Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780434985968, 9781483183213


1st Edition

Made Simple

Authors: Don McCloy
eBook ISBN: 9781483183213
Imprint: Made Simple
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 352
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Technology: Made Simple focuses on the history, processes, methodologies, principles, and advancements in technology.

The publication first elaborates on the history and development of technology and how it extends the muscles, senses, communication, and control of man. Discussions focus on amplifiers, control and human operators, stability, sense of touch, hearing, and vision, basics of a measurement system, rotary and linear engines, transmission of power, empiricism and science, and conservation of energy. The text then takes a look at how technology extends the capabilities of the brain, models and optimization, and the methodology of technology. Topics include implementation of the solution, search for alternative solutions, operational research techniques for finding the optimum, optimization using mathematical models, symbolic, analogue, and iconic models, electronic computer, and data representation in the computer.

The manuscript ponders on the relationship of technology and society, structure and operation in the industries, and technology in action, including transportation, robots, company organization, manufacturing industry, men and machines, and appropriate technology.

The text is a valuable source of information for students and researchers wanting to dig deeper into the developments in technology.

Table of Contents


1 The History and Development of Technology

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Methodology

1.3 Empiricism and Science

1.4 Energy


Animal Power

Wind and Water

The Steam Engine

1.5 Science and Technology

1.6 The Conservation of Energy

The Subtlety of Heat


1.7 Materials

The Stone Age



Science of Materials

1.8 Technology Today

1.9 Concluding Remarks

1.10 Exercises

1.11 Further Reading

2 Technology Extends Man's Muscles

2.1 Man's Limitations

2.2 Machines

The Lever

The Wheel and Axle

The Pulley

The Inclined Plane

The Screw

2.3 Engines

2.4 Piston Engines

The Four-Stroke Cycle

The Two-Stroke Cycle

The Diesel Engine

2.5 Rotary Engines

The Windmill

The Waterwheel

Water Turbines

Steam Turbines

Gas Turbines

2.6 Linear Engines

2.7 Transmission of Power

Mechanical Transmission

Hydrostatic Transmission

Electrical Transmission

2.8 Exercises

2.9 Further Reading

3 Technology Extends Man's Senses and Communication

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Six Senses


The Brain

3.3 The Sense of Touch

The Cutaneous Sense

The Kinesthetic Sense

3.4 The Sense of Hearing

3.5 The Sense of Vision

3.6 The Senses of Taste and Smell

3.7 Why we Need Measuring Instruments

3.8 The Basics of a Measurement System

Basic Units

Derived Units

3.9 Measurement Systems

Length and Linear Displacement

Linear and Angular Velocity

Mass and Force



3.10 Errors and Accuracy

Accountable Errors

Unaccountable Errors

3.11 Communication


3.12 Noise and Information

3.13 Exercises

3.14 Further Reading

4 Technology Extends Man's Control

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Amplifiers

4.3 On-Off Amplifiers

4.4 Continuous Amplifiers

A Mechanical Amplifier

Electronic Amplifiers

Fluid Amplifiers

4.5 Open Loop Control

4.6 Closed Loop Control

4.7 Control and Human Operators

4.8 Automatic Control


Early Examples of Automatic Control

4.9 Quantitative Analysis of Control Systems

4.10 Modes of Control

4.11 Stability

Effect of Lags


Effect of Dead Time

4.12 Controlling the Order of Events

4.13 Exercises

4.14 Further Reading

5 Technology Extends Man's Brain

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Historical Survey

5.3 Mechanical Calculators

5.4 The Electronic Computer

5.5 What is a Computer?

5.6 Data Representation in the Computer

5.7 Calculating in Binary

5.8 The Computer's Basic Operations

Logic Gates

Addition Using Logic Gates

5.9 Control

5.10 The Store

Magnetic Core

The Flip-Flop


5.11 How to Tell the Computer What to Do

Machine Code

Assembly Code

High-Level Languages

5.12 Programming Principles

Basic Arithmetic

5.13 Program Development

Flow Charts

5.14 Peripherals

Input Devices

Output Devices

Backing Store

5.15 Exercises

5.16 Further Reading

6 Models and Optimisation: Tools for the Technologist

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Iconic Models

6.3 Symbolic Models

Symbolism of Mental Images

Symbolism of Written Language

Symbolism of Mathematical Notation

6.4 Analogue Models

6.5 Computers in Simulation

Analogue Computers

Digital Computers in Simulation

6.6 Empirical Models

6.7 Models with Feedback

6.8 Optimisation

6.9 Optimisation Using Mathematical Models

Designing a Tray for Minimum Cost

Optimising Stocks

Maximum Power from a Hydraulic Actuator

Minimising the Amount of Material in a Structure

Minimising Distance

6.10 Can we Achieve the Optimum?

6.11 Operational Research Techniques for Finding the Optimum

Linear Programming

Critical Path Analysis

Dynamic Programming

6.12 Exercises

6.13 Further Reading

7 The Methodology of Technology

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Methodology of Technology

7.3 Basic Needs

Needs and Demands

Identifying the Real Need

7.4 The Search for Alternative Solutions

Knowing Enough About It


Morphological Analysis

7.5 Elimination of Non-starters

Human Constraints

Legal Factors

Economic Factors

Technical Factors

7.6 Choosing the Best Solution

Assessing the Benefits

Counting the Costs

The Consumer's and the Technologist's View of Costs

7.7 Implementation of the Solution

7.8 Exercises

7.9 Further Reading

8 Technology in Action

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Transportation

The Automobile

The Town Car

Vehicle Propulsion


Linear Motors

Pneumatic Propulsion

Suspension and Support

Control of Transportation Systems

Micro Control

Macro Control

New Ideas for Public Transport

Personal Rapid Transit

Moving Pavements

8.3 Robots


Instructing and Controlling the Robot

Industrial Robots

Robot Intelligence

8.4 Conclusions

8.5 Exercises

8.6 Further Reading

9 Industry: Structures and Operation

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Industry

Direct and Indirect Production

The Division of Labour

What Do Producers Need?

The Three Types of Production

9.3 British Industry

9.4 Manufacturing Industry

9.5 Company Performance

9.6 The Subsections of Industry


Research and Development





Industrial Relations

Ancillary Services

9.7 Company Organisation

9.8 Exercises

9.9 Further Reading

10 Technology and Society

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Environment and Earth's Resources

The Population Constraint!

Constraints on Agricultural Land

Constraints on the Chemical Elements

Constraints on Fuels

How Long will Resources Last?

The Pollution Constraint


10.3 Appropriate Technology

Appropriate Technology in Water Engineering

10.4 Men and Machines

The Industrial Revolution

Changes in the Textile Industry

Reactions Against the Machines

Employment and the Microprocessor

The Office of the Future


10.5 Exercises

10.6 Further Reading

Appendix 1: The SI System

Appendix 2: Answers to Selected Exercises



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© Made Simple 1984
Made Simple
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About the Author

Don McCloy

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