Chapter 1 Fundamental of measurement 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fundamental concepts Bibliography
Chapter 2 Sensors and Transducers 2.1 Basic Sensor Technology 2.2 Sensor Systems 2.3 Application Considerations 2.4 Sensor Characteristics 2.5 System Characteristics 2.6 Instrument Selection 2.7 Data Acquisition and Readout 2.8 Installation 2.9 Measurement Issues and Criteria
Chapter 3. Data acquisition hardware and software 3.1 ADCs 3.2 Types of ADCs 3.3 ADC Comparison 3.4 Sample and Hold 3.5 Real Parts 3.6 Microprocessor Interfacing 3.7 Clocked Interfaces 3.8 Serial Interfaces 3.9 Multichannel ADCs 3.10 Internal Microcontroller ADCs 3.11 Codecs 3.12 Interrupt Rates 3.13 Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers 3.14 Design Checklist
Chapter 4. Overview of measurement systems 4.1 Transducers 4.2 Methods of measurement 4.3 Sensitivity 4.4 Zero, linearity and span 4.5 Resolution, hysteresis and error 4.6 Fourier analysis 4.7 Dynamic response 4.8 PID control 4.9 Accuracy and repeatability 4.10 Mechanical models
Chapter 5 Acceleration, Shock and Vibration 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Technology Fundamentals 5.3 Selecting and Specifying Accelerometers 5.4 Applicable Standards 5.5 Interfacing and Designs 5.6 Machinery Vibration Monitoring Sensors
Chapter 6 Flow 6.1 General 6.2 Differential pressure flowmeters 6.3 Turbine flowmeters 6.4 Vortex shedding flowmeters 6.5 Electromagnetic flowmeters 6.6 Ultrasonic flowmeters 6.7 Hot wire anemometer 6.8 Mass flowmeters
Chapter 7 Temperature 7.1 Temperature scales 7.2 Types of temperature sensors 7.3 Measurement errors 7.4 Selecting a temperature sensor 7.5 Thermocouple Temperature Sensors 7.6 RTD Temperature Sensors 7.7 Thermistor Temperature Sensors 7.8 Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors
Chapter 8 Pressure 8.1 Introduction 8.2 SI and other units 8.3 Absolute, gauge and differential pressure modes 8.4 Primary standards 8.5 Spinning ball gauge standard 8.6 Secondary standards 8.7 Working standards 8.8 Pressure measuring instruments 8.9 Calibration of pressure standards and instruments Bibliography
Chapter 9. Position 9.1 Mechanical switch 9.2 Potentiometric sensor 9.3 Capacitive transducer 9.4 LVDT 9.5 Angular velocity transducer 9.6 Position sensitive diode array 9.7 Motion control
Chapter 10 Strain gauges, loadcells and weighing 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Stress and strain 10.3 Strain gauges 10.4 Bridge circuits 10.5 Load cells 10.6 Weighing systems
Chapter 11 Light 11.1 Light 11.2 Measuring light 11.3 Standards of measurement 11.4 Thermal detectors 11.5 Light dependent resistor (LDR) 11.6 Photodiode 11.7 Other semiconductor photodetectors 11.8 Optical detectors 11.9 Photomultiplier
Chapter 12 Signal Processing and Conditioning 12.1 Conditioning Bridge Circuits References 12.2 Amplifiers for Signal Conditioning References
Chapter 13 Interfacing and Data Communications 13.1 Interfacing 13.2 Input/Output ports 13.3 Polling 13.4 Interrupts 13.5 Direct memory access (DMA) 13.6 Serial port 13.7 Serial port addresses 13.8 Serial port registers 13.9 Serial port registers and interrupts 13.10 Serial port baud rate 13.11 Serial port operation 13.12 Parallel printer port 13.13 Parallel port registers 13.14 Parallel printer port operation 13.15 Communications 13.16 Byte to serial conversion 13.17 RS232 interface 13.18 Synchronisation 13.19 UART (6402) 13.20 Line drivers 13.21 UART clock 13.22 UART Master Reset 13.23 Null modem 13.24 Serial port BIOS services 13.25 Serial port operation in BASIC 13.26 Hardware handshaking 13.27 RS485 13.28 GPIB 13.29 USB 13.30 TCP/IP
Chapter 14 Data acquisition software 14.1 An overview of DA&C software 14.2 Data acquisition and control in real time 14.3 Implementing real-time systems on the PC 14.4 Robustness, reliability and safety
Chapter 15. Scaling and calibration 15.1 Scaling of linear response curves 15.2 Linearization 15.3 Polynomial linearization 15.4 Interpolation between points in a look-up table 15.5 Interpolation vs. power-series polynomials 15.6 Interactive calibration programs 15.7 Practical issues
