miscellaneous Glycosides 291

Gentian 291

Picrorhiza 292

Chirata 294

Quassia 295

Kalmegh 296

Chapter 17 Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 298

Introduction 298

Classification of Volatile Oils 299

Extraction of Volatile Oils 299

Terpenoids 300

Classification of Terpenoids 300

Evaluation of Volatile Oils 301

Chemical Tests 301

Storage of Volatile Oils 301

Pharmaceutical Applications 301

Volatile Oils Containing Hydrocarbons 301

Turpentine Oil 301

Volatile Oils Containing Alcohols 302

Peppermint 302

Pudina 303

Sandalwood Oil 304

Volatile Oils Containing Aldehydes 306

Lemongrass Oil 306

Lemon Peel 307

Bitter Orange Peel 307

Cinnamon 308

Cassia Bark 310

Citronella Oil 311

Saffron 312

Volatile Oils Containing Ketones 313

Camphor 313

Caraway 314

Coriander 316

Dill 318

Fennel 320

Jatamansi 322

Anise 323

Cummin/Cumin 325

Volatile Oil Containing Phenol 326

Ajowan 326

Tulsi 327

Clove 328

Volatile Oil Containing Ether 330

Nutmeg 330

Calamus 331

Volatile Oil Containing Oxides 332

Chenopodium Oil 332

Eucalyptus Oil 333

Cardamom 334

Volatile Oil Containing Ester 337

Garlic 337

Rosemary Oil 338

Gaultheria Oil 338

Valerian 339

Chapter 18 Drugs Containing Resins 341

Definition 341

Classification 341

Chemical Composition 342

Isolation 342

Asafoetida 342

Balsam of Peru 344

Balsam of Tolu 345

Cannabis 346

Capsicum 348

Colocynth 349

Colophony 350

Ginger 352

Guggul 354

Ipomoea 354

Jalap 355

Kaladana 356

Male Fern 356

Myrrh 357

Podophyllum 358

Indian Podophyllum 359

Siam Benzoin 360

Sumatra Benzoin 361

Storax 362

Turmeric 363

Chapter 19 Drugs Containing Lipids 366

Introduction 366

Fixed Oils and Fats 366

Waxes 367

Almond Oil 368

Arachis Oil 369

Castor Oil 370

Chaulmoogra Oil 371

Coconut Oil 371

Cod Liver Oil 372

Corn Oil 373

Cottonseed Oil 374

Linseed Oil 374

Mustard Oil 376

Olive Oil 377

Rice Bran Oil 378

Safflower Oil 379

Sesame Oil 380

Shark Liver Oil 381

Beeswax 382

Carnauba Wax 383

Cocoa Butter 383

Kokum 384

Lanolin 385

Lard 385

Chapter 20 Drugs Containing Tannins 387

Introduction 387

Classification 387

Characteristics of Tannins 388

Biosynthesis of Tannins 389

Chemical Tests 389

Isolation 389

Medicinal Properties and Uses 389

Hydrolysable Tannins 390

Myrobalan 390

Bahera 391

Arjuna 392

Amla 394

Nutgalls 395

Tannic Acid 396

Condensed Tannins 397

Ashoka 397

Pale Catechu 398

Black Catechu 400

Pterocarpus 401

Chapter 21 Enzymes and Protein Drugs 403

Enzymes 403

Diastase 404

Pepsin 404

Pancreatin 405

Trypsin 405

Hyaluronidase 406

Urokinase 406

Streptokinase 407

Bromelin 407

Serratiopeptidase 408

Papain 409

Proteins 410

Malt Extract 411

Gelatin 411

Casein 412

Collagen 413

Ficin 414

Chapter 22 Fibres, Sutures and Surgical Dressings 415

Introduction 415

History 415

Classification and Properties 416

Vegetable Fibres 416

Cotton 416

Jute 418

Flax 419

Hemp 419

Animal Fibres 420

Silk 420

Wool 421

Regenerated and Synthetic Fibres 422

Viscose 422

Alginate Fibres 422

Nylon 423

Terylene (Dacron) 424

Orlon 424

Surgical Dressings 424

Sutures and Ligatures 425

Chapter 23 Drugs of Mineral Origin 426

Introduction 426

Kaolin 426

Asbestos 427

Talc 428

Bentonite 429

Fuller’s Earth 429

Prepared Chalk 430

Kieselguhr 430

Calamine 431

PART 7 Extraction, Isolation and Purification of Herbal Drugs 433

Chapter 24 General Methods for Extraction, Isolation and Identification of Herbal Drugs 435

