Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080319995, 9781483190808

Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis

2nd Edition

Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies

Editors: J. Coombs D. O. Hall S. P. Long
eBook ISBN: 9781483190808
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1985
Page Count: 324
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Description

Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis, Second Edition is a manual that provides information on the field and laboratory techniques associated with the measurement of plant productivity. The title discusses the most reliable and relevant techniques that can be applied to a wide variety of problems. The coverage of the text includes various quantitative methods, such as measurement of plant biomass and net primary production; measurement of CO2 assimilation by plants in the field and the laboratory; and measurement of oxygen and chlorophyll fluorescence. The selection also deals with photosynthetic energy conversion; assimilatory nitrate reduction; and ammonia assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis. The book will be of great interest to botanists, horticulturists, and agriculturists.

Table of Contents


Introduction

Units, Symbols and Abbreviations

1. Measurement of Plant Biomass and Net Primary Production

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Definitions

1.1.2 Units

1.1.3 Principles

1.2 Sampling Design

1.2.1 Fully Randomized Design

1.2.2 Randomized Block Design

1.3 Measurement of Above-Ground Biomass

1.3.1 Number, Area and Shape of Quadrats

1.3.2 Harvesting

1.3.3 Sorting

1.3.4 Drying

1.3.5 Ashing

1.3.6 Determination of Energy Content

1.3.7 Carbon Analysis

1.4 Measurement of Below-Ground Biomass

1.4.1 Soil Extraction

1.4.2 Separation from Soil and Washing

1.4.3 Separation of Live Roots from Dead Matter

1.4.4 Dry Weight and Organic Weight

1.5 Non-Destructive Measurement of Biomass

1.5.1 Estimation from Stem and Leaf Dimensions

1.5.2 Remote Sensing

1.6 Estimation of Losses

1.6.1 Decomposition

1.6.2 Grazing

1.6.3 Exudation

1.7 Estimation of Net Primary Production

1.8 Experimental Work

References

2. Plant Growth Analysis

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic Principles

2.3 Components of Classical Growth Analysis

2.3.1 Relative Growth Rate

2.3.2 Unit Leaf Rate

2.3.3 Leaf Area Ratio

2.3.4 Specific Leaf Area and Leaf Weight Ratio

2.3.5 Leaf Area Index

2.3.6 Crop Growth Rate

2.3.7 Leaf Area Duration

2.4 Functional Growth Analysis

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 The Richards Function

2.5 Experimental Investigations

2.5.1 Limitations

2.5.2 Procedure

References

3. Plant Microclimate

3.1 General Introduction

3.2 Radiation - Solar and Long Wave

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Radiation Measurements

3.3 Temperature

3.3.1 Introduction

3.3.2 Temperature Measurements

3.3.3 Use of Thermometers

3.4 Humidity

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Definitions

3.4.3 Measurements

3.5 Wind

3.5.1 Measurement

3.6 Automatic Weather Stations

3.7 Recording

3.8 Experimental Work

References

4. Canopy Structure and Light Interception

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Radiation in Canopies

4.2.1 Changes in Photon Flux Density within the Canopy

4.2.2 Considerations for Specific Canopies

4.2.3 Light Compensation

4.2.4 Measurement of Light in Canopies

4.3 Measurement of Canopy Structure

4.3.1 Leaf Area Index

4.3.2 Leaf Inclination

4.3.3 Leaf Orientation

4.3.4 Stems and Inflorescences

References

5. Water Relations

5.1 Stomatal Conductance

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.2 Resistance or Conductance

5.1.3 Methods for Stomatal Aperture

5.1.4 Methods for Rate of Water-Vapor Loss

5.1.5 Principles and Calibration of Diffusion Porometers

5.2 Plant Water Status

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Water Content

5.2.3 Water Potential

5.2.4 Components of Water Potential

5.2.5 Pressure-Volume Curves

5.3 Soil Water Status

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Soil Water Content

5.3.3 Water Potential

5.4 Practical Work on Water Relations

5.4.1 Objectives

5.4.2 Materials

5.4.3 Procedure

5.4.4 Calculations

5.4.5 Analysis of Data

5.4.6 Suggested Additional Work

References and Further Reading

6. Measurement of CO2 Assimilation by Plants in the Field and the Laboratory

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 The Role of CO2 Exchange Measurements

6.1.2 Measures, Symbols and Units

6.1.3 The Approach

6.1.4 Closed Systems

6.1.5 Semi-Closed Systems

6.1.6 Open Systems

6.2 Infra-Red Gas Analysis

6.2.1 Principles

6.2.2 Configurations

6.2.3 Calibration

6.3 14C Incorporation

6.3.1 Principle

6.3.2 Procedure

6.4 Measurement and Control of Gas Flow

6.4.1 Flowmetering

6.4.2 Variable-Area Flowmeters

6.4.3 Thermal Mass Flowmeters

6.4.4 Flowmeter Calibration

6.4.5 Flow Control

6.5. Chamber Conditions and Construction

6.5.1 Principles

6.5.2 Chamber Design

6.5.3 Boundary Layer Conditions

6.5.4 Temperature

6.5.5 Photon Flux Density

6.5.6 Materials

6.5.7 Air Conditioning

6.6 Analysis of Gas Exchange Measurements

6.6.1 Resistance Analogies

6.6.2 The Gaseous Diffusion Pathway

6.6.3 The A/ci Response

6.6.4 Light Response

6.7 Conclusion

6.8 Experimental Work

6.8.1 Photosynthetic Gas Exchange in the Laboratory

6.8.2 Photosynthetic Gas Exchange in the Field

References

7. Measurement of Oxygen and Chlorophyll Fluorescence

7.1 The Oxygen Electrode

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 Characteristics of the Oxygen Electrode

7.1.3 Calibration

7.1.4 Other Forms of Oxygen Measurement

7.2 The Leaf Disc Electrode

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Calibration

7.2.3 Calculations Relating to Volume and Calibration

7.2.4 Experiment: Does It Work with a Leaf

7.3 Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurement

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Principles of Measurement

7.3.3 Is Fluorescence Influenced by Carbon Assimilation

7.3.4 Fluorescence Induction

7.3.5 Complex Fluorescence Kinetics and Oscillations

References

8. Shoot Morphology and Leaf Anatomy in Relation to Photosynthesis

8.1 Shoot Morphology and the Relationship of Single Leaf to Whole Plant CO2 Assimilation and Canopy Productivity

8.2 Leaf Anatomy

8.2.1 Influence of High and Low Light Intensities on Leaf Anatomy

8.2.2 Xeromorphy

8.2.3 Leaf Anatomy Related to C3 and C4 Pathways of CO2 Fixation

8.2.4 Sub-Groupings of C4 Species

8.3 Experiments

8.3.1 Leaf Anatomy

8.3.2 Stomatal Width

8.3.3 Demonstration of 02 Evolution from Whole Plants

8.3.4 in Situ Demonstration of PSII Activity

8.3.5 Differentiation between C3 and C4 Plants by Detection of Starch In Situ

8.3.6 Demonstration of Phloem Translocation in Detached Maize Leaves

References

9. Chloroplasts and Protoplasts

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Plant Material

9.2 Mesophyll Protoplasts from C3, C4 and CAM Plants

9.2.1 Preparation of Leaf Tissue and the Digestion Procedure

9.2.2 Isolation and Purification

9.2.3 Storage of Protoplasts

9.2.4 Isolation of Plant Cells

9.3 Photosynthesis by Isolated Protoplasts

9.3.1 C3 Protoplasts

9.3.2 C4 Mesophyll Protoplasts

9.3.3 C4 Bundle-Sheath Strands

9.3.4 CAM Cells and Protoplasts

9.4 Chloroplast Isolation from Protoplasts

9.4.1 C3 Chloroplasts

9.4.2 C4 Chloroplasts

9.4.3 CAM Chloroplasts

9.5 Mechanical Separation of Intact Chloroplasts

9.5.1 Isolation of Chloroplasts from Spinach

9.5.2 Variations in the Procedure for Spinach

9.6 Photosynthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts

9.6.1 Criteria of Intactness

9.6.2 Intactness Assay

9.6.3 Improvement in Chloroplast Intactness

9.7 Carbon Assimilation by C3 Chloroplasts

9.7.1 Measurement of Chloroplast Photosynthesis

9.8 Materials

References

10. Photosynthetic Energy Conversion

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Measurement of Proton Flux, Photophosphorylation and Electron Transport Using Broken Chloroplasts and a pH Electrode

