Text Entry Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123735911, 9780080489797

Text Entry Systems

1st Edition

Mobility, Accessibility, Universality

Authors: I. Scott MacKenzie Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii
eBook ISBN: 9780080489797
Paperback ISBN: 9780123735911
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 12th March 2007
Page Count: 344
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Description

Text Entry Systems covers different aspects of text entry systems and offers prospective researchers and developers global guidelines for conducting research on text entry, in terms of design strategy, evaluation methodology, and requirements; a discussion of the history and current state of the art of entry systems; and specific guidelines for designing entry systems for a specific target, depending on devices, modalities, language, and different physical conditions of users.

Text entry has never been so important as it is today. This is in large part due to the phenomenal, relatively recent success of mobile computing, text messaging on mobile phones, and the proliferation of small devices like the Blackberry and Palm Pilot. Compared with the recent past, when text entry was primarily through the standard "qwerty" keyboard, people today use a diverse array of devices with the number and variety of such devices ever increasing. The variety is not just in the devices, but also in the technologies used: entry modalities have become more varied and include speech recognition and synthesis, handwriting recognition, and even eye-tracking using image processing on web-cams. Statistical language modeling has advanced greatly in the past ten years and so therein is potential to facilitate and improve text entry — increasingly, the way people communicate.

Key Features

  • This book covers different aspects of text entry systems and offers prospective researchers and developers
  • Global guidelines for conducting research on text entry, in terms of design strategy, evaluation methodology, and requirements
  • History and current state of the art of entry systems, including coverage of recent research topics
  • Specific guidelines for designing entry systems for a specific target, depending on devices, modalities, language, and different physical conditions of users

Readership

Interaction design practitioners in: HCI, handwriting and speech recognition, computational linguistics and natural language processing. Also, Grad students, researchers

Table of Contents

Preface: Variety and Universality

Part 1: Foundations

Chapter 1: Historical Overview of Consumer Text Entry Technologies

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 TYPEWRITER, 1870s TO 1980s

1.3 PERSONAL COMPUTER, 1980s TO PRESENT

1.4 MOBILE PHONES, 1990s TO PRESENT

1.5 HANDHELD COMPUTERS

1.6 CONCLUSIONS

1.7 FURTHER READING

Chapter 2: Language Models for Text Entry

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 BASIC MODEL OF TEXT ENTRY

2.3 N-GRAM MODELS

2.4 HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL

2.5 ADAPTIVE MODELS

2.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 3: Measures of Text Entry Performance

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 AGGREGATE MEASURES

3.3 CHARACTER-LEVEL MEASURES

3.4 MEASUREMENTS FROM LOG FILES

3.5 METHOD-SPECIFIC MEASURES

3.6 DISCUSSION OF MEASURES

3.7 FURTHER READING

Chapter 4: Evaluation of Text Entry Techniques

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TEXT ENTRY TECHNIQUES

4.3 EXPERIMENT DESIGN

4.4 LEARNING

4.5 SUMMARY AND FURTHER READING

Part 2: Entry Modalities and Devices

Chapter 5: Text Entry Using a Small Number of Buttons

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 MOBILE PHONE KEYPAD AND ENTRY METHODS

5.3 CHARACTERISTIC MEASURES FOR AMBIGUOUS KEYBOARDS

5.4 MOBILE PHONE KEYPAD VARIANTS

5.5 EVALUATING KEYBOARDS

5.6 ENTRY BY COMPLETION

5.7 SUMMARY AND FURTHER READING

Chapter 6: English Language Handwriting Recognition Interfaces

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 OFFLINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

6.3 ONLINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

6.4 SHORTHAND

6.5 COMMERCIAL ONLINE SYSTEMS

6.6 CASE STUDY

6.7 FURTHER READING

Chapter 7: Introduction to Shape Writing

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 THE BASIC CONCEPT OF SHAPE WRITING

7.3 INFORMATION AND CONSTRAINTS

7.4 SHAPE-WRITING RECOGNITION

7.5 OUT-OF-LEXICON INPUT, AMBIGUITY, AND ERROR HANDLING

7.6 HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SHAPE AS AN ENCODING MODALITY AND THE PROGRESSION FROM TRACING TO DIRECT SHAPE WRITING

