Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125472036, 9781483262734

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

1st Edition

Volume III

Editors: Bernard C. Patten
eBook ISBN: 9781483262734
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1975
Page Count: 618
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume III, and its companion, Volume IV, grew out of a symposium, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia, 1-3 March 1973. The purposes of the meeting were to (i) review the status of ecosystem modeling, simulation, and analysis; (ii) provide a forum for interaction between U.S. International Biological Program (IBP) Biome modeling programs and selected non-IBP investigations involving systems approaches to ecosystem analysis; and (iii) identify and promote dialogue on key issues in macrosystem modeling.
The volume is organized into two parts. Part I treats ecosystem modeling in the U.S. IBP. The introductory chapter is followed by five chapters describing grassland, deciduous forest, desert, tundra, and coniferous forest biome modeling. The concluding chapter is one of critique and evaluation. Part II is devoted mainly to freshwater ecosystems, grading into the estuarine system in the last chapter. The five chapters of this section encompass a simple thermal ecosystem, small woodland streams, a reservoir, one of the Great Lakes, a lake reclaimed from eutrophication, and a major estuary under stress of human impact.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of other Volumes

Part I Ecosystem Modeling in The US International Biological Program

1. Introduction to Modeling in the Biomes

I. Biome Modeling Rationale

II. Diversity in Approaches

III. Convergence

IV. General State of Development


2. Role of Total Systems Models in the Grassland Biome Study

I. Introduction

II. Objectives and Questions

III. Philosophy and Implementation

IV. ELM and Its Main Compartments

V. Comparison of Current Status to Model Objectives

VI. Future Efforts

VII. Model Objectives as a Determinant of Model Structure

VIII. Ecosystem Principles Determine Ecosystem Structure

IX. Simulation Languages—SIMCOMP 4,5


3. Modeling in the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome

I. Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Program

II. Modeling Program

III. Progress in Modeling

IV. Discussion


4. Ecosystem Modeling in the Desert Biome

I. Introduction

II. Predictions Applicable to Populations of Ecosystems

III. Generality in an Ecosystem Model

IV. Approach Adopted by the Desert Biome

V. The Aquatic Model—An Example

VI. Generalizability of the Desert Biome Models

VII. Improvement and Validation of Models

5. Development of Ecosystem Modeling in the Tundra Biome

I. Introduction

II. Ecosystem Models in the Tundra Biome

III. Mechanistic Models in the Tundra Biome

IV. Summary


6. The Ecosystem Modeling Approach in the Coniferous Forest Biome

I. Introduction

II. Development of the General Requirements for an Ecosystem Model

III. Development of a General Paradigm for an Ecosystem Model

IV. Technical Aspects of Applying the Special Theory

V. Operational Aspects of Biome Modeling

VI. Summary and Prospectus


7. Critique and Comparison of Biome Ecosystem Modeling

I. Introduction

II. Driving Variables, and Statistical Properties of Weather Data

III. The Mathematical Structure of Submodels

IV. Macro Properties of Systems Models: Coupling and Interactions

V. The Argument about Linearity and Nonlinearity

VI. The Difficult Path between Unrealistic Oversimplicity and Unwieldy and Untestable Complexity

VII. Some Conclusions


Part II Models of Freshwater-Estuarine Ecosystems

8. Simulation Modeling of the Algal-Fly Components of a Thermal Ecosystem: Effects of Spatial Heterogeneity, Time Delays, and Model Condensation

I. Introduction

II. The Thermal Ecosystem

III. Simulation

IV. Model Evaluation

V. Space-Time vs Point-Time Models


9. Ecosystem Modeling for Small Woodland Streams

I. Introduction

II. The Stream Ecosystem

III. The Stream Model

IV. Summary and Conclusions


10. Total Ecosystem Model for a Cove in Lake Texoma

I. Introduction

II. Morphometric and Abiotic Factors

III. Primary Producer Submodel

IV. Zooplankton Submodel

V. Benthic Invertebrate Submodel

VI. Vertebrate Submodel

VII. Decomposer Submodel

VIII. Model Behavior

IX. Summary and Conclusions

Appendix I. Description of Computer Program

Appendix II. Computer Program


11. Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Nutrient Interaction Model for Western Lake Erie

I. Introduction

II. Model Construction

III. Data Sources

IV. Data

V. Model Verification

VI. Planning and Management Applications


12. Ecologic Simulation for Aquatic Environments

I. Introduction

II. Concepts of the Ecologic Model

III. The Ecologic Model as Applied to Lakes

IV. Lake Washington Simulations

V. Ecologic Model as Applied to Estuaries

VI. San Francisco Bay-Delta Simulations

VII. Future Directions

Appendix I. Input Data for Lake Washington Simulations

Appendix II. Input Data for the Simulations of San Francisco Bay-Delta System




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© Academic Press 1975
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Bernard C. Patten

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