Introduction 435

Extraction Methods 435

Types of Extracts 439

Isolation and Identification of Natural Products 440

Chapter 25 Isolation of Phytopharmaceuticals 446

Introduction 446

Isolation of Atropine 447

Isolation of Andrographolide 447

Isolation of Bacosides 448

Isolation of Caffeine 448

Isolation of Camphor 449

Isolation of Capsaicin 449

Isolation of Colchicine 450

Isolation of Curcumin 450

Isolation of Digoxin 451

Isolation of Diosgenin 451

Isolation of Emetine 452

Isolation of Ergometrine 452

Isolation of Eugenol 453

Isolation of Gingerols and Shogaols 453

Isolation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid 454

Isolation of Guggulsterone 454

Isolation of Hesperidin 455

Isolation of Levodopa 455

Isolation of Menthol 456

Isolation of Nicotine 456

Isolation of Opium Alkaloids 457

Isolation of Piperine 457

Isolation of Podophyllotoxin 458

Isolation of Quinine and Quinidine 458

Isolation of Reserpine 459

Isolation of Sennosides 460

Isolation of Solasodine 461

Isolation of Strychnine and Brucine 461

Isolation of Vasicine 462

Isolation of Vinca Alkaloids 462

PART 8 Medicinal Plant Biotechnology 465

Chapter 26 Plant Tissue Culture 467

Introduction 467

History 468

Basic Requirements for a Tissue Culture Laboratory 470

General Procedures Involved in Plant Tissue Culture 471

Culture Media 473

Types of Plant Tissue Cultures 477

Establishment and Maintenance of Various Cultures 479

Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 482

PART 9 Miscellaneous 485

Chapter 27 Ayurvedic Pharmacy 487

Introduction 487

Market Potential 488

Asava and Arishta 488

Arka 489

Avaleha or Lehya 489

Taila 489

Churna 490

Lepa 490

Vati and Gutika 490

Vartti, Netrabindu and Anjana 490

Bhasma 491

Sattva 491

Guggulu 491

Kvatha Churna 492

Standardization of Ayurvedic Preparations 492

Chapter 28 Marine Pharmacognosy 494

Introduction 494

Marine Organisms as Potential Source of Drugs 495

Antiviral Agents 495

Antimicrobial Agents 499

Antiparasitic Agents 499

Anticancer Agents 500

Antispasmodic Agents 501

Cardiovascular Agents 501

Anti-inflammatory Agents 501

Insecticides 502

Anticoagulants 502

Prostaglandins 502

Marine Toxins 502

Conclusion 504

Chapter 29 Nutraceuticals and Cosmeceuticals 505

Nutraceuticals 505

Cosmeceuticals 514

Chapter 30 Natural Pesticides 519

Introduction 519

Methods of Pest Control 519

Classification 520

Essentials of a Good Pesticide 521

Pyrethrum Flowers 521

Derris Roots 523

Lonchocarpus Roots 524

Tobacco 524

Neem 525

Cevadilla 526

Ryania 527

Red Squill 527

Strychnine 527

Molluscicides 527

Citronella Oil 528

Factors Influencing Development of Natural Pesticides 528

The Future 530

Chapter 31 Poisonous Plants 531

Introduction 531

Definition of Poisonous Plants 531

Toxic Constituents of the Plants 532

Factors Determining the Toxicity of Plants 533

Classification of Poisonous Plants 533

Atropa belladonna L. 533

Alocasia sp. 534

Calotropis sp. 535

Aethusa cynapium L. 536

Malus sp. 537

Sapindus sp. 537

Catharanthus roseus 538

Nicotiana sp. 539

Sesbania grandiflora 540

Aconitum sp. 540

Ricinus communis L. 541

Chapter 32 Natural Allergens 543

Allergens 543

What Is Allergy 543

Types of Allergens 544

Chapter 33 Natural Colours and Dyes 546

Introduction 546

History 547

Types of Natural Dyes and Mordants 547

Natural Dyes Obtained From Plants 548

Natural Dyes Obtained From Minerals 549

Natural Dyes Obtained From Animals 549

Characterization of Dyes 549

Chemistry of Natural Dyes 549

Preparation of Dyes 550

Advantages and Limitations of Natural Dyes 550

Technology for Production of Natural Dyes 551

Genetic Variation and Dye Content 551

Conclusions 551

Chapter 34 Hallucinogenic Plants 552

Introduction 552

Medical Uses of Hallucinogens 553

PART 10 Traditional Drugs of India 559

Chapter 35 Detail Study of Traditional Drugs of India 561

Introduction 561

Adusa 562

Amla 563

Apamarga 564

Arjuna 566

Ashoka 567

Bahera 568

Bhilama 569

Brahmi 570

Cassia tora 572

Chirata 572

Chitrak 574

Lodh 575

Gokhru 575

Guduchi 576

Guggal 578

Kalejire 578

Kantakari 579

Lahsun 580

Malkangni 580

Methi 581

Palas 582

Punarnava 584

Rasana 585

Shatavari 586

Shankhpushpi 587

Tulsi 588

Tylophora 589

Vidang 590

Index 592

Biological Index 608

Details

No. of pages:
586
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier India 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
Paperback ISBN:
9788131234587

About the Author

Biren Shah