7.7 EFFICIENCY AND LAYOUT MATTERS

7.8 THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS AND GUIDELINES OF EFFICIENT TEXT ENTRY

7.9 FURTHER READING

Chapter 8: Speech-Based Interfaces

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 CATEGORIES OF SPEECH RECOGNITION TASKS

8.3 PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH RECOGNITION

8.4 DICTATION SYSTEMS AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES

8.5 SPOKEN DIALOGUE SYSTEMS AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES

8.6 EVALUATION OF SPEECH-BASED INPUT SYSTEMS

8.7 CONCLUSION

Chapter 9: Text Entry by Gaze: Utilizing Eye Tracking

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO TEXT ENTRY BY GAZE

9.3 CASE STUDIES AND GUIDELINES

9.4 FURTHER READING

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part 3: Language Variations

Chapter 10: Writing System Variation and Text Entry

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 VARIATION IN WRITING SYSTEMS

10.3 TEXT ENTRY PROBLEMS IN DIFFERENT WRITING SYSTEMS

10.4 ALPHABETIC SCRIPTS

10.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS

10.6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Part 4: Accessibility, Universality

Chapter 11: Text Entry in East Asian Languages

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION

11.3 NONPREDICTIVE METHODS

11.4 PREDICTIVE ENTRY BASED ON PHONETICS

11.5 PREDICTIVE ENTRY BASED ON SHAPES

11.6 ENTRY ON OTHER DEVICES

11.7 IDEOGRAM ENTRY SYSTEM FOR NONNATIVES

11.8 CONCLUSION

Chapter 12: Text Entry in South and Southeast Asian Scripts

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ABUGIDA

12.3 TEXT ENTRY ISSUES

12.4 TEXT ENTRY SYSTEMS IN INDIA

12.5 TEXT ENTRY SYSTEMS IN THAILAND

12.6 CONCLUSION

12.7 FURTHER READING

Chapter 13: Text Entry in Hebrew and Arabic Scripts

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 ARABIC AND HEBREW SCRIPTS

13.3 STANDARD ENTRY

13.4 ENTRY ON MOBILE DEVICES

13.5 TOWARD COMPUTER-AIDED ENTRY

13.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

13.7 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 14: Text Input for the Elderly and the Young

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 OVERVIEW OF AGE EFFECTS

14.3 TEXT INPUT FOR THE ELDERLY

14.4 TEXT INPUT FOR CHILDREN

14.5 CASE STUDY—EVALUATING TEXT INPUT WITH CHILDREN

14.6 FURTHER READING

Chapter 15: Text Entry When Movement is Impaired

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 USING KEYBOARDS

15.3 ASSISTIVE INPUT TECHNIQUES

15.4 ALTERNATIVES TO STANDARD KEYBOARDS

15.5 AAC TEXT INPUT

15.6 CASE STUDY: DISAMBIGUATION

15.7 FURTHER READING

Chapter 16: Text Entry for People with Visual Impairments

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 TEXT ENTRY FOR LATIN ALPHABETS

16.3 TEXT ENTRY FOR IDEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS

16.4 SELECTION-BASED TEXT ENTRY INTERFACES

16.5 DESIGN GUIDELINES

16.6 CONCLUSION

RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND RESEARCH GROUPS

MAJOR PRODUCTS

Index

About the Authors

Details

No. of pages:
344
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Morgan Kaufmann 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Morgan Kaufmann
eBook ISBN:
9780080489797
Paperback ISBN:
9780123735911

About the Author

I. Scott MacKenzie

I. Scott MacKenzie is Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Canada. For the past 25 years, MacKenzie has been an active member of the HCI research community, with over 130 peer-reviewed publications (including more than 30 papers in the ACM SIGCHI conference proceedings). MacKenzie’s interests include human performance measurement and modeling, interaction devices and techniques, text entry, mobile computing, accessible computing, touch-based interaction, eye tracking, and experimental methodology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan