Switchmode RF Power Amplifiers

Switchmode RF Power Amplifiers

1st Edition - June 29, 2007

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  • Authors: Andrei Grebennikov, Nathan Sokal, Marc Franco
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080550640

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A majority of people now have a digital mobile device whether it be a cell phone, laptop, or blackberry. Now that we have the mobility we want it to be more versatile and dependable; RF power amplifiers accomplish just that. These amplifiers take a small input and make it stronger and larger creating a wider area of use with a more robust signal.Switching mode RF amplifiers have been theoretically possible for decades, but were largely impractical because they distort analog signals until they are unrecognizable. However, distortion is not an issue with digital signals—like those used by WLANs and digital cell phones—and switching mode RF amplifiers have become a hot area of RF/wireless design. This book explores both the theory behind switching mode RF amplifiers and design techniques for them.

Key Features

*Provides essential design and implementation techniques for use in cma2000, WiMAX, and other digital mobile standards
*Both authors have written several articles on the topic and are well known in the industry
*Includes specific design equations to greatly simplify the design of switchmode amplifiers


RF/wireless engineers and designers; engineering managers

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    1. Power Amplifier Design Principles
    1.1. Spectral and time domain analyses
    1.2. Basic classes of operation: A, AB, B, C
    1.3. High frequency conduction angle
    1.4. Active device models
    1.5. Push-pull power amplifiers
    1.6. Gain and stability
    1.7. Effect of collector capacitance
    1.8. Parametric oscillations
    2. Class D power amplifiers
    2.1. Switched-mode power amplifiers with resistive load
    2.2. Complementary voltage-switching configuration
    2.3. Transformer-coupled voltage-switching configuration
    2.4. Symmetrical current-switching configuration
    2.5. Transformer-coupled current-switching configuration
    2.6. Voltage-switching configuration with reactive load
    2.6. Drive and transition time
    2.8. Practical Class D power amplifier implementation
    3. Class F power amplifiers
    3.1. Biharmonic operation mode
    3.2. Idealized Class F mode
    3.3. Class F with maximally flat waveforms
    3.4. Class F with quarterwave transmission line
    3.5. Effect of saturation resistance and shunt capacitance
    3.6. Load networks with lumped elements
    3.7. Load networks with transmission lines
    3.8. LDMOSFET power amplifier design examples
    3.9. Practical RF and microwave Class F power amplifiers
    4. Inverse Class F mode
    4.1. Biharmonic operation mode
    4.2. Idealized inverse Class F mode
    4.3. Inverse Class F with quarterwave transmission line
    4.4. Load networks with lumped elements
    4.5. Load networks with transmission lines
    4.6. LDMOSFET power amplifier design example
    4.7. Practical implementation
    5. Class E with shunt capacitance
    5.1. Effect of mistuned resonant circuit
    5.2. Load network with shunt capacitor and series filter
    5.3. Matching with standard load
    5.4. Effect of saturation resistance
    5.5. Driving signal and finite switching time
    5.6. Effect of nonlinear shunt capacitance
    5.7. Push-pull operation mode
    5.8. Load network with transmission lines
    5.9. Practical RF and microwave Class E power amplifiers
    6. Class E with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.1. Class E with one capacitor and one inductor
    6.2. Generalized Class E load network with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.3. Sub-harmonic Class E
    6.4. Parallel-circuit Class E
    6.5. Even-harmonic Class E
    6.6. Effect of bondwire inductance
    6.7. Load network with transmission lines
    6.8. Broadband Class E
    6.9. Power gain
    6.10. CMOS Class E power amplifiers
    7. Class E with quarterwave transmission line
    7.1. Load network with parallel quarterwave line
    7.2. Optimum load network parameters
    7.3. Load network with zero series reactance
    7.4. Matching circuit with lumped elements
    7.5. Matching circuit with transmission lines
    7.6. Load network with series quarterwave line and shunt filter
    8. Alternative and mixed-mode high efficiency power amplifiers
    8.1. Class D/E power amplifier
    8.2. Class E/F power amplifiers
    8.3. Biharmonic Class EM power amplifier
    8.4. Inverse Class E power amplifiers
    8.5. Harmonic-control design technique
    9. Computer-aided design of switching-mode power amplifiers
    9.1. Basic principles and limitations
    9.2. HEPA Plus CAD program
    9.3. Effect of load-impedance variation with frequency
    9.4. HEPA Plus CAD examples for Class D and E
    9.5. Class E power amplifier design using SPICE
    9.6. ADS circuit simulator and its applicability
    9.7. ADS CAD design examples for Class E power amplifiers

Product details

  • No. of pages: 448
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 2007
  • Published: June 29, 2007
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080550640

About the Authors

Andrei Grebennikov

Andrei Grebennikov
Dr. Andrei Grebennikov is a Senior Member of the IEEE and a Member of Editorial Board of the International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering. He received his Dipl. Ing. degree in radio electronics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Ph.D. degree in radio engineering from the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics in 1980 and 1991, respectively.

He has obtained a long-term academic and industrial experience working with the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Russia, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, M/A-COM, Ireland, Infineon Technologies, Germany/Austria, and Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland, as an engineer, researcher, lecturer, and educator.

He lectured as a Guest Professor in the University of Linz, Austria, and presented short courses and tutorials as an Invited Speaker at the International Microwave Symposium, European and Asia-Pacific Microwave Conferences, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, and Motorola Design Centre, Malaysia. He is an author or co-author of more than 80 technical papers, 5 books, and 15 European and US patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland

Nathan Sokal

Nathan Sokal
In 1989, Mr. Sokal was elected a Fellow of the IEEE, for his contributions to the technology of high-efficiency switching-mode power conversion and switching-mode RF power amplification. In 2007, he received the Microwave Pioneer award from the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, in recognition of a major, lasting, contribution  development of the Class-E RF power amplifier. In 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, for developing the high-efficiency switching-mode Class-E RF power amplifier

In 1965, he founded Design Automation, Inc., a consulting company doing electronics design review, product design, and solving ‘‘unsolvable’’ problems for equipment-manufacturing clients. Much of that work has been on high-efficiency switching-mode RF power amplifiers at frequencies up to 2.5 GHz, and switching-mode dc-dc power converters. He holds eight patents in power electronics, and is the author or co-author of two books and approximately 130 technical papers, mostly on high-efficiency generation of RF power and dc power.

During 1950–1965, he held engineering and supervisory positions for design, manufacture, and applications of analog and digital equipment.

He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1950.

He is a Technical Adviser to the American Radio Relay League, on RF power amplifiers and dc power supplies, and a member of the Electromagnetics Society, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi honorary professional societies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Design Automation, Auburndale, MA, USA

Marc Franco

Marc Franco
Marc J. Franco holds a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Drexel University, Philadelphia. He is currently with RFMD, Technology Platforms, Component Advanced Development, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, where he is involved with the design of advanced RF integrated circuits and integrated front-end modules. He was previously with Linearizer Technology, Inc. Hamilton, New Jersey, where he led the development of advanced RF products for commercial, military and space applications.

Dr. Franco is a regular reviewer for the Radio & Wireless Symposium, the European Microwave Conference and the MTT International Microwave Symposium. He is a member of the MTT-17 HF-VHF-UHF Technology Technical Coordination Committee and has co-chaired the IEEE Topical Conference on Power Amplifiers for Radio and Wireless Applications. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

His current research interests include high-efficiency RF power amplifiers, nonlinear distortion correction, and electromagnetic analysis of structures.

Affiliations and Expertise

RFMD, Greensboro, NC, USA

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