Systems Neuroscience in Depression - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128024560, 9780128026281

Systems Neuroscience in Depression

1st Edition

Authors: Thomas Frodl
eBook ISBN: 9780128026281
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128024560
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th March 2016
Page Count: 420
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Description

Systems Neuroscience in Depression provides a comprehensive overview of the normal and depressed brain processes as studied from a systems neuroscience perspective. Systems neuroscience uses a wide variety of approaches to study how networks of neurons form the bases of higher brain function. A broad overview is discussed starting with a background from neurodevelopment and neural understanding as well as novel treatment approaches for depression. This book covers basic developmental aspects and depressive psychopathology, as well as the basic scientific background from animal models and experimental research. Current advances in systems neuroscience are highlighted in studies from child and adolescent psychiatry. Integrated approaches are presented with regards to genetics, neuroimaging and neuroinflammation as well as neuroendocrinology. The field of systems and network neuroscience is evolving rapidly and this book provides a greatly needed resource for researchers and practitioners in systems neuroscience and psychiatry.

Key Features

  • Knowledge covering the whole life span from early to later life
  • Comprehensively written chapters developing from molecules via epigenetics and neural circuits to clinical neuroscience
  • Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder
  • Integrating stress and environmental factors with molecular underpinnings
  • More than 25 illustrations and tables

Readership

Researchers and practitioners in the fields of systems neuroscience, psychiatry, and neurology

