Test and Measurement: Know It All

Test and Measurement: Know It All

1st Edition - September 26, 2008

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  • Authors: Jon Wilson, Stuart Ball, Creed Huddleston, Edward Ramsden, Dogan Ibrahim
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080949680
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781856175302

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Description

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!Field Application engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Test and Measurement Know It All covers every angle including Machine Vision and Inspection, Communications Testing, Compliance Testing, along with Automotive, Aerospace, and Defense testing.

Key Features

  • A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors
  • Topics include the Technology of Test and Measurement, Measurement System Types, and Instrumentation for Test and Measurement
  • The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume

Readership

Field Application Engineers; Electronics Engineers; Communications Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Fundamental of measurement
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Fundamental concepts
    Bibliography

    Chapter 2 Sensors and Transducers
    2.1 Basic Sensor Technology
    2.2 Sensor Systems
    2.3 Application Considerations
    2.4 Sensor Characteristics
    2.5 System Characteristics
    2.6 Instrument Selection
    2.7 Data Acquisition and Readout
    2.8 Installation
    2.9 Measurement Issues and Criteria

    Chapter 3. Data acquisition hardware and software
    3.1 ADCs
    3.2 Types of ADCs
    3.3 ADC Comparison
    3.4 Sample and Hold
    3.5 Real Parts
    3.6 Microprocessor Interfacing
    3.7 Clocked Interfaces
    3.8 Serial Interfaces
    3.9 Multichannel ADCs
    3.10 Internal Microcontroller ADCs
    3.11 Codecs
    3.12 Interrupt Rates
    3.13 Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers
    3.14 Design Checklist

    Chapter 4. Overview of measurement systems
    4.1 Transducers
    4.2 Methods of measurement
    4.3 Sensitivity
    4.4 Zero, linearity and span
    4.5 Resolution, hysteresis and error
    4.6 Fourier analysis
    4.7 Dynamic response
    4.8 PID control
    4.9 Accuracy and repeatability
    4.10 Mechanical models

    Chapter 5 Acceleration, Shock and Vibration
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Technology Fundamentals
    5.3 Selecting and Specifying Accelerometers
    5.4 Applicable Standards
    5.5 Interfacing and Designs
    5.6 Machinery Vibration Monitoring Sensors

    Chapter 6 Flow
    6.1 General
    6.2 Differential pressure flowmeters
    6.3 Turbine flowmeters
    6.4 Vortex shedding flowmeters
    6.5 Electromagnetic flowmeters
    6.6 Ultrasonic flowmeters
    6.7 Hot wire anemometer
    6.8 Mass flowmeters

    Chapter 7 Temperature
    7.1 Temperature scales
    7.2 Types of temperature sensors
    7.3 Measurement errors
    7.4 Selecting a temperature sensor
    7.5 Thermocouple Temperature Sensors
    7.6 RTD Temperature Sensors
    7.7 Thermistor Temperature Sensors
    7.8 Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors

    Chapter 8 Pressure
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 SI and other units
    8.3 Absolute, gauge and differential pressure modes
    8.4 Primary standards
    8.5 Spinning ball gauge standard
    8.6 Secondary standards
    8.7 Working standards
    8.8 Pressure measuring instruments
    8.9 Calibration of pressure standards and instruments
    Bibliography

    Chapter 9. Position
    9.1 Mechanical switch
    9.2 Potentiometric sensor
    9.3 Capacitive transducer
    9.4 LVDT
    9.5 Angular velocity transducer
    9.6 Position sensitive diode array
    9.7 Motion control

    Chapter 10 Strain gauges, loadcells and weighing
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Stress and strain
    10.3 Strain gauges
    10.4 Bridge circuits
    10.5 Load cells
    10.6 Weighing systems

    Chapter 11 Light
    11.1 Light
    11.2 Measuring light
    11.3 Standards of measurement
    11.4 Thermal detectors
    11.5 Light dependent resistor (LDR)
    11.6 Photodiode
    11.7 Other semiconductor photodetectors
    11.8 Optical detectors
    11.9 Photomultiplier

    Chapter 12 Signal Processing and Conditioning
    12.1 Conditioning Bridge Circuits
    References
    12.2 Amplifiers for Signal Conditioning
    References

    Chapter 13 Interfacing and Data Communications
    13.1 Interfacing
    13.2 Input/Output ports
    13.3 Polling
    13.4 Interrupts
    13.5 Direct memory access (DMA)
    13.6 Serial port
    13.7 Serial port addresses
    13.8 Serial port registers
    13.9 Serial port registers and interrupts
    13.10 Serial port baud rate
    13.11 Serial port operation
    13.12 Parallel printer port
    13.13 Parallel port registers
    13.14 Parallel printer port operation
    13.15 Communications
    13.16 Byte to serial conversion
    13.17 RS232 interface
    13.18 Synchronisation
    13.19 UART (6402)
    13.20 Line drivers
    13.21 UART clock
    13.22 UART Master Reset
    13.23 Null modem
    13.24 Serial port BIOS services
    13.25 Serial port operation in BASIC
    13.26 Hardware handshaking
    13.27 RS485
    13.28 GPIB
    13.29 USB
    13.30 TCP/IP

    Chapter 14 Data acquisition software
    14.1 An overview of DA&C software
    14.2 Data acquisition and control in real time
    14.3 Implementing real-time systems on the PC
    14.4 Robustness, reliability and safety

    Chapter 15. Scaling and calibration
    15.1 Scaling of linear response curves
    15.2 Linearization
    15.3 Polynomial linearization
    15.4 Interpolation between points in a look-up table
    15.5 Interpolation vs. power-series polynomials
    15.6 Interactive calibration programs
    15.7 Practical issues

