Textbook of Histology and A Practical guide - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9788131243459, 9788131243466

Textbook of Histology and A Practical guide

3rd Edition

Authors: J P Gunasegaran
eBook ISBN: 9788131243466
Paperback ISBN: 9788131243459
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 23rd March 2016
Page Count: 454
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Description

This edition of the book is extensively revised and updated especially the practical section of each chapter. It is designed specifically for undergraduate medical and dental students. The text of this book is wrapped up in an efficient format, designed to increase the interest of readers.

Key Features

  • Updated high quality labeled photomicrographs now which can be used as an Atlas
  • Simple, precise and student-friendly text
  • Point-wise presentation for easy learning and quick recapitulation during examination
  • Line diagrams for basic understanding of the tissue/organ
  • Pencil sketches of sections (haematoxylin and eosin) along with salient points of identification, well integrated with text for understanding technical details of structures at the backdrop of theory
  • Practical section comprising of enlarged high quality labeled photomicrographs at the end of each chapter with detailed explanation based on students’ expectation to observe
  • Clinical correlation of certain important structures
  • Self-assessment exercise at the end of theory for revision of the topics studied

Table of Contents

xi

Preface to the Third Edition ...................................................................................................................v

Preface to the First Edition .................................................................................................................. vii

Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................... ix

CHAPTER 1 HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES AND MICROSCOPY .........................................1

Introduction .........................................................................................................................1

General Architecture of the Body ........................................................................................1

Units of Measurement Used in Histology ..........................................................................2

Interpretation of a Section ...................................................................................................2

Processing of Tissues for Light Microscopy (Paraffi n Wax Embedding) ...........................2

Staining Procedure ...............................................................................................................4

Microscopy ...........................................................................................................................5

Self-Assessment Exercise ......................................................................................................9

Practical No. 1 Light Microscope and Histological Technique ........................................10

CHAPTER 2 EPITHELIAL TISSUE ..................................................................................15

Classifi cation of Epithelial Tissue......................................................................................15

Surface (or) Lining Epithelium ................................................................................. 15

General Features .................................................................................................................15

Intercellular Junctions (Junctional Complexes) ...............................................................16

Surface Modifi cations of Epithelial Cells ..........................................................................18

Classifi cation of Lining Epithelium ..................................................................................19

Some Biological Phenomena of the Cell ..........................................................................26

Self-Assessment Exercise ....................................................................................................30

Practical No. 2.I Epithelial Tissue I: Simple Epithelium ..................................................32

Practical No. 2.II Epithelial Tissue II: Stratifi ed Epithelium ............................................37

CHAPTER 3 GLANDS ...................................................................................................41

General Features .................................................................................................................41

Development ......................................................................................................................41

Classifi cation of Glands .....................................................................................................42

General Architecture of a Compound Gland ...................................................................45

Self-Assessment Exercise ....................................................................................................46

Practical No. 3 Glandular Epithelium: The Salivary Glands ............................................48

Exercise ...............................................................................................................................52

CHAPTER 4 CONNECTIVE TISSUE ................................................................................53

General Features .................................................................................................................53

Classifi cation of Connective Tissue (Based on Structure and Function) ........................53

Ordinary Connective Tissue .............................................................................................. 58

Self-Assessment Exercise ....................................................................................................67

Practical No. 4 Connective Tissue I: Ordinary ..................................................................69

CHAPTER 5 CARTILAGE ..............................................................................................75

General Features .................................................................................................................75

Components .......................................................................................................................76

Functions ............................................................................................................................78

Self-Assessment Exercise ....................................................................................................79

Practical No. 5 Connective Tissue II: Cartilage .................................................................81

CHAPTER 6 BONE .......................................................................................................85

General Features .................................................................................................................85

Types of Bone .....................................................................................................................85

Bone Membranes ...............................................................................................................86

Bone Composition .............................................................................................................86