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • The Systems Neuroscience Approach
  • Part I. Developmental Aspects
    • Chapter 1. A Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Systems Perspective on Depression
      • What is Developmental Psychopathology?
      • Developmental Analysis
      • Normal and Abnormal Development
      • Research Approaches within Developmental Psychopathology
      • Principles of Developmental Psychopathology
      • Conclusion and Future Directions
    • Chapter 2. Early Life Adversity and Risk for Depression: Alterations in Cortisol and Brain Structure and Function as Mediating Mechanisms
      • Linking Stress Exposure and Depression
      • Complexities in the Relationship of Stress to Depression
      • Mediators of the Relationship between Stress and Mood Pathology
      • Changes in Brain Structure and Function as a Mediator between Stress and Depression
      • Direct Tests of the ELS-Cortisol-Brain-Depression Mechanism
      • Summary and Pointers to the Future
  • Part II. Experimental Systems Neuroscience
    • Chapter 3. Novel Targets in the Glutamate and Nitric Oxide Neurotransmitter Systems for the Treatment of Depression
      • Introduction
      • Overview of Glutamate Neurotransmission in the Brain
      • Overview of the Functional Role and Regulation of nNOS in the Brain
      • nNOS Regulation by PDZ-Binding Proteins
      • NO Signaling: cGMP-Dependent and cGMP-Independent Pathways
      • Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Pathophysiology of Depression
      • Evidence Linking Glutamate to Depression
      • Evidence Linking NO to Depression
      • Inhibition of NMDA-R/PSD-95/nNOS Protein Interactions
      • Downstream of NO: A Role for sGC, cGMP, and PDE in Depression
      • NMDA-R/NO Pathway in Neuronal Plasticity: A Mechanism for Producing Antidepressant Effects
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Anti-Inflammatory and Immune-Modulatory Therapeutic Approaches in Major Depression
      • Introduction
      • The Cellular Basis of Inflammation in the Central Nervous System
      • BBB Disturbance in Major Depression
      • The Model of “Sickness Behavior” for Depression
      • The Proinflammatory Immune State in Major Depression
      • The Role of Cytokines and the Hormones of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
      • The Influence of Stress on the Immune System
      • Kindling and Sensitization of the Immune Response: Basis for the Stress-Induced Inflammatory Response in Psychiatric Disorders
      • The Vulnerability-Stress-Inflammation Model of Depression
      • Infections and Autoimmune Disorders as Risk Factors for MD
      • Inflammation Influences the Metabolism of Serotonin and Noradrenalin in Depression
      • Effects of the Proinflammatory Immune Activation on the Kynurenine Metabolism in Depression
      • CNS Volume Loss in Neuroimaging Studies: A Consequence of an Inflammatory Process?
      • CNS Inflammation in MD: Findings from Positron Emission Tomography Scans
      • COX-2 Inhibition as an Example of an Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutic Approach in MD
      • Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Other than NSAIDs
      • Inflammatory Pathogenesis in MD and Schizophrenia: The End of the Kraepelinian Dichotomy?
    • Chapter 5. Molecular Mechanisms of Depression
      • Introduction
      • Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity During Depression
      • Molecular Signaling at the Synapse That is Relevant to Depression
      • BDNF in Synaptic Plasticity and Depression
      • Protein Kinases Implicated in Depression
  • Part III. Systems Neuroscience
    • Chapter 6. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Depression
      • Diathesis-Stress Model
      • Epigenetics as a Potential Mechanism Underlying Diathesis-Stress
      • DNA Methylation
      • Early Environment and DNA Methylation
      • Confounds: Genetics
      • Specific Systems Involved in Depression
      • Stability of DNA Methylation Patterns
      • Methodological Issues and Limitations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 7. Identifying Large-Scale Neural Networks Using fMRI
      • Introduction
      • Methods
      • Changes in Large-Scale Networks in Depression
      • Discussion
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8. Imaging Functional Systems in Depression
      • Mood-Congruent Processing in Depression
      • Biased Attention Toward Negative Stimuli
      • Memory Biases for Negative Information
      • Long-Term Memory Deficits
      • Functional Correlates of Rumination
      • Functional Correlates of Anhedonia
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Integrating the Stress Systems and Neuroimaging in Depression
      • Introduction
      • Does the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Stress System Mediate the Morphological and Functional Brain Changes?
      • Immune System
      • Neurotrophic System
      • Serotonin and Genetics
      • Epigenetics
      • Overall Considerations
    • Chapter 10. Depression in Children and Adolescents
      • Background
      • Normal Brain Structural and Functional Development
      • Neuroendocrine Studies
      • Structural Brain Changes
      • Functional Brain Changes
      • Genetics
      • Final Remarks
    • Chapter 11. Systems Neuroscience in Late-Life Depression
      • Introduction
      • Functional Neuroanatomy Relevant to Late-Life Depression
      • Contributions Specific to Depression in Late-Life: Vascular Disease
      • Systems Neuroscience in Late-Life Depression
      • Simultaneous Network Activity
      • Functional Connectivity Underlying Behavior in Late-Life Depression
      • Apathy
      • Anxious-Depression
      • Suicidality
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Arousal Regulation in Affective Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Disturbed Arousal Regulation in Affective Disorders
      • Models of Arousal, Sleep, and Wakefulness Regulation
      • Assessment of Wakefulness Level and Sleepiness
      • EEG Vigilance as a Marker of Brain Arousal
      • The VIGALL
      • The Arousal Regulation Model of Affective Disorders
      • Conclusion
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
420
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128026281
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128024560

About the Author

Thomas Frodl

Dr. Thomas Frodl is currently Head of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany. He studied medicine at the Free University Berlin and the Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, where he received his Doctor of Medicine degree. His training to specialize in psychiatry and psychotherapy was at the Department of Psychiatry of Ludwig-Maximilians- University Munich, where he became consultant psychiatrist. Between 2008 and 2014 he was Professor and chair of clinical neuroimaging at the Department of Psychiatry at Trinity College Dublin within the international excellence program of Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) and worked as consultant psychiatrist in the clinical services of the University Hospitals St. James´s and AMNCH-Tallaght. He is author of more than 130 original publications and received the Hormosan Scientific Award of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology and the Research Award of the German Society of Biological Psychiatry (in 2005 and 2006).

Affiliations and Expertise

Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany