Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Volume II

1st Edition - January 28, 1972

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  • Editor: Bernard C. Patten
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262772

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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume II, concludes the original concept for Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, and at the same time initiates a continuing series under the same title. The original idea, in 1968, was to draw together a collection of systems ecology articles as a convenient benchmark to the state of this emerging new field and as a stimulus to broader interest. These purposes will continue to motivate the series in highlighting, from time to time, accomplishments, trends, and prospects. The present volume is organized into four parts. Part I outlines for ecologists the concepts upon which systems science as a discipline is built. Part II presents example applications of systems analysis methods to ecosystems. Part III is devoted to new theory, including an investigation into the feasibility of several nonlinear formulations for use in compartment modeling of ecosystems; and the important topic of connectivity in systems. Part IV presents a sampling of systems ecology applications. It provides a reasonably balanced and accurate picture of the practical capability of ecological systems analysis and simulation. Performance does not come up to publicity, but prospects for rapid improvement are good given a willingness to let pragmatism guide sound scientific development without demanding unrealistic short-term successes.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Contents Of Volume I

    Part I Introduction to Systems Science

    1. An Introduction to Systems Science for Ecologists

    I. Introduction

    II. Structuring the System: The Role of the Observer

    III. Describing the System

    IV. Levels of Organization

    V. Energy Systems

    VI. Some Thoughts on Ecological Systems

    VII. Beyond Modeling

    Appendix I. Suggested Readings

    Appendix II. A Compartment Model


    Part II The Ecosystem: Systems Analysis

    2. Steady-State Sensitivity Analysis of Energy Flow in a Marine Ecosystem

    I. Introduction

    II. The Energy Flow Model

    III. The Mathematical Model

    IV. Sensitivity Analysis

    V. Discussion


    3. Frequency Response Analysis of Magnesium Cycling in a Tropical Forest Ecosystem

    I. General Introduction and Introduction to Frequency Response Analysis

    II. Description of the Ecological System

    III. Concepts in Frequency Response Analysis and Applications to the Modeled Ecosystem

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary


    Part III Theory

    4. An Energy Circuit Language for Ecological and Social Systems: Its Physical Basis

    I. Introduction

    II. Energy Source Module

    III. Force and the Energy Pathway

    IV. Population Force

    V. Heat Sink Module

    VI. Passive Energy Storage Module

    VII. Potential-Generating Storage Module

    VIII. Intersection and Feedback

    IX. Constant Gain Amplifier Module

    X. Work Gate Module

    XI. The Switch Module

    XII. Self-Maintaining Module

    XIII. Cycling Receptor Module

    XIV. Production and Regeneration Module (P-R)

    XV. Economic Transactor Module

    XVI. System Examples and Their Simulation


    5. Steady-State Equilibriums in Simple Nonlinear Food Webs

    I. Introduction

    II. Systems with Simple Nonlinear Transfers

    III. Systems with Controlled Nonlinear Transfers

    IV. The Use of Nonlinear Systems in Modeling


    6. Structural Properties of Food Webs

    I. Introduction

    II. The Trophic Relation

    III. Graph Formulation of Food Webs

    IV. Graph Properties of Food Webs

    V. Status in Food Webs

    VI. Summary


    7. Niche Quantification and the Concept of Niche Pattern

    I. Introduction

    II. The Model

    III. Methods and Materials

    IV. Results and Discussion

    V. Niche Theory

    VI. Niche Patterns

    VII. Summary


    Appendix. Degrees of Freedom, and F Values Associated with Table III

    Part IV Applications and Prospects

    8. Systems Analysis Applied to Some Fisheries Problems

    I. Fisheries Problems in Perspective

    II. Systems Analysis and Simulation Models—General

    III. Application of System Analysis—The Georges Bank Haddock Fishery

    IV. Application of Bayes' Theorem for Decision Making in Fisheries Science

    V. Other Systems Analysis Applications


    9. Digital Simulation Modeling in Resource Management and the Training of Applied Ecologists

    I. Introduction

    II. Solving Statistical Problems in Applied Ecology by Simulation

    III. Management Simulation Models

    IV. Simulation Models for Training

    V. The Future of Simulation Modeling

    Appendix A. Selected General References on Computer Modeling and Simulation

    Appendix B. A Time-Sharing Algol Program (GRSIM) for Calculating Population Growth with a Generalized Version of the Leslie Matrix Model


    10. Systems Methods in Environmental Court Actions

    I. Introduction

    II. Scope of Technical Evidence in Environmental Litigation

    III. Modeling and Systems Testimony in Two Judicial Actions

    IV. Brief Statements of Systems Characteristics

    V. Discussion and Outlook for Systems Science

    Appendix. Ecosystem Analysis: The Diffusion of DDT


    11. Systems Ecology and the Future of Human Society

    I. The State of the Human Ecosystem

    II. Systems Analysis and Simulation of the Human Ecosystem

    III. The CALSIM Model

    IV. An Expanded Model

    V. Prospects for Human Ecosystems Simulation

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    12. Next-Generation Models in Ecology

    I. Introduction

    II. Current Status of Ecomodeling

    III. Trends in Ecomodel Evolution

    IV. Hierarchical Modeling

    V. A Fish Population Ecomodel

    VI. Mammalian Sociodemographic Ecomodels

    VII. A Model of Human Personality and Interactions

    VIII. A Hierarchy of Health Care System Models

    IX. A General Model for a Community Total Health Care System

    X. Closure


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 606
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1972
  • Published: January 28, 1972
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262772

About the Editor

Bernard C. Patten

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