Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Volume IV

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Editor: Bernard C. Patten
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262741

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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume IV continues the organization begun in Volume III to document a meeting, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia on 1-3 March 1973. Several chapters are considerably expanded over their original concept, and several others are included which were not part of the symposium. The book is organized into five parts. Part I contains chapters on estuarine-marine ecosystems. Part II presents models of several terrestrial ecosystems. Part III has chapters devoted to human aspects of ecology. Part IV considers special problems of ecosystem modeling, namely linear versus nonlinear models, aggregation, and validation. Part V, the most extensive section, describes theory in ecosystem analysis. The book’s chapters demonstrate the current scope of systems ecology—its past and present emphasis on parts and mechanisms in simulation modeling, and its movement toward systems analysis and new, more formal consideration of wholes in theory. They make clear that although the systems approach is young in ecology, it has substantially enriched the science both methodologically and conceptually.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Contents of other Volumes

    Part I Models of Estuarine-Marine Ecosystems

    1. Conceptual Ecological Model of the Delaware Estuary

    I. Introduction

    II. Model Development

    III. Data

    IV. Some Results and Discussion

    V. Suggestions for Further Research

    Appendix I. Functional Forms of Equations and Coefficients Used in Model Run Presented

    Appendix II. Data on Tributaries Used for Calculating Materials Inputs and Mainstream Water Flows

    Appendix III. Fortran IV Computer Program Used to Solve Model, with Sample Output


    2. Protein from the Sea: A Comparison of the Simulated Nitrogen and Carbon Productivity of the Peru Upwelling Ecosystem

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Conclusions

    V. Discussion

    Appendix. State Equations and Algebraic Subroutines


    3. A Simulation of the Mesoscale Distribution of the Lower Marine Trophic Levels off West Florida

    I. Introduction

    II. Purpose of the Study

    III. System Representation and Formulation

    IV. Mathematical Formulation of the Biological Dynamics

    V. Scaling of the Biological Dynamics

    VI. Environmental Considerations

    VII. Values for the Variable Biological Parameters

    VIII. Steady-State Values of the Biological Components

    IX. Standing Stocks and Ecological Efficiencies of the Food Chain Model

    X. Sensitivity Analysis

    XI. Water Circulation on the Shelf

    XII. Parameter Values Specific to the Florida Shelf

    XIII. Spatial Distributions of Biotic Components in Absence of Advection

    XIV. The Spatial Solutions for an Advective, Phosphate-Limiting Sea

    XV. The Spatial Solutions for an Advective, Nitrate-Limiting Sea

    XVI. Critique

    XVII. Summary


    Part II Models of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    4. Mangrove Ecosystem Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Regional Role of Mangrove Ecosystems

    III. Description of the Model

    IV. Results

    V. Discussion

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    5. The Role of Species Interactions in the Response of a Forest Ecosystem to Environmental Perturbation

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of the Model

    III. Simulation Experiments

    IV. Results

    V. Discussion


    6. Simulating the Physiology of a Temperate Deciduous Forest

    I. Introduction

    II. Site Description

    III. Organic Matter Budget

    IV. Model Development and Analysis

    V. Simulation Studies

    VI. Discussion

    VII. Summary


    Part III Models of Human Ecosystems

    7. Human Ecosystem Design and Management: A Sociocybernetic Approach

    I. Introduction

    II. A Sociocybernetic Perspective

    III. Ecological Constraints

    IV. Physical and Technological Structure of the Life-Support System

    V. Regulatory Processes

    VI. Conclusions


    8. Simulating the World Ecosystem

    I. Introduction

    II. Toward a Meaningful Discussion

    III. "The Limits to Growth"-A Case in Point

    IV. Models: From Fuzz to Fact

    V. Conclusion


    9. Macroscopic Minimodels of Man and Nature

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Macroscopic Minimodel Examples

    IV. A Note on Symbolic Languages


    Part IV Special Problems in Ecosystem Modeling

    10. Linear and Nonlinear Approaches for Ecosystem Dynamic Modeling

    I. Introduction

    II. Modeling Rationale

    III. Historical Development

    IV. General Criteria for Modeling Decisions

    V. Effect of Linearizing a Nonlinear System

    VI. Application to an Intraseasonal Model

    VII. Criteria in the Linear-Nonlinear Controversy

    VIII. Conclusion


    11. The Aggregation Problem

    I. Introduction

    II. Base Model and Experimental Frames

    III. Homomorphism and Behavioral Equivalence

    IV. Construction of Base-Lumped Model Pairs

    V. Some Implications for Ecological Modeling


    12. The Validation Problem

    I. Introduction

    II. Normal Concept of Validation

    III. A Model Paradox

    IV .Two Purposes of Modeling

    V .Corroboration versus Validation

    VI .Testing Theoretical Models

    VII .Conclusion


    Part V Theory in Ecosystem Analysis

    13. Engineering Systems Analysis: Applicability to Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Time Domain Analysis

    III. Frequency Response Analysis

    IV. Stability Analysis

    V. Sensitivity Analysis

    VI. Conclusions


    14. Control Theory and the Regulation of Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Ecosystem Modeling

    III. Control Problem Formulation

    IV. Control of Large-Scale Systems

    V. Summary and Conclusions


    15. The Sensitivity Substructure of Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Fixed versus Variable Structure Systems

    III. Parameter Sensitivity

    IV. State Sensitivity

    V. Sensitivity and Stability

    VI. Ecosystem Applications

    VII. Sensitivity and Causality

    VIII. Summary


    16. Patterns of Biological Control in Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. The Ecosystem in a General Sense

    III. Fundamental Sources of Dysfunction

    IV. Fundamental Mechanisms of Control

    V. Statistical Description of the Ecosystem

    VI. Inherent Statistical Properties

    VII. Evolutionary Tendencies

    VIII. Levels of Control

    IX. Hierarchies of Indeterminacy

    X. Generalizations about Biological Compensation

    XI. The Allocation of Control

    XII. Conclusions

    XIII. Summary


    17. Propagation of Cause in Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Causal Determinism

    III. The Causal Bond

    IV. The Causal Sequence

    V. The Causal Network

    VI. Summary and Conclusions

    Appendix. Description of Small Ecosystem Compartment Models



Product details

  • No. of pages: 614
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262741

About the Editor

Bernard C. Patten

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