Aryl-aryl bond forming reactions. The importance of biaryls. Structure of biaryls. Atropisomerism.
2. CLASSICAL METHODS FOR SYNTHESIS OF BIARYLS.
The Ullmann and Related reactions. The Gomberg-Bachmann-Hey reaction. The Pschorr cyclization. The Gatterman synthesis of biaryls. Arylation of arenes with diaroyl peroxides. Selected synthetic procedures.
3. COUPLING REACTIONS OF ARYL HALIDES AND SULFONATES WITH METAL COMPLEXES AND ACTIVE METALS.
Reaction mechanism. biaryls catalysed by nickel complexes. Homo-coupling reactions of aryl halides
to biaryls catalysed by palladium complexes. Cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides to biaryls. catalysed by nickel-and palladium-complexes. Homo-coupling reactions of aryl halides to biaryls mediated by copper(I) salts. Homo-coupling reactions of aryl halides to biaryls promoted by active metals. Selected synthetic procedures.
4. CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS OF ARYLMETALLIC
REAGENTS WITH ARYL HALIDES AND ARYL SULFONATES.
Reaction mechanism. Cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides and triflates with aryllithium and Grignard reagents, the Kharasch reaction. The Negishi reaction. The Stille reaction. Cross-coupling reactions of arylsilanes with aryl halides. Cross-coupling reaction of diarylmercurials with aryl halides. Cross-coupling reaction of arylcopper reagents with aryl halides. Cross-coupling reactions of miscellaneous arylmetallic: Mn, Ti, In and Ge reagents with
aryl halides and sulfonates. Selected synthetic procedures.
5. THE SUZUKI-MIYAURA REACTION.
General survey of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Methods for performing the Suzuki-Miyaura
synthesis of biaryls. Modern S