10.2.1 Measurement of Proton Flux

10.2.2 Measurement of Photophosphorylation

10.2.3 Measurement of Electron Transport

10.3 Partial Electron Transport Reactions Assayed with the O2 Electrode and a Conventional Recording Spectrophotometer

10.3.1 Water to Methyl Viologen

10.3.2 DCPIP to Methyl Viologen

10.3.3 Water to p-Phenylenediamine

10.3.4 Water to Silicomolybdate

10.3.5 DPC to Methyl Viologen

10.3.6 Assay for FNR Using a Recording Spectrophotometer

References

11. Carbon Metabolism

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Carbon Reduction Cycle

11.3 Photorespiration

11.4 C4 Photosynthesis

11.5 CAM Plants

11.6 Carboxylation Enzymes

11.6.1 RUBISCO

11.6.2 Phosphoenol Pyruvate Carboxylase

11.7 Experiments

11.7.1 I4C Fixation Patterns in C, and C, Plants

11.7.2 Photorespiration

11.7.3 Assay of Carboxylases

References

12. Nitrogen Fixation

12.1 Nitrogen Metabolism

12.2 Introduction to N-Fixation

12.3 The Genus Rhizobium

12.4 Measurement of N-Fixation by Direct Means

12.5 Indirect Assay of Nitrogenase Activity

12.6 Preparation of Acetylene

12.7 Gas Chromatography

12.8 Experimental Schedule

References

13. Assimilatory Nitrate Reduction

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Enzymology

13.2.1 Nitrate Reductase

13.2.2 Nitrite Reductase

13.3 Relationship between Nitrate Reduction and Photosynthesis

13.4 Determination of Enzymatic Activities

13.4.1 Nitrate Reductase Activity

13.4.2 Nitrite Reductase Activity

13.5 Other Analytical Procedures Useful for the Study of Nitrate Assimilation

13.5.1 Determination of Nitrate

13.5.2 Chemical Determination of Ammonium and Dissolved Ammonia

13.5.3 Enzymatic Determination of Ammonium and Dissolved Ammonia

13.6 Uptake of Nitrate by Cells of Blue-Green Algae. Effects of Ammonium and MSO

References

14. Ammonia Assimilation and Amino Acid Biosynthesis

14.1 Ammonia Assimilation

14.1.1 Introduction

14.1.2 Enzyme Isolation

14.1.3 Glutamine Synthase

14.1.4 Glutamate Synthase

14.1.5 Glutamate Dehydrogenase

14.1.6 Aminotransferases

14.2 Transport of Nitrogenous Compounds

14.2.1 Compounds Utilized

14.2.2 Assay of Transport Compounds

14.2.3 Nitrogen Fixation

14.3 Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

14.3.1 The Aspartate Family

14.3.2 Selection of Amino Acid Metabolism Mutants

14.3.3 Mutagen Treatment Technique

14.3.4 Isolation and Characterization of Aspartate Kinase

14.3.5 Proline and Drought Stress

References

15. Micro-Algae: Laboratory Growth Techniques and Outdoor Biomass Production

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Growth of Micro-Algae: Techniques and Kinetics

15.2.1 Batch Culture

15.2.2 Continuous Culture

15.3 Chemostat Cultures

15.4 Synchronized Cultures

15.5 Nutrient-Limited Growth

15.6 Analytical Techniques

15.6.1 Cell Counting

15.6.2 Light Scattering (Turbidity)

15.6.3 Dry Weight Measurement

15.7 Growth, Maintenance and Preservation of Algal Cultures

15.8 Culture Media

15.9 Definition of Common Units and Terms

15.10 Technical Problems

15.11 Where to Obtain Algal Cultures

15.12 Algal Biomass Production

15.12.1 Biological Problems

15.12.2 Engineering Problems

15.12.3 Uses of Algal Biomass

References and Further Reading

16. Enzymes: Separation and Kinetics

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Enzyme Activity

16.3 Isolation of Enzymes

16.4 Protein Determination

16.5 Extraction of Proteins

16.6 Protection from Phenols and Phenol Oxidase Activity

16.7 Crude Extracts

16.8 Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation

16.9 Modern Methods of Protein Purification

16.9.1 Ion Exchange Chromatography

16.9.2 Molecular Sieve Chromatography

16.9.3 Electrophoresis

16.9.4 Isoelectric Focusing

16.10 Enzyme Kinetics

16.11 Experiments

16.11.1 Demonstration of Phenol Oxidase Activity and Design of Protective Media

16.11.2 Enzyme Purification

16.11.3 Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

16.12 The Enzyme Commission Classification System

References

17. Analytical Techniques

17.1 Protein Analysis

17.1.1 Kjeldahl Method

17.1.2 Biuret Reaction

17.1.3 Lowry Method

17.2 Analysis of Carbon Isotope Discrimination Ratios

17.3 Measurement of Light Absorption

17.3.1 The Absorption of Light by Molecules

17.3.2 Experimental Method

17.4 Chlorophyll Determination

17.4.1 Chlorophyll in Higher Plants

17.4.2 Algal Chlorophyll

17.5 Measurement of Starch and Sucrose in Leaves

17.5.1 Preparation of Leaf Extracts for Metabolite Measurements

17.5.2 Measurement of Sucrose

17.5.3 Measurement of Starch

17.6 Mineral Analysis of Plants, Soil and Water

References

Appendices

A. Equipment for Field and Laboratory Studies of Whole Plant and Crop Photosynthesis and Productivity Research

B. Experimental Design and Presentation of Results

C. Biomass Production and Data

D. Conversion Factors and Approximate Conversion Factors

E. Solar Radiation on the Earth

Index


Details

No. of pages:
324
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483190808

About the Editor

J. Coombs

Affiliations and Expertise

BABA, Reading, UK

D. O. Hall

Affiliations and Expertise

King's College, London, UK

S. P. Long