Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9788131243732, 9788131249215

Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses

1st Edition

Authors: Nachiket Shankar Mario Vaz
eBook ISBN: 9788131249215
Paperback ISBN: 9788131243732
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 5th September 2017
Page Count: 598
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Description

Specifically targeted for nurses, this book has been written in line with the curriculum prescribed by the Nursing Council of India. The combination of anatomy and physiology in one book will allow the students to understand structure–function relationships of the human body in preparation for their clinical training.

Table of Contents

PART A Anatomy

SECTION 1 Introduction to Anatomy

1 What Is Anatomy?, 4

  • Introduction, 4
  • Role of Anatomy in Health Sciences, 4
  • A Brief History of Human Anatomy, 4
  • Subdivisions of Anatomy and their Scope, 6

2 Anatomical Terminology, 7

  • Introduction, 7
  • Anatomical Position, 7
  • Planes of the Body, 7
  • Sections of the Body, 7
  • Terms of Relationship, 7
  • Movements of the Body, 8

3 Structural Organization of the Human Body, 11

  • Introduction, 11
  • Structural Organization of the Human Body, 11
  • The Cell Theory, 11
  • Classification of Cells, 11
  • Ultrastructure of an Animal Cell, 11
  • Cell Division, 15
  • The Cell Cycle, 16
  • Applied Anatomy, 16

SECTION 2 Tissues of the Body

4 Epithelial Tissue, 20

  • Introduction, 20
  • Functions of Epithelial Tissue, 20
  • Arrangement of Epithelial Tissue, 20
  • Classification of Epithelial Tissue, 20
  • Epithelial Cell Junctions, 22
  • Applied Anatomy, 22

5 Exocrine Glands, 23

  • Introduction, 23
  • General Features of Exocrine Glands, 23
  • Classification of Exocrine Glands , 23
  • Applied Anatomy, 25

6 Connective Tissue, 27

  • Introduction, 27
  • General Features, 27
  • Classification, 28
  • Applied Anatomy, 29

7 Cartilage, 30

  • Introduction, 30
  • General Features, 30
  • Classification and Specific Features, 31
  • Applied Anatomy, 31

SECTION 3 The Skeletal System

8 Classification, General Features and Microstructure, 36

  • Introduction, 36
  • Classification of Bones, 36
  • Terms Used to Describe the Gross Anatomy of Bones, 38
  • General Features of Long Bones, 39
  • General Microscopic Features of Bones, 39
  • Microstructure of Lamellar Bone, 40
  • Growth and Development of Bone, 40
  • Applied Anatomy, 40

9 The Axial Skeleton, 43

  • Introduction, 43
  • The Skull, 43
  • Other Bones, 44
  • The Vertebral Column, 45
  • The Cervical Vertebrae, 45
  • The Thoracic Vertebrae, 45
  • The Lumbar Vertebrae, 46
  • The Sacrum and Coccyx, 46
  • The Bony Thorax, 46
  • The Sternum, 46
  • The Ribs, 46
  • Applied Anatomy, 49

10 The Appendicular Skeleton, 51

  • Introduction, 51
  • The Upper Limb, 51
  • The Lower Limb, 54
  • Applied Anatomy, 57

SECTION 4 The Muscular System

11 General Introduction, Types and Microscopic Structure, 60

  • Introduction, 60
  • Classification of Muscles, 60
  • Microscopic Features of Muscles, 62
  • General Features of Skeletal Muscles, 64
  • Nomenclature Used to Name Skeletal Muscles, 64
  • Classification of Skeletal Muscles, 65
  • Applied Anatomy, 65

12 The Skeletal Muscles above the Diaphragm Including Diaphragm, 67

  • Introduction, 67
  • Muscles of the Head and Neck, 67
  • Muscles of the Thorax, 71
  • Muscles of the Upper Limb, 71
  • The Deltoid Muscle, 71
  • The Thoracoabdominal Diaphragm, 71
  • Applied Anatomy, 71

13 The Skeletal Muscles below Diaphragm, 78

  • Introduction, 78
  • Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, 78
  • Muscles of the Pelvis and Perineum, 79
  • Muscles of the Lower Limb, 80
  • The Gluteus Maximus Muscle, 82
  • Applied Anatomy, 84