Chapter 16. Synthetic instruments 16.1 What is a Synthetic Instrument? 16.2 History of Automated Measurement 16.3 Synthetic Instruments Defined 16.4 Advantages of Synthetic Instruments 16.5 Synthetic Instrument Misconceptions 16.6 Synthetic Measurement System Hardware Architectures 16.7 System Concept—The CCC Architecture 16.8 Hardware Requirements Traceability 16.9 Stimulus 16.10 Stimulus Digital Signal Processing 16.11 Stimulus Triggering 16.12 The Stimulus D/A 16.13 Stimulus Conditioning 16.14 Stimulus Cascade—Real-World Example 16.15 Real-World Design: A Synthetic Measurement System 16.16 Universal High-Speed RF Microwave Test System 16.17 System Architecture 16.18 DUT Interface 16.19 Calibration 16.20 Software Solutions 16.21 Conclusions
Chapter 17 Real-world measurement applications 17.1 Precision Measurement and Sensor Conditioning References
Chapter 18. Testing methods 18.1 The Order-of-Magnitude Rule 18.2 A Brief (Somewhat Apocryphal) History of Test 18.3 Test Options 18.4 Summary
Chapter 19 Boundary Scan Techniques 19.1 Latch-Scanning Arrangements 19.2 Enter Boundary Scan 19.3 Hardware Requirements 19.4 Modes and Instructions 19.5 Implementing Boundary Scan 19.6 Partial-Boundary-Scan Testing 19.7 Other Alternatives 19.8 Summary
Chapter 20 Inspection Test 20.1 Striking a Balance 20.2 Post-Paste Inspection 20.3 Post-Placement/Post-Reflow 20.4 Summary
Chapter 21 EMC fundamentals 21.1 What is EMC? 21.2 Compatibility between and within systems
Chapter 22 Measuring RF emissions 22.1 Emissions measuring instruments 22.2 Transducers 22.3 Sites and facilities
Chapter 23 Test methods 23.1 Test set-up 23.2 Test procedure 23.3 Tests above 1GHz 23.4 Military emissions tests 23.5 Measurement uncertainty
Chapter 24 Test planning 24.1 The need for a test plan 24.2 Contents of the test plan 24.3 Immunity performance criteria
CHAPTER 25 Accelerated testing fundamentals 25.1 Scenario One: A key physical property is wrong. 25.2 Scenario Two: A primary failure mode of a product. 25.3 Scenario Three: The Mean Time to Failure (MTTF).
Chapter 26 HALT and FMVT 26.1 A Typical HALT 26.2 Hot Temperature Steps 26.3 Cold Temperature Steps 26.4 Ramp Rates 26.5 Vibration 26.6 Combined Run 26.7 Business Structures 26.8 Failure Mode Verification Testing (FMVT) 26.9 Development FMVT 26.10 More About Stress 26.11 What can break the product? 26.12 More About Failures 26.13 More About Setup and Execution 26.14 More on Data Analysis 26.15 Comparison FMVT 26.16 Method One: Time to First Failure 26.17 Method Two: Failure Mode Progression Comparison 26.18 FMVT Life Prediction – Equivalent Wear and Cycle Counting 26.19 FMVT Warranty 26.20 More on Vibration 26.21 Reliability and Design Maturity 26.22 Business Considerations
Appendix A: Standard Interfaces A.1 IEEE 1451.2 A.2 4–20 ma Current Loop A.3 Fieldbus
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Principal Consultant, The Dynamic Consultant, CA, USA
Senior Electrical Engineer who has worked for the past twenty years in the field of embedded control systems. He previously worked on Global Positioning Systems and secure communications equipment at Rockwell International, on document processing equipment at Banctec, and on medical electronics at Organon-Teknika. He has written several books and many articles for periodicals such as Circuit Cellar INK, and Modern Electronics.
Embedded Systems consultant and author
Real-Time by Design, LLC, Raleigh, NC, USA
Ed Ramsden is an electrical engineer who has been working with Hall effect sensors since 1988. His experience ranges from designing Hall effect integrated circuits to developing novel magnetic processing techniques. He has written over a dozen technical articles on sensor-related topics, and he holds four U.S patents in the area of magnetic sensor technology.
Senior Engineer, Lattice Semiconductor, Hillsboro, OR, USA
Prof Dogan Ibrahim graduated from the University of Salford with First Class Honours in Electronic Engineering. He then completed an MSc course in Automatic Control Engineering at the University of Manchester, and PhD in Digital Signal Processing at the City University in London. Prof Ibrahim worked at several companies before returning to the academic life. He is currently a lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems at the Near East University. Prof Ibrahim is a Fellow of the IET, and a Chartered Electrical Engineer. His interests are in the fields of microcontroller based automatic control, digital signal processing, and computer aided design.
Traffic Control Systems Unit, South Bank University, UK, and lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems, Near East University, Lefkosa, Cyprus