Synapse, Neuron, Brain

Synapse, Neuron, Brain

1st Edition - June 28, 1984

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  • Author: A.C. Damask
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154642

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Synapse, Neuron, Brain, the third and last volume in the series Medical Physics, focuses on neurons and their interactions. Comprised of seven chapters regarding the brain's synapses and nerves, this volume concludes through the presentation of medical physics and its applications. An introductory chapter of this volume provides the necessary basic concepts and theories needed in the understanding of the book. This is followed by a discussion on the brain and its interconnections with the spinal cord. Chapter 3 focuses on the importance of evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool for the sensory organ and the neural processing of the stimuli. Chemical and electrical properties of synapses are also given emphasis. Other topics covered in this volume include the rall theory and neuronal integration; membrane noise at synaptic junctions; and new techniques on brain studies (autoradiography, positron annihilation, and nuclear magnetic resonance). As with the other volumes, this also caters to persons in various disciplines such as medicine, physiology, physics, and biology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Contents of Previous Volumes

    Chapter 1 Introduction


    Chapter 2 The Evolution and Morphology of the Brain


    Origin of the Two-Sided Brain

    Origin of Vertebrates

    Development of the Brain

    Architecture of the Human Brain

    The Triune Brain

    Cephalization of the Species

    Brain Asymmetry


    Survival Value of Cerebral Dominance

    Arrangement of Cortical Neurons


    Chapter 3 Electrical Properties of the Brain; EEG and Evoked Potentials



    Computer Diagnosis of Electroencephalograms

    Cellular Origins of Electroencephalogram Brain Waves

    Evoked Potentials

    Visual Evoked Potentials

    Diagnostics of Children Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Diagnosis of Optic Neuritis Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Origin of Evoked Potentials

    Auditory Evoked Potentials

    Evoked Potentials as a Measure of Mental Chronometry


    Chapter 4 Chemical and Electrical Properties of Synapses


    Kinds of Synaptic Connections

    Chemical Synapses

    Electrical Synapses

    Properties of Postsynaptic Potentials and Currents at Chemical Synapses

    Presynaptic Properties of Chemical Synapses


    A Molecular Model of Postsynaptic Responses

    Drug Action at Synaptic Receptors

    Central-Nervous-System Neurons and Drug Effects

    Common Diseases Associated with Synaptic Function


    Chapter 5 Neuronal Integration and Rall Theory


    Effects of Environment and Malnutrition on Dendrite Growth

    Dendrite Electrotonus and the Linear Cable Equation

    Special Solutions to the Cable Equation

    Boundary Conditions at Dendritic Branch Points

    Equivalent Cylinder Approximation

    Properties of Somatic Potentials with Dendritic Synaptic Inputs

    Compartmental Model

    Shape and Time Behavior of Soma Potentials

    Transient Passive Membrane Responses


    Chapter 6 Analysis of Membrane Noise at Synaptic Junctions


    Analysis of Random Signals

    Autocorrelation Function

    Power Spectrum

    Determination of Power Spectrum (Spectral Density Function)

    Thermal Noise

    Shot Noise

    Flicker Noise

    Conductance Noise

    Current Noise at the End Plate

    Frequency Composition

    Channels at the Neuromuscular Junction

    Effect of Pore Structure

    Single-Channel Events

    Conductance Fluctuations in the Presence of Local Anesthetics


    Chapter 7 New Techniques of Brain Studies: Autoradiography, Positron Annihilation, and Nuclear

    Magnetic Resonance


    Autoradiographic Determination of Regional Brain Metabolism

    Dynamic Radiographic Studies of Brain Metabolism

    Coincidence Counting of Positron Annihilation

    Design Considerations of Positron Annihilation

    Positron-Emission Measurement of Brain Metabolism

    General Aspects of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Spinning Tops

    Larmor Precession

    Nuclear Moments

    Effect of a Radio-Frequency Field

    Population and Relaxation

    Spin-Spin Relaxation

    Spin-Lattice Relaxation

    Spin-Echo Technique

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Chemical Shifts

    Intracellular pH Measurement by 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


    Appendix A Open-Channel Distribution Function

    Appendix B Rall's Branching Rule

    Appendix C Proof of the Equivalent Cylinder Approximation

    Appendix D Solution to the Cable Equation for a Cylinder with Sealed Ends

    Appendix E Autocorrelation Function

    Appendix F Fourier Coefficients

    Appendix G Fourier Transforms

    Appendix H Sampling Theorem

    Appendix I One-Dimensional Random Walk

    Appendix J End-Plate Current Spectral Function

    Appendix K Intracellular Trapping of 2-Deoxy-D-glucose

    Appendix L Statistical Properties of Single-Channel Events


Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1984
  • Published: June 28, 1984
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154642

About the Author

A.C. Damask

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