SECTION 5 The Joints of the Body

14 Introduction and Classification of Joints, 88

  • Introduction, 88
  • Definition, 88
  • Classification, 88
  • Fibrous Joints, 89
  • Cartilaginous Joints, 89
  • Synovial Joints, 89
  • Applied Anatomy, 92

15 Major Joints of the Body, 93

  • Introduction, 93
  • Joints of the Axial Skeleton, 93
  • Joints of the Appendicular Skeleton, 96
  • Applied Anatomy, 101

SECTION 6 The Cardiovascular System

16 The Vascular System, 104

  • Introduction, 104
  • General Features of Blood Vessels, 104
  • Histology of Blood Vessels, 106
  • The Arteries of the Body, 108
  • The Veins of the Body, 108
  • Applied Anatomy, 109

17 The Pericardium, Exterior of the Heart and Its

  • Blood Supply, 123
  • Introduction, 123
  • The Pericardium, 123
  • The External Features of the Heart, 124
  • Blood and Nerve Supply of the Heart, 126
  • Applied Anatomy, 128

18 The Interior of the Heart, 130

  • Introduction, 130
  • Internal Features of the Chambers of the Heart, 130
  • The Conducting System of the Heart, 133
  • Applied Anatomy, 134

SECTION 7 The Lymphatic System

19 The Lymphatic System, 136

  • Introduction, 136
  • Lymphoid Organs, 136
  • Lymph Nodes, 136
  • Lymphatic Vessels, 138
  • The Thymus, 138
  • The Spleen, 140
  • The Tonsils, 140
  • Applied Anatomy, 142

SECTION 8 The Respiratory System

20 The Upper Respiratory System and Larynx, 146

  • Introduction, 146
  • The Nose, 146
  • The Paranasal Air Sinuses, 148
  • The Pharynx, 149
  • The Larynx, 149
  • Applied Anatomy, 151

21 The Lower Respiratory System, 153

  • Introduction, 153
  • The Trachea, 153
  • The Mediastinum, 154
  • The Extrapulmonary Bronchi, 154
  • The Lungs, 154
  • The Bronchial Tree, 156
  • The Pleura, 157
  • Applied Anatomy, 158

SECTION 9 The Digestive System

  • 22 The Upper Alimentary Canal, 162
  • Introduction, 162
  • The Oral Cavity, 162
  • The Palate, 163
  • The Tongue, 164
  • The Salivary Glands, 167
  • Applied Anatomy, 287

SECTION 14 The Integumentary System

34 The Integumentary System, 290

  • Introduction, 290
  • General Features of Skin, 290
  • Thick and Thin Skin, 292
  • Appendages of the Skin, 292
  • Applied Anatomy, 292
  • The Pharynx, 170
  • The Oesophagus, 171
  • Applied Anatomy, 173

23 The Lower Alimentary Canal, 176

  • Introduction, 176
  • The Abdominal Cavity and its Walls, 177
  • The Peritoneum and Peritoneal Cavity, 177
  • The Stomach, 177
  • The Small Intestine, 183
  • The Large Intestine, 186
  • Applied Anatomy, 192

24 The Digestive Glands, 196

  • Introduction, 196
  • The Liver, 196
  • The Extrahepatic Biliary Apparatus, 200
  • The Pancreas, 200
  • Applied Anatomy, 203

SECTION 10 The Excretory System

25 The Kidneys, 208

  • Introduction, 208
  • The Kidneys, 208
  • Applied Anatomy, 214

26 The Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra, 216

  • Introduction, 216
  • The Ureters, 216
  • The Urinary Bladder, 217
  • The Urethra, 219
  • Applied Anatomy, 221

SECTION 11 The Reproductive System

27 The Female Reproductive System, 224

  • Introduction, 224
  • The Ovaries, 224
  • The Fallopian Tubes, 228
  • The Uterus, 228
  • The Vagina, 230
  • The Breast, 231
  • The External Genitalia, 231
  • Applied Anatomy, 231

28 The Male Reproductive System, 235

  • Introduction, 235
  • The Testes, 236
  • The Duct System, 237
  • The Accessory Glands, 239
  • The Penis, 239
  • The Scrotum, 241
  • Applied Anatomy, 241

