Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125472043, 9781483262741

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

1st Edition

Volume IV

Editors: Bernard C. Patten
eBook ISBN: 9781483262741
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1976
Page Count: 614
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume IV continues the organization begun in Volume III to document a meeting, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia on 1-3 March 1973. Several chapters are considerably expanded over their original concept, and several others are included which were not part of the symposium.
The book is organized into five parts. Part I contains chapters on estuarine-marine ecosystems. Part II presents models of several terrestrial ecosystems. Part III has chapters devoted to human aspects of ecology. Part IV considers special problems of ecosystem modeling, namely linear versus nonlinear models, aggregation, and validation. Part V, the most extensive section, describes theory in ecosystem analysis. The book’s chapters demonstrate the current scope of systems ecology—its past and present emphasis on parts and mechanisms in simulation modeling, and its movement toward systems analysis and new, more formal consideration of wholes in theory. They make clear that although the systems approach is young in ecology, it has substantially enriched the science both methodologically and conceptually.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of other Volumes

Part I Models of Estuarine-Marine Ecosystems

1. Conceptual Ecological Model of the Delaware Estuary

I. Introduction

II. Model Development

III. Data

IV. Some Results and Discussion

V. Suggestions for Further Research

Appendix I. Functional Forms of Equations and Coefficients Used in Model Run Presented

Appendix II. Data on Tributaries Used for Calculating Materials Inputs and Mainstream Water Flows

Appendix III. Fortran IV Computer Program Used to Solve Model, with Sample Output


2. Protein from the Sea: A Comparison of the Simulated Nitrogen and Carbon Productivity of the Peru Upwelling Ecosystem

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusions

V. Discussion

Appendix. State Equations and Algebraic Subroutines


3. A Simulation of the Mesoscale Distribution of the Lower Marine Trophic Levels off West Florida

I. Introduction

II. Purpose of the Study

III. System Representation and Formulation

IV. Mathematical Formulation of the Biological Dynamics

V. Scaling of the Biological Dynamics

VI. Environmental Considerations

VII. Values for the Variable Biological Parameters

VIII. Steady-State Values of the Biological Components

IX. Standing Stocks and Ecological Efficiencies of the Food Chain Model

X. Sensitivity Analysis

XI. Water Circulation on the Shelf

XII. Parameter Values Specific to the Florida Shelf

XIII. Spatial Distributions of Biotic Components in Absence of Advection

XIV. The Spatial Solutions for an Advective, Phosphate-Limiting Sea

XV. The Spatial Solutions for an Advective, Nitrate-Limiting Sea

XVI. Critique

XVII. Summary


Part II Models of Terrestrial Ecosystems

4. Mangrove Ecosystem Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Regional Role of Mangrove Ecosystems

III. Description of the Model

IV. Results

V. Discussion

VI. Summary and Conclusions


5. The Role of Species Interactions in the Response of a Forest Ecosystem to Environmental Perturbation

I. Introduction

II. Description of the Model

III. Simulation Experiments

IV. Results

V. Discussion


6. Simulating the Physiology of a Temperate Deciduous Forest

I. Introduction

II. Site Description

III. Organic Matter Budget

IV. Model Development and Analysis

V. Simulation Studies

VI. Discussion

VII. Summary


Part III Models of Human Ecosystems

7. Human Ecosystem Design and Management: A Sociocybernetic Approach

I. Introduction

II. A Sociocybernetic Perspective

III. Ecological Constraints

IV. Physical and Technological Structure of the Life-Support System

V. Regulatory Processes

VI. Conclusions


8. Simulating the World Ecosystem

I. Introduction

II. Toward a Meaningful Discussion

III. "The Limits to Growth"-A Case in Point

IV. Models: From Fuzz to Fact

V. Conclusion


9. Macroscopic Minimodels of Man and Nature

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Macroscopic Minimodel Examples

IV. A Note on Symbolic Languages


Part IV Special Problems in Ecosystem Modeling

10. Linear and Nonlinear Approaches for Ecosystem Dynamic Modeling

I. Introduction

II. Modeling Rationale

III. Historical Development

IV. General Criteria for Modeling Decisions

V. Effect of Linearizing a Nonlinear System

VI. Application to an Intraseasonal Model

VII. Criteria in the Linear-Nonlinear Controversy

VIII. Conclusion


11. The Aggregation Problem

I. Introduction

II. Base Model and Experimental Frames

III. Homomorphism and Behavioral Equivalence

IV. Construction of Base-Lumped Model Pairs

V. Some Implications for Ecological Modeling


12. The Validation Problem

I. Introduction

II. Normal Concept of Validation

III. A Model Paradox

IV .Two Purposes of Modeling

V .Corroboration versus Validation

VI .Testing Theoretical Models

VII .Conclusion


Part V Theory in Ecosystem Analysis

13. Engineering Systems Analysis: Applicability to Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Time Domain Analysis

III. Frequency Response Analysis

IV. Stability Analysis

V. Sensitivity Analysis

VI. Conclusions


14. Control Theory and the Regulation of Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Ecosystem Modeling

III. Control Problem Formulation

IV. Control of Large-Scale Systems

V. Summary and Conclusions


15. The Sensitivity Substructure of Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Fixed versus Variable Structure Systems

III. Parameter Sensitivity

IV. State Sensitivity

V. Sensitivity and Stability

VI. Ecosystem Applications

VII. Sensitivity and Causality

VIII. Summary


16. Patterns of Biological Control in Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. The Ecosystem in a General Sense

III. Fundamental Sources of Dysfunction

IV. Fundamental Mechanisms of Control

V. Statistical Description of the Ecosystem

VI. Inherent Statistical Properties

VII. Evolutionary Tendencies

VIII. Levels of Control

IX. Hierarchies of Indeterminacy

X. Generalizations about Biological Compensation

XI. The Allocation of Control

XII. Conclusions

XIII. Summary


17. Propagation of Cause in Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Causal Determinism

III. The Causal Bond

IV. The Causal Sequence

V. The Causal Network

VI. Summary and Conclusions

Appendix. Description of Small Ecosystem Compartment Models




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© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Bernard C. Patten

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