Synapse, Neuron, Brain - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122012037, 9780323154642

Synapse, Neuron, Brain

1st Edition

Authors: A.C. Damask
eBook ISBN: 9780323154642
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1984
Page Count: 352
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Description

Synapse, Neuron, Brain, the third and last volume in the series Medical Physics, focuses on neurons and their interactions. Comprised of seven chapters regarding the brain's synapses and nerves, this volume concludes through the presentation of medical physics and its applications.
An introductory chapter of this volume provides the necessary basic concepts and theories needed in the understanding of the book. This is followed by a discussion on the brain and its interconnections with the spinal cord. Chapter 3 focuses on the importance of evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for the sensory organ and the neural processing of the stimuli. Chemical and electrical properties of synapses are also given emphasis. Other topics covered in this volume include the rall theory and neuronal integration; membrane noise at synaptic junctions; and new techniques on brain studies (autoradiography, positron annihilation, and nuclear magnetic resonance). As with the other volumes, this also caters to persons in various disciplines such as medicine, physiology, physics, and biology.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Contents of Previous Volumes

Chapter 1 Introduction

References

Chapter 2 The Evolution and Morphology of the Brain

Introduction

Origin of the Two-Sided Brain

Origin of Vertebrates

Development of the Brain

Architecture of the Human Brain

The Triune Brain

Cephalization of the Species

Brain Asymmetry

Left-Handedness

Survival Value of Cerebral Dominance

Arrangement of Cortical Neurons

References

Chapter 3 Electrical Properties of the Brain; EEG and Evoked Potentials

Introduction

Electroencephalography

Computer Diagnosis of Electroencephalograms

Cellular Origins of Electroencephalogram Brain Waves

Evoked Potentials

Visual Evoked Potentials

Diagnostics of Children Using Visual Evoked Potentials

Diagnosis of Optic Neuritis Using Visual Evoked Potentials

Origin of Evoked Potentials

Auditory Evoked Potentials

Evoked Potentials as a Measure of Mental Chronometry

References

Chapter 4 Chemical and Electrical Properties of Synapses

Introduction

Kinds of Synaptic Connections

Chemical Synapses

Electrical Synapses

Properties of Postsynaptic Potentials and Currents at Chemical Synapses

Presynaptic Properties of Chemical Synapses

Exocytosis

A Molecular Model of Postsynaptic Responses

Drug Action at Synaptic Receptors

Central-Nervous-System Neurons and Drug Effects

Common Diseases Associated with Synaptic Function

References

Chapter 5 Neuronal Integration and Rall Theory

Introduction

Effects of Environment and Malnutrition on Dendrite Growth

Dendrite Electrotonus and the Linear Cable Equation

Special Solutions to the Cable Equation

Boundary Conditions at Dendritic Branch Points

Equivalent Cylinder Approximation

Properties of Somatic Potentials with Dendritic Synaptic Inputs

Compartmental Model

Shape and Time Behavior of Soma Potentials

Transient Passive Membrane Responses

References

Chapter 6 Analysis of Membrane Noise at Synaptic Junctions

Introduction

Analysis of Random Signals

Autocorrelation Function

Power Spectrum

Determination of Power Spectrum (Spectral Density Function)

Thermal Noise

Shot Noise

Flicker Noise

Conductance Noise

Current Noise at the End Plate

Frequency Composition

Channels at the Neuromuscular Junction

Effect of Pore Structure

Single-Channel Events

Conductance Fluctuations in the Presence of Local Anesthetics

References

Chapter 7 New Techniques of Brain Studies: Autoradiography, Positron Annihilation, and Nuclear

Magnetic Resonance

Introduction

Autoradiographic Determination of Regional Brain Metabolism

Dynamic Radiographic Studies of Brain Metabolism

Coincidence Counting of Positron Annihilation

Design Considerations of Positron Annihilation

Positron-Emission Measurement of Brain Metabolism

General Aspects of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Spinning Tops

Larmor Precession

Nuclear Moments

Effect of a Radio-Frequency Field

Population and Relaxation

Spin-Spin Relaxation

Spin-Lattice Relaxation

Spin-Echo Technique

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Chemical Shifts

Intracellular pH Measurement by 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

References

Appendix A Open-Channel Distribution Function

Appendix B Rall's Branching Rule

Appendix C Proof of the Equivalent Cylinder Approximation

Appendix D Solution to the Cable Equation for a Cylinder with Sealed Ends

Appendix E Autocorrelation Function

Appendix F Fourier Coefficients

Appendix G Fourier Transforms

Appendix H Sampling Theorem

Appendix I One-Dimensional Random Walk

Appendix J End-Plate Current Spectral Function

Appendix K Intracellular Trapping of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose

Appendix L Statistical Properties of Single-Channel Events

Index


Details

No. of pages:
352
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323154642

About the Author

A.C. Damask