SECTION 12 The Nervous System

29 Introduction to the Nervous System, 244

  • Introduction, 244
  • Nervous Tissue, 244
  • The Meninges, 248
  • The Dural Venous Sinuses, 248
  • The Cerebrospinal Fluid, 250
  • The Autonomic Nervous System, 251
  • Applied Anatomy, 251

30 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, 255

  • Introduction, 255
  • The Spinal Cord, 255
  • The Spinal Nerves, 258
  • Applied Anatomy, 259

31 The Brainstem, Cranial Nerves, Cerebellum and Fourth Ventricle, 263

  • Introduction, 263
  • The Brainstem, 263
  • The Cranial Nerves, 265
  • The Cerebellum, 265
  • The Fourth Ventricle, 265
  • Applied Anatomy, 266

32 The Forebrain, 270

  • Introduction, 270
  • The Thalamus, 271
  • The Hypothalamus and Epithalamus, 272
  • The Basal Nuclei, 272
  • The Cerebrum, 273
  • The Third and Lateral Ventricles, 277
  • Applied Anatomy, 277

SECTION 13 The Endocrine System

33 The Endocrine System, 282

  • Introduction, 282
  • The Hypothalamus, 282
  • The Pituitary Gland, 283
  • The Thyroid Gland, 284
  • Parathyroid Glands, 284
  • Adrenal Glands, 285
  • The Pineal Gland, 285
  • The Pancreatic Islets, 285
  • Applied Anatomy, 287

SECTION 14 The Integumentary System

34 The Integumentary System, 290

  • Introduction, 290
  • General Features of Skin, 290
  • Thick and Thin Skin, 292
  • Appendages of the Skin, 292
  • Applied Anatomy, 292

SECTION 15 The Special Senses

35 The Special Senses, 296

  • Introduction, 296
  • The Eyeball and its Accessory Structures, 296
  • The Ear, 299
  • Anatomy of Taste, 301
  • Anatomy of Smell, 301
  • Applied Anatomy, 301

PART B Physiology

SECTION 16 General and Cell Physiology

36 Organization of the Human Body and Its Regulatory Systems, 308

  • The Cell and Organization of the Human Body, 308
  • Regulatory Systems, 308
  • Negative Feedback: An Example of Regulatory Control, 310

37 The Cell Membrane and Transport across the Cell Membrane, 311

  • Structure of the Cell Membrane, 311
  • Transport Across the Cell Membrane, 312
  • Applications in Nursing, 313

38 Body Water Compartments and Homeostasis, 314

  • Fluid Intake and Output, 314
  • Components of Body Water, 315
  • Differences in Intracellular Fluid and Extracellular Fluid, 315
  • Applications in Nursing, 316

39 Membrane Potentials and Their Importance, 317

  • Stimulus, 317
  • The Resting Membrane Potential, 317
  • Nernst Potential, 317
  • Genesis of the Resting Membrane Potential, 318
  • What Happens if a Cell is Stimulated?, 318

SECTION 17 Neuromuscular System

40 Response of a Cell to a Stimulus, 322

  • The Local Response, 322
  • The Action Potential, 323
  • The All-or-None Law, 324
  • Refractory Period, 324
  • Comparison of the Local Response and Action Potential, 324

41 Basic Physiology of the Neuron, 326

  • Structure of an Axon, 326
  • Types of Nerves, 327
  • Synapse, 327
  • Transmission (Conduction) of the Nerve Impulse, 327
  • Types of Nerve Injury, 328
  • Wallerian Degeneration, 328
  • Applications in Nursing, 329

42 Neuromuscular Junction, 330

  • Structure of the Neuromuscular Junction, 330
  • Events that Occur at the Neuromuscular Junction, 330
  • Drugs/Toxins Acting at the Neuromuscular Junction, 331
  • Myasthenia Gravis – A Disease that Affects
  • Neuromuscular Transmission, 332
  • Applications in Nursing, 332