Structure of Compact Bone ...............................................................................................87

Structure of Spongy or Cancellous Bone ..........................................................................90

Bone Formation/Ossifi cation ............................................................................................90

Self-Assessment Exercise ....................................................................................................97

Practical No. 6 Connective Tissue III: Bone ......................................................................99

CHAPTER 7 LYMPHOID TISSUE ..................................................................................105

Introduction .....................................................................................................................105

Immunoglobulins ............................................................................................................105

Thymus .................................................................................................................... 108

General Features ...............................................................................................................108

Components/Structure ....................................................................................................108

Characteristic Features ......................................................................................................111

Lymph Node ............................................................................................................. 111

General Features ................................................................................................................111

Components/Structure .....................................................................................................111

Spleen .......................................................................................................................114

General Features ............................................................................................................... 114

Components/Structure .................................................................................................... 114

Theories of Splenic Circulation ....................................................................................... 116

Palatine Tonsil ..........................................................................................................118

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................121

Practical No. 7 Lymphoid and Haemopoietic Tissue .....................................................123

CHAPTER 8 MUSCULAR TISSUE ................................................................................133

Introduction .....................................................................................................................133

Types ................................................................................................................................133

Skeletal Muscle ........................................................................................................ 133

General Features ...............................................................................................................133

General Architecture ........................................................................................................133

Structure of a Skeletal Muscle Fibre ................................................................................135

Light Microscopic (LM) Observation ..............................................................................135

Contraction Mechanism ..................................................................................................136

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibres .......................................................................................137

Motor End-Plates ..............................................................................................................138

Muscle Spindles ................................................................................................................138

Smooth Muscle .................................................................................................................139

Cardiac Muscle .................................................................................................................139

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................143

Practical No. 8 Muscular Tissue .......................................................................................145

CHAPTER 9 NERVOUS TISSUE ...................................................................................150

Introduction .....................................................................................................................150

Anatomical Classifi cation of Nervous System ................................................................150

Classifi cation of Neurons ................................................................................................150

Structure of a Multipolar Neuron ....................................................................................151

Ganglia ..............................................................................................................................156

Neuroglia (In CNS) ..........................................................................................................158

Cerebral Cortex ....................................................................................................... 158

General Features ...............................................................................................................158

Structure ............................................................................................................................159

Contents xiii

Cerebellar Cortex .................................................................................................... 161

General Features ...............................................................................................................161

Structure ............................................................................................................................161

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................164

Practical No. 9 Nervous Tissue ........................................................................................166

CHAPTER 10 BLOOD VESSELS.....................................................................................176

Introduction .....................................................................................................................176

Types of Blood Vessels .....................................................................................................176

Structure ............................................................................................................................176

Arteries .................................................................................................................... 177

General Features ...............................................................................................................177

Structure ............................................................................................................................177

Arteriole .................................................................................................................. 181

General Features ...............................................................................................................181

Structure ............................................................................................................................181

Capillaries ............................................................................................................... 181

General Features ...............................................................................................................181

Structure ............................................................................................................................181

Functions of Capillary Endothelium ..............................................................................183

Venule ...................................................................................................................... 183

General Features ...............................................................................................................183

Structure ............................................................................................................................183

Veins ........................................................................................................................ 183

General Features ...............................................................................................................183

Structure ............................................................................................................................183

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................186

Practical No. 10 Blood Vessels .........................................................................................188

CHAPTER 11 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM ......................................................................192

Introduction .....................................................................................................................192

Functions of Skin .............................................................................................................192

Types of Skin ....................................................................................................................192

Structure ............................................................................................................................193

Epidermis ..........................................................................................................................193

Glands of Skin ..................................................................................................................199

Appendages of Skin ..........................................................................................................200

Skin Receptors ..................................................................................................................203

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................205

Practical No. 11 Skin ........................................................................................................207

CHAPTER 12 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ................................................................................214

