Systems and Signal Processing of Capnography as a Diagnostic Tool for Asthma Assessment

Systems and Signal Processing of Capnography as a Diagnostic Tool for Asthma Assessment

1st Edition - November 1, 2022

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  • Authors: Malarvili Balakrishinan, Om Prakash Singh, Mushikiwabeza Alexie, Teo Howe, Santheraleka Ramanathan
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323857475

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Systems and Signal Processing of Capnography as a Diagnostic Tool for Asthma Assessment provides a comprehensive overview of groundbreaking tools and techniques for the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Sections cover an introduction to the human respiratory system and the pathophysiology of asthma before analyzing current assessment concepts, tools and techniques. The book describes spirometry and the peak flow meter as existing tools in assessing asthma along with their limitations. In addition, a detailed description of capnography as a new approach is included with various studies conducted on its analysis. Academicians and researchers in biomedical engineering, particularly in the course of biomedical signal processing and biomedical instrumentation will find the book useful.

Key Features

  • Introduces a new concept of monitoring the severity of Asthma using a new index extracted from CO2 waveforms
  • Describes a newly designed device, including the significance of CO2 features, selection of infrared CO2 sensors, different components of the device, feature extraction, computation and transmission algorithms, data collection, and analysis and performance evaluations
  • Includes types of capnographs, differentiating normal from abnormal capnograms


Academicians and Researchers in Biomedical engineering particularly in Biomedical Signal processing and Biomedical instrumentation. Healthcare providers at Emergency Department who takes care of Asthmatic patients will benefit this book as it presents a new device for the assessment of Asthma. Undergraduate and postgraduate level for the medical sciences students and technicians from the science background

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Background of Human Respiratory Mechanism
    1.1 Respiratory system
    1.2 Respiratory disorders
    1.3 Asthma

    Chapter 2. Current Tools for the Assessment of Asthma
    2.1  Introduction
    2.2 Diagnosis of asthma: Common Techniques and Limitations

    Chapter 3. Analysis of Capnogram Using Signal Processing Techniques
    3.1 Significance of Respired Carbon Dioxide Concentration
    3.2 Type of capnography
    3.3 Time-Frequency Domain Features

    Chapter 4. New Diagnostic Tool for Assessment of Asthma
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 CO2 acquisition unit
    4.3  Processing Unit
    4.4 Experiment Procedure
    4.5 Results and Discussions
    4.6 Performance Analysis
    4.7 Conclusion and Recommendation

    Chapter 5. A real Time CO2 Measurement Device to Monitor Severity of Asthma
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Material and Methods
    5.3 Data Collection and Analysis
    5.4 Real Time Human Respiration Co2 Measurement Device
    5.5 Device Strengths and Limitations
    5.6 Asthma Severity Level Classification
    5.7 Performance Evaluation

Product details

  • No. of pages: 220
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: November 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323857475

About the Authors

Malarvili Balakrishinan

Associate Professor Ir. Dr. Malarvili Balakrishnan have acquired more than 10 years of experience in the academics as well as involvements in the biomedical industry. She received both the B. Eng and M. Eng (Biomedical Signal Processing) from Universiti Teknologi of Malaysia at Skudai, Johor, Malaysia in 2002 and 2004 respectively. She then obtained Doctor of Philosophy in Medical Sciences Engineering from The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia in 2008. She became a lecturer at Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences Engineering. Her major highlight during this time is involvement in planning and designing new curriculum for biomedical engineering programme.The challenges and experiences with industry made her believe strongly in the value of interdisciplinary pursuits where engineering techniques and technologies from various disciplines such as electronics, mechanics, chemical and medical are utilized to address needs within the medical industries and healthcare services. Therefore, she founded Biosignal Processing Research Group (BSP-RG) in 2010 within the faculty to champion the research, development and commercialization of Biomedical Instrumentation. Currently, Ir. Dr. Malarvili BalaKrishnan actively involved in research related to medical monitoring devices that focuses on detection of neonatal seizure, sudden cardiac death, implantable cardiac defibrillator receiver screening tool, fetal heart rate monitoring, asthma severity monitoring and many more. One particular project (device) titled “Respiratory CO2 Measurement for Monitoring Severity of Asthma” is under commercialization process in local market through collaboration with two big companies which are MIMOS Bhd and Infinecs Systems Sdn Bhd. To date, she has published more than 100 papers where 32 of them are scopus indexed and 17 of them are indexed with total impact factor of 27.71 approximately. She also received 5 international awards, 12 national awards and many more appreciation certificates. In addition, she has chaired sessions as chair person in prestigious conference, editorial board member and technical reviewer by IEEE, EMBS and medical society. She was recently selected for an 'Outstanding Woman in Health and Medical Sciences’ award at the 4th Venus International Women Awards - VIWA 2019, Chennai, India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assoc. Prof. Ir. and Lecturer, Faculty of Biomedical and Health Sciences Engineering

Om Prakash Singh

Dr. Om Prakash Singh received his bachelor’s Degree in Science in 2005, Master’s Degree in Physics and Biomedical Engineering in 2007, and his PhD degree in Biomedical Engineering in 2019. Currently, he is working as a researcher at the School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia. He has obtained six years of teaching and four years of research experience. He has also filled 1 IP and obtained 2 copyright for his research work. He has been awarded with 2 gold and 1 merit award during his research. His research interest includes development of handy medical device using bio-sensors which employs signal processing algorithm, and machine learning techniques for automatic classification of cardiopulmonary disorders conditions. To date, he has been authored and co-authored for around 19 research and review manuscripts with accumulated impact factor of 14.573.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher at the School of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Mushikiwabeza Alexie

Mushikiwabeza Alexie received Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Power Engineering at University of Rwanda in 2014, Master’s Degree in Biomedical Engineering at Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT University) in India in 2018, and she is doing PhD research in Biomedical Engineering at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).Her research interest is in Biomedical Instrumentation particularly in the application of signal processing techniques in developing cardiopulmonary disorders monitoring device. She has experience of 4 years in teaching and currently, she is working as Assistant Lecturer at University of Rwanda (UR) in College of Science and Technology (CST). She is also working as an Academic associate at Regional Center of Excellence in Biomedical Engineering and E-health (CEBE) in Rwanda. In December 2018, she has attended the African Federation of Orthopedic Technicians (FATO)/CEBE symposium on Rehabilitation and Mobility Device Services in Africa which took place at Kigali in Rwanda. In 2018 and 2019, she has participated in developing curriculum for Masters of Science in Biomedical Engineering which is being organized by Regional Center of Excellence in Biomedical Engineering and E-health (CEBE).

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Lecturer, University of Rwanda (UR), College of Science and Technology (CST), Rwanda

Teo Howe

Aik Howe Teo managed ED-HPP for more than 10 years as Head of Department, developing clinical capabilities and initiating specialty clinical services in Emergency Medicine. Currently, the ED-HPP manages more than 160,000 emergency admissions per year; has in excess of 30 medical officers, and more than 120 staff members in total. It is recognized as a training center for the MMed (Emergency Medicine) and MMed (Family Medicine) programs, as well as for undergraduate medical students teaching from the Penang Medical College. It also manages a compulsory 4 month posting for house officers on training. The ED is also an accredited training center for nurses, paramedics and allied health professionals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Consultant Emergency Physician, Emergency and Trauma Department, Penang General Hospital, Malaysia

Santheraleka Ramanathan

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral fellow

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