43 Types of Muscles, 333

  • Comparison of the Three Muscles, 333

44 Physiology of Muscle Contraction, 335

  • Structure of Skeletal Muscle, 335
  • Excitation–Contraction Coupling, 337
  • Molecular Events of Muscle Contraction, 337
  • Types of Muscle Contraction, 337
  • Quantal Summation, 337
  • Effect of Increasing Frequency of Stimulus, 338
  • Muscle Fatigue, 339
  • Types of Muscle Fibres in Skeletal Muscle, 339
  • Applications in Nursing, 339

45 Muscle Tone, 341

  • What is Muscle Tone, 341
  • How Muscle Tone is Regulated, 341
  • Hypotonia, 341
  • Hypertonia, 341
  • Clinical Evaluation of Muscle Tone, 343
  • Applications in Nursing, 343

SECTION 18 The Nervous System

46 The Reflex Arc: Types of Reflexes, 346

  • Types of Reflexes, 347
  • Properties of Reflexes, 348
  • Applications in Nursing, 348

47 Supporting Cells of the Nervous System, 349

  • Types of Glial Cells, 349
  • Functions of Glial Cells, 350
  • Disorders of Glial Cells, 351
  • Applications in Nursing, 351

48 Functions of Different Parts of the Brain, 352

  • The Forebrain, 352
  • The Cerebral Lobes and their Function, 353
  • Comparison of Left and Right Cerebral Hemisphere, 354
  • Hypothalamus, 354
  • The Midbrain, 355
  • The Hind Brain, 355
  • Applications in Nursing, 355

49 Sensation and Its Transmission to the Brain, 357

  • Classification of Receptors, 357
  • Properties of Receptors, 357
  • The Synapse, 358
  • Sensory Pathways, 359
  • Central Processing of Sensation, 359
  • Pain, 360
  • Applications in Nursing, 360

50 The Motor System, 362

  • Control of Muscle Length and Tension, 362
  • The Motor Cortex, 363
  • The Pyramidal Tract, 364
  • The Basal Ganglia, 364
  • The Cerebellum, 365
  • The Vestibular Apparatus, 366
  • Applications in Nursing, 367

51 The Autonomic Nervous System, 368

  • Functional Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System, 368
  • Neurotransmitters and Receptors of the Autonomic
  • Nervous System, 369
  • Broad Actions of the Sympathetic Nervous System, 369
  • Broad Actions of the Parasympathetic Nervous System, 370
  • Relationship Between the Sympathetic and
  • Parasympathetic Nervous System, 370
  • Applications in Nursing, 370

52 Clinical Disorders of the Nervous System, 372

  • Peripheral Neuropathies, 372
  • Types of Nerve Injuries, 373
  • Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Lesions, 373
  • Stroke and Hemiplegia, 373
  • Transection of the Spinal Cord, 373
  • Brown-Sequard Syndrome, 374
  • Amnesia, 374
  • Alzheimer Disease, 374
  • Examination of the Nervous System, 374
  • Applications in Nursing, 375

SECTION 19 Circulatory, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

53 Cellular and Noncellular Components of Blood, 379

  • Plasma and Serum, 379
  • Cellular Components of Blood, 379
  • Noncellular Components of the Blood, 380
  • Response to Bleeding, 380
  • Clotting Factors, 381
  • Coagulation Cascade, 381
  • Anticoagulants, 381
  • Thrombocytopenic Purpura: An Example of a Bleeding
  • Disorder, 382
  • Haemophilia: An Example of a Clotting Disorder, 382
  • Blood Groups, 382
  • Blood Transfusions, 383
  • Incompatible (Mismatched) Transfusion Reactions, 383
  • Rh Incompatibility of the Newborn, 383
  • Applications in Nursing, 383

54 The Red Blood Cell (Erythropoiesis, Haemoglobin, Anaemia and Jaundice), 385

  • Erythropoiesis, 385
  • Haemoglobin, 386
  • Anaemia, 387
  • Jaundice, 388
  • Applications in Nursing, 390

55 The Lymphatic System, 391

  • Factors Governing the Movement of Fluid in the
  • Capillary Bed, 391
  • Organization of the Lymphatic System, 392
  • Functions of the Lymphatic System, 392
  • Factors that Affect Lymph Flow, 393
  • Lymphoedema, 393
  • Applications in Nursing, 393