Introduction .....................................................................................................................214

Oral Cavity .............................................................................................................. 214

General Features ...............................................................................................................214

Structure of Oral Mucosa .................................................................................................214

Lips .......................................................................................................................... 215

Gingiva .................................................................................................................... 215

Teeth ........................................................................................................................ 216

Histological Structure of a Tooth ....................................................................................216

Tongue ..................................................................................................................... 219

Taste Buds .........................................................................................................................221

Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) .................................................................................... 224

General Plan of Gastrointestinal Tract ............................................................................224

Oesophagus ............................................................................................................. 225

General Features ...............................................................................................................225

xiv Contents

Structure ............................................................................................................................225

Stomach................................................................................................................... 226

General Features ...............................................................................................................226

Structure ............................................................................................................................226

Salient Features of each Region of Stomach ...................................................................229

Small Intestine ........................................................................................................ 230

General Features ...............................................................................................................230

Structure ............................................................................................................................231

Salient Microscopic Features of each Region of Small Intestine....................................233

Large Intestine ......................................................................................................... 235

General Features ...............................................................................................................235

Structure ............................................................................................................................235

Salient Features of each Region of Large Intestine .........................................................235

Glands Associated with Digestive System .......................................................................236

Salivary Glands........................................................................................................ 237

General Features ...............................................................................................................237

Structure ............................................................................................................................237

Liver ......................................................................................................................... 239

General Features ...............................................................................................................239

Structure ............................................................................................................................240

Regeneration of Liver .......................................................................................................244

Pancreas .................................................................................................................. 244

General Features ...............................................................................................................244

Structure ............................................................................................................................244

Gall Bladder ............................................................................................................ 246

General Features ...............................................................................................................246

Structure ............................................................................................................................247

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................248

Practical No. 12.I Digestive System: Oral Cavity ............................................................251

Practical No. 12.II Digestive System: Oesophagus and Stomach ..................................256

Practical No. 12.III Digestive System: Intestine ..............................................................263

Practical No. 12.IV Digestive System: Glands .................................................................271

CHAPTER 13 URINARY SYSTEM ..................................................................................276

Introduction .....................................................................................................................276

Kidney ..................................................................................................................... 276

General Features ...............................................................................................................276

Macroscopic Features .......................................................................................................276

Microscopic Structure.......................................................................................................277

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA) ...................................................................................283

Ureter ...................................................................................................................... 284

General Features ...............................................................................................................284

Structure ............................................................................................................................284

Urinary Bladder ....................................................................................................... 285

General Features ...............................................................................................................285

Structure ............................................................................................................................285

Urethra .................................................................................................................... 287

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................288

Practical No. 13 Urinary System ......................................................................................290

CHAPTER 14 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ..............................................................296

Introduction .....................................................................................................................296

Testis ........................................................................................................................ 296

General Architecture of Testis ..........................................................................................296

Seminiferous Tubules.......................................................................................................298

Spermatogenic Cells .........................................................................................................298

Interstitial Tissue and Leydig Cells ..................................................................................300

Genital Ducts .......................................................................................................... 301

Epididymis ........................................................................................................................301

Vas Deferens (Ductus Deferens) ......................................................................................302

Ejaculatory Duct ...............................................................................................................302

Accessory Sex Glands .............................................................................................. 303

Seminal Vesicle .................................................................................................................303

Prostate .............................................................................................................................304

Bulbourethral Gland ........................................................................................................305

Penis ........................................................................................................................ 305

Gross Features ...................................................................................................................305

Microscopic Structure.......................................................................................................307

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................308

Practical No. 14 Male Reproductive System ................................................................... 310

CHAPTER 15 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ...........................................................318

Introduction .....................................................................................................................318

Ovary ....................................................................................................................... 318

General Features ...............................................................................................................318

Structure ............................................................................................................................318

Development of Ovarian Follicle ....................................................................................319

Uterine Tube (Fallopian Tube) ............................................................................... 324

General Features ...............................................................................................................324

Structure ............................................................................................................................325

Uterus ...................................................................................................................... 326

General Features ...............................................................................................................326

Structure ............................................................................................................................326

Cyclic Changes in the Endometrium ..............................................................................327

Cervix of Uterus ................................................................................................................327

Vagina ...................................................................................................................... 329

General Features ...............................................................................................................329

Structure ............................................................................................................................329

Mammary Gland (Breast) ................................................................................................330

General Features ...............................................................................................................330

Gross Structure .................................................................................................................330

Histological Structure.......................................................................................................330

Placenta ................................................................................................................... 334

General Features ...............................................................................................................334

Structure ............................................................................................................................334

Umbilical Cord ....................................................................................................... 335

General Features ...............................................................................................................335

Structure ............................................................................................................................335

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................336

Practical No. 15.I Female Reproductive System .............................................................338

Practical No. 15.II Female Reproductive System ............................................................345

CHAPTER 16 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ..........................................................................348

Introduction .....................................................................................................................348

General Structure of the Conducting Portion of the Respiratory Tract .........................349

Structural Changes in the Conducting Portion of the Respiratory Tract

(From Larynx to Bronchiole) ...........................................................................................349

Nasal Cavity ............................................................................................................. 349

General Features ...............................................................................................................349

Structure ............................................................................................................................350

Pharynx ................................................................................................................... 351

General Features ...............................................................................................................351

xvi Contents

Structure ............................................................................................................................351

Larynx ...................................................................................................................... 352

General Features ...............................................................................................................352

Structure ............................................................................................................................352

Trachea .................................................................................................................... 353

General Features ...............................................................................................................353

Structure ............................................................................................................................353

Principal Bronchus ................................................................................................. 355

Lungs: Intrapulmonary Bronchus and its Subdivisions and Lung Parenchyma .... 355

General Features ...............................................................................................................355

Structure ............................................................................................................................355

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................361

Practical No. 16 Respiratory System ................................................................................363

CHAPTER 17 ENDOCRINE GLANDS ..............................................................................367

Introduction .....................................................................................................................367

Pituitary (Hypophysis Cerebri) ............................................................................... 367

General Features ...............................................................................................................367

Development ....................................................................................................................367

Thyroid .................................................................................................................... 372

General Features ...............................................................................................................372

Development ....................................................................................................................372

Structure ............................................................................................................................372

Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroid Hormones ..............................................................374

Effect of Thyroid Hormones ............................................................................................374

Parathyroid .............................................................................................................. 375

General Features ...............................................................................................................375

Development ....................................................................................................................375

Structure ............................................................................................................................375

Adrenal (Suprarenal) .............................................................................................. 377

General Features ...............................................................................................................377

Development ....................................................................................................................377

Structure ............................................................................................................................378

Pineal Body (Epiphysis) .......................................................................................... 380

General Features ...............................................................................................................380

Structure ............................................................................................................................380

Functions ..........................................................................................................................381

Self-Assessment Exercise ..................................................................................................382

Practical No. 17 Endocrine Glands .................................................................................384

CHAPTER 18 SPECIAL SENSES ...................................................................................391

Introduction .....................................................................................................................391

Eye ........................................................................................................................... 391

General Features ...............................................................................................................391

Structure ............................................................................................................................391

Ear ........................................................................................................................... 402

General Features ...............................................................................................................402

Structure ............................................................................................................................402

Self-Assessment Exercise .................................................................................................. 410

Practical No. 18 Special Senses........................................................................................412

APPENDIX SOME IMPORTANT CELLS: THEIR LOCATION, FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS .....421

INDEX ............................................................................................................................ 435

Details

No. of pages:
454
Language:
English
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
eBook ISBN:
9788131243466
Paperback ISBN:
9788131243459

About the Author

J P Gunasegaran