    Chapter 16. Synthetic instruments
    16.1 What is a Synthetic Instrument?
    16.2 History of Automated Measurement
    16.3 Synthetic Instruments Defined
    16.4 Advantages of Synthetic Instruments
    16.5 Synthetic Instrument Misconceptions
    16.6 Synthetic Measurement System Hardware Architectures
    16.7 System Concept—The CCC Architecture
    16.8 Hardware Requirements Traceability
    16.9 Stimulus
    16.10 Stimulus Digital Signal Processing
    16.11 Stimulus Triggering
    16.12 The Stimulus D/A
    16.13 Stimulus Conditioning
    16.14 Stimulus Cascade—Real-World Example
    16.15 Real-World Design: A Synthetic Measurement System
    16.16 Universal High-Speed RF Microwave Test System
    16.17 System Architecture
    16.18 DUT Interface
    16.19 Calibration
    16.20 Software Solutions
    16.21 Conclusions

    Chapter 17 Real-world measurement applications
    17.1 Precision Measurement and Sensor Conditioning
    References

    Chapter 18. Testing methods
    18.1 The Order-of-Magnitude Rule
    18.2 A Brief (Somewhat Apocryphal) History of Test
    18.3 Test Options
    18.4 Summary

    Chapter 19 Boundary Scan Techniques
    19.1 Latch-Scanning Arrangements
    19.2 Enter Boundary Scan
    19.3 Hardware Requirements
    19.4 Modes and Instructions
    19.5 Implementing Boundary Scan
    19.6 Partial-Boundary-Scan Testing
    19.7 Other Alternatives
    19.8 Summary

    Chapter 20 Inspection Test
    20.1 Striking a Balance
    20.2 Post-Paste Inspection
    20.3 Post-Placement/Post-Reflow
    20.4 Summary

    Chapter 21 EMC fundamentals
    21.1 What is EMC?
    21.2 Compatibility between and within systems

    Chapter 22 Measuring RF emissions
    22.1 Emissions measuring instruments
    22.2 Transducers
    22.3 Sites and facilities

    Chapter 23 Test methods
    23.1 Test set-up
    23.2 Test procedure
    23.3 Tests above 1GHz
    23.4 Military emissions tests
    23.5 Measurement uncertainty

    Chapter 24 Test planning
    24.1 The need for a test plan
    24.2 Contents of the test plan
    24.3 Immunity performance criteria

    CHAPTER 25 Accelerated testing fundamentals
    25.1 Scenario One: A key physical property is wrong.
    25.2 Scenario Two: A primary failure mode of a product.
    25.3 Scenario Three: The Mean Time to Failure (MTTF).

    Chapter 26 HALT and FMVT
    26.1 A Typical HALT
    26.2 Hot Temperature Steps
    26.3 Cold Temperature Steps
    26.4 Ramp Rates
    26.5 Vibration
    26.6 Combined Run
    26.7 Business Structures
    26.8 Failure Mode Verification Testing (FMVT)
    26.9 Development FMVT
    26.10 More About Stress
    26.11 What can break the product?
    26.12 More About Failures
    26.13 More About Setup and Execution
    26.14 More on Data Analysis
    26.15 Comparison FMVT
    26.16 Method One: Time to First Failure
    26.17 Method Two: Failure Mode Progression Comparison
    26.18 FMVT Life Prediction – Equivalent Wear and Cycle Counting
    26.19 FMVT Warranty
    26.20 More on Vibration
    26.21 Reliability and Design Maturity
    26.22 Business Considerations

    Appendix A: Standard Interfaces
    A.1 IEEE 1451.2
    A.2 4–20 ma Current Loop
    A.3 Fieldbus

Product details

  • No. of pages: 912
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 2008
  • Published: September 26, 2008
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080949680
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781856175302

About the Authors

Jon Wilson

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Consultant, The Dynamic Consultant, CA, USA

Stuart Ball

Senior Electrical Engineer who has worked for the past twenty years in the field of embedded control systems. He previously worked on Global Positioning Systems and secure communications equipment at Rockwell International, on document processing equipment at Banctec, and on medical electronics at Organon-Teknika. He has written several books and many articles for periodicals such as Circuit Cellar INK, and Modern Electronics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Embedded Systems consultant and author

Creed Huddleston

Affiliations and Expertise

Real-Time by Design, LLC, Raleigh, NC, USA

Edward Ramsden

Ed Ramsden is an electrical engineer who has been working with Hall effect sensors since 1988. His experience ranges from designing Hall effect integrated circuits to developing novel magnetic processing techniques. He has written over a dozen technical articles on sensor-related topics, and he holds four U.S patents in the area of magnetic sensor technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Engineer, Lattice Semiconductor, Hillsboro, OR, USA

Dogan Ibrahim

Dogan Ibrahim
Prof Dogan Ibrahim graduated from the University of Salford with First Class Honours in Electronic Engineering. He then completed an MSc course in Automatic Control Engineering at the University of Manchester, and PhD in Digital Signal Processing at the City University in London. Prof Ibrahim worked at several companies before returning to the academic life. He is currently a lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems at the Near East University. Prof Ibrahim is a Fellow of the IET, and a Chartered Electrical Engineer. His interests are in the fields of microcontroller based automatic control, digital signal processing, and computer aided design.Dogan Ibrahim has been Associate Professor and Head of Department at the Near East University, Cyprus, lecturer at South Bank University, London, Principal Research Engineer at GEC Hirst Research Centre, and is now a hardware and software systems consultant to London's Traffic Control Systems Unit.

Affiliations and Expertise

Traffic Control Systems Unit, South Bank University, UK, and lecturer at the Department of Computer Information Systems, Near East University, Lefkosa, Cyprus

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