56 The Immune System, 394

  • Innate Immunity, 394
  • Acquired Immunity, 395
  • Passive Immunity, 396
  • Vaccination (Immunization), 396
  • Inflammation, 396
  • Immune Deficiency States, 397
  • Immunity and Transplantation, 397
  • Applications in Nursing, 398

57 Organization of the Circulatory System and Functional Anatomy of the Heart, 399

  • Blood Vessels of the Circulatory System, 399
  • Cells of the Heart, 400
  • Functional Features of Cardiomyocytes (Cardiac Muscle
  • Cells), 400
  • Applications in Nursing, 401

58 Conduction of the Cardiac Impulse and ECG, 402

  • Introduction, 402
  • The Pacemaker of the Heart, 403
  • The Conducting System of the Heart, 403
  • The Electrocardiogram, 404

59 The Cardiac Cycle, 407

  • Phases of the Cardiac Cycle, 407
  • Summary of the Phases of the Cardiac Cycle, 410
  • Pressure Volume Changes During the Cardiac Cycle, 410
  • ECG Waves and the Cardiac Cycle, 410
  • The Heart Sounds in the Cardiac Cycle, 410
  • Jugular Venous Pulse, 411
  • Cardiac Output, 412
  • Regulation of Cardiac Output, 412
  • Venous Return, 412
  • Syncope (Fainting), 413
  • Applications in Nursing, 414

60 Haemodynamics and Blood Pressure, 415

  • Relationship Between Pressure, Flow and Resistance, 415
  • Poiseuille’s Law, 415
  • Patterns of Blood Flow, 416
  • Pressure Pattern Along the Circulatory Tree, 416
  • The Microcirculation, 416
  • The Arterial Pulse Pressure Curve, 417
  • Determinants of Blood Pressure, 417
  • Variations in Blood Pressure, 418
  • Regulation of Blood Pressure, 418
  • Applications in Nursing, 419

61 Regional Circulations, 421

  • Coronary Circulation, 422
  • Coronary Heart Disease, 423
  • Cerebral Circulation, 423
  • Renal Blood Flow, 424
  • Cutaneous Circulation, 425
  • Circulation to Skeletal Muscle, 425
  • Splanchnic Circulation, 425
  • Applications in Nursing, 426

62 Applied Cardiovascular Physiology: Shock

  • and Heart Failure, 427
  • Shock, 427
  • Heart Failure, 428
  • Applications in Nursing, 428

SECTION 20 The Respiratory System

63 Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System, 432

  • Zones of the Respiratory System, 432
  • The Tracheobronchial Tree, 432
  • Functions of the Respiratory System, 432
  • The Pulmonary Circulation, 433
  • Applications in Nursing, 433

64 Mechanics of Ventilation, 435

  • Muscle of Ventilation, 435
  • Spirogram, 436
  • Timed Vital Capacity, 436
  • Ventilation at Rest and During Hyperventilation, 437
  • Pressure Changes During Breathing, 438
  • Lung Compliance, 438
  • Surfactant, 438
  • Applications in Nursing, 439

65 Gaseous Exchange in the Lungs, 440

  • Gas Laws, 440
  • Atmospheric, Alveolar and Expired Air, 441
  • The Respiratory Membrane, 441
  • Regional Differences in Ventilation and Perfusion, 442
  • Applications in Nursing, 443

66 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood, 444

  • Transport of Oxygen in the Blood, 444
  • The Oxygen–Haemoglobin Dissociation Curve, 444
  • Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Blood, 445
  • Blood Gases, 446
  • Applications in Nursing, 446

67 Regulation of Respiration, 447

  • Chemical Regulation of Respiration, 447
  • Location of Chemoreceptors, 447
  • Stimuli for the Chemoreceptors, 448
  • Response to Stimulation of Chemoreceptors, 448
  • Neural Regulation of Respiration, 448
  • The Role of the Cerebral Cortex, 448
  • Respiratory Reflexes, 449
  • Abnormal Breathing Patterns, 449
  • Applications in Nursing, 449

68 Applied Respiratory Physiology, 451

  • Hypoxia, 451
  • Cyanosis, 452
  • Dyspnoea, 452
  • Assessing Lung Function, 452
  • Adaptation to High Altitude, 452
  • Breathing During Deep Sea Diving, 453
  • Applications in Nursing, 453

SECTION 21 The Gastrointestinal System

69 Functional Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System, 456

  • The Function of the Gastrointestinal System, 456
  • The Basic Organization of the GI System, 456
  • Cross-Sectional Structure of the Gut, 456
  • Circulation of the Gut, 458
  • Applications in Nursing, 458

70 Secretions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 459

  • Salivary Secretion, 459
  • Gastric Juice Secretion, 460
  • Pancreatic Secretion, 461
  • Biliary Secretion, 462
  • Intestinal Secretion, 463
  • Applications in Nursing, 463

71 Digestion and Absorption of Macro- and Micronutrients, 465

  • Digestion of Carbohydrates, 465
  • Digestion of Proteins, 465
  • Digestion of Fats, 466
  • Features Which Maximize Absorption, 466
  • Absorption of Nutrients in the Git, 466
  • Role of the Large Intestine, 467
  • Malabsorption Syndromes, 467
  • Applications in Nursing, 467

72 Movements of the Gastrointestinal Tract, 469

  • Deglutition, 469
  • Gastric Emptying, 470
  • Intestinal Motility, 470
  • Gastrointestinal Reflexes, 471
  • Applications in Nursing, 471

73 The Hepatobiliary System, 473

  • Functional Anatomy of the Hepatobiliary System, 473
  • Factors Affecting the Secretion of Bile, 474
  • Functions of the Liver, 474
  • Liver Function Tests, 475
  • Applications in Nursing, 475

74 Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins, 476

  • Utilization of Glucose, 476
  • Storage Form of Glucose, 477
  • Gluconeogenesis, 477
  • Utilization of Amino Acids, 477
  • Utilization of Fats, 477
  • Applications in Nursing, 478

SECTION 22 The Excretory System

75 The Urinary System and the Nephron, 480

  • The Nephron, 480
  • The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, 482
  • Functions of the Kidney, 482
  • The Urinary Bladder, 483
  • The Micturition Reflex, 484
  • Applications in Nursing, 484

76 Mechanism of Urine Formation, 485

  • Glomerular Filtration, 485
  • The Proximal Convoluted Tubule, 487
  • The Counter-Current Multiplier, 487
  • The Counter-Current Exchanger, 487
  • The Concept of ‘Clearance’, 490
  • Applications in Nursing, 490

77 Composition of Urine and Renal Function Tests, 491

  • Evaluation of Urine, 491
  • Abnormal Constituents of Urine, 492
  • Tests of Kidney Function, 493
  • Applications in Nursing, 494

78 Functions of Skin, 495

  • Functions of the Skin, 495
  • Protective Role of the Skin, 495
  • Thermoregulation, 496
  • Sensation, 496
  • Excretion, 497
  • Endocrine Function, 497
  • Applications in Nursing, 497

79 Regulation of Body Temperature, 498

  • Mechanisms of Heat Production (Generation), 498
  • Mechanisms of Heat Loss, 499
  • Role of the Hypothalamus in Heat Regulation, 500
  • Abnormalities of Body Temperature, 500
  • Applications in Nursing, 500

80 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, 502

  • Distribution of Body Water, 502
  • Composition of the Fluids in the Different Body
  • Compartments, 502
  • Fluid Intake, 503
  • Loss of Fluids, 503
  • Electrolytes in the Body, 503
  • Maintenance of Fluid Balance in the Body, 503
  • Regulation of Electrolytes, 504
  • Applications in Nursing, 505

SECTION 23 The Special Senses

81 The Physiology of the Eye, 508

  • The Path of Light in the Eye, 509
  • The Retina, 509
  • Light and Dark Adaptation, 510
  • Accommodation, 510
  • Errors of Refraction, 511
  • The Visual Pathway, 511
  • Testing for Visual Function, 513
  • Some Clinical Conditions Affecting the Eye, 514
  • Applications in Nursing, 516

82 The Physiology of the Ear, 518

  • The External Ear, 518
  • The Middle Ear, 518
  • The Inner Ear, 519
  • The Auditory Pathway, 521
  • Types of Deafness, 522
  • Tests of Hearing, 522
  • Hearing Aids, 523
  • Applications in Nursing, 523

83 The Physiology of Taste and Smell, 525

  • Taste, 525
  • Smell, 526
  • Applications in Nursing, 526

SECTION 24 Endocrine System

84 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland, 528

  • The Endocrine Role of the Hypothalamus, 528
  • How Do the Hypothalamic Hormones Reach the
  • Pituitary Gland?, 529
  • Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland, 529
  • Posterior Pituitary Hormones, 531
  • Negative Feedback, 531
  • Applications in Nursing, 531

85 The Thyroid Gland, 533

  • Hormones of the Thyroid Gland, 533
  • Synthesis of T4 and T3, 533
  • Comparison of T3 and T4, 534
  • Regulation of Secretion of T3 and T4, 534
  • Actions of T3 and T4, 534
  • Disorders of Thyroid Hormone Secretion, 535
  • Applications in Nursing, 535

86 Regulation of Calcium Balance, 537

  • Functions of Calcium, 537
  • Basic Calcium Metabolism, 537
  • Hormones Involved in the Regulation of Calcium, 537
  • Sites of Calcium Regulation, 538
  • Parathormone, 538
  • Vitamin D – 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, 538
  • Calcitonin, 538
  • Calcium Phosphate Interrelationships, 539
  • Hypocalcaemia, 539
  • Disorders of Secretion of Parathormone, 540
  • Rickets, 540
  • Osteoporosis, 540
  • Applications in Nursing, 540

87 Adrenal Cortex and Medulla, 542

  • Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Gland, 542
  • Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex and Associated Clinical
  • Conditions, 543
  • Cushing Syndrome, 544
  • Addison Disease, 545
  • Conn Syndrome, 545
  • Adrenogenital Syndrome, 545
  • Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla, 545
  • Pheochromocytoma, 547
  • Applications in Nursing, 547

88 The Endocrine Pancreas, 548

  • Insulin, 549
  • Glucagon, 549
  • Diabetes Mellitus, 549
  • Applications in Nursing, 550

SECTION 25 Reproductive System

89 The Male Reproductive System, 552

  • Sex Differentiation in Utero, 552
  • Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System, 553
  • Testosterone, 554
  • Puberty and Secondary Sexual Characteristics in the Male, 554
  • Applications In Nursing, 554

90 Spermatogenesis, 555

  • Steps in Spermatogenesis, 555
  • Structure of the Spermatozoa, 555
  • Role of the Sertoli and Leydig Cells, 557
  • Regulation of Spermatogenesis, 557
  • Semen Analysis, 557
  • Disorders of Sperm Production, 557
  • Applications in Nursing, 557

91 The Female Reproductive System, 559

  • Internal Reproductive Organs, 559
  • External Female Genitalia, 560
  • The Reproductive Life Cycle, 560
  • Determinants of Menarche, 560
  • Determinants of Menopause, 560
  • Applications in Nursing, 561

92 The Menstrual Cycle, the Sexual Act and Contraception, 562

  • The Ovarian Cycle, 563
  • The Uterine Cycle, 563
  • Cervical and Vaginal Changes During the
  • Menstrual Cycle, 563
  • Hormonal Changes During the Menstrual
  • Cycle, 564
  • Tests of Ovulation, 564
  • Variations/Disorders of the Menstrual Cycle, 565
  • Actions of Oestrogen and Progesterone, 565
  • Penile–Vaginal Intercourse, 565
  • Methods of Contraception, 566
  • Applications in Nursing, 566

93 Physiology of Pregnancy and Lactation, 567

  • Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, 568
  • Structure and Function of the Placenta, 568
  • Tests of Pregnancy, 569
  • Parturition, 569
  • Lactation, 570
  • Applications in Nursing, 571

Illustration Credits, 572

Index, 575

Details

No. of pages:
598
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier India 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
eBook ISBN:
9788131249215
Paperback ISBN:
9788131243732

About the Author

Nachiket Shankar

Dr. Nachiket Shankar is currently working as Associate Professor in Department of Anatomy, St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore. He is currently teaching anatomy to undergraduate and post graduate students and has held several positions in his career such as lecturer, assistant professor and finally reaching to his current position.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore

Mario Vaz

Affiliations and Expertise

Head Health & Humanities Division St. John's Research Institute Professor of Physiology St. John's Medical College Bangalore - 560 034, INDIA