Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers

Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers

3rd Edition - March 19, 2021

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  • Authors: Andrei Grebennikov, Marc Franco
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128227541
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128214480

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Switchmode RF and Microwave Power Amplifiers, Third Edition is an essential reference book on developing RF and microwave switchmode power amplifiers. The book combines theoretical discussions with practical examples, allowing readers to design high-efficiency RF and microwave power amplifiers on different types of bipolar and field-effect transistors, design any type of high-efficiency switchmode power amplifiers operating in Class D or E at lower frequencies and in Class E or F and their subclasses at microwave frequencies with specified output power, also providing techniques on how to design multiband and broadband Doherty amplifiers using different bandwidth extension techniques and implementation technologies. This book provides the necessary information to understand the theory and practical implementation of load-network design techniques based on lumped and transmission-line elements. It brings a unique focus on switchmode RF and microwave power amplifiers that are widely used in cellular/wireless, satellite and radar communication systems which offer major power consumption savings.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete history of high-efficiency Class E and Class F techniques
  • Presents a new chapter on Class E with shunt capacitance and shunt filter to simplify the design of high-efficiency power amplifier with broader frequency bandwidths
  • Covers different Doherty architectures, including integrated and monolithic implementations, which are and will be, used in modern communication systems to save power consumption and to reduce size and costs
  • Includes extended coverage of multiband and broadband Doherty amplifiers with different frequency ranges and output powers using different bandwidth extension techniques
  • Balances theory with practical implementation, avoiding a cookbook approach and enabling engineers to develop better designs, including hybrid, integrated and monolithic implementations


RF/wireless and microwave engineers and designers; university researchers, graduate students

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Dedication to N. Sokal
    1. Power amplifier design principles
    1.1. Spectral-domain analysis
    1.2. Basic classes of operation: A, AB, B, C
    1.3. Load line and output impedance
    1.4. Classes of operation based upon finite number of harmonics
    1.5. Active device models
    1.5.1. MOSFET device modeling
    1.5.2. LDMOSFETs
    1.5.3. GaAs MESFETs and GaN HEMTs
    1.5.4. Low- and high-voltage HBTs 
    1.6. High-frequency conduction angle
    1.7. Nonlinear effect of collector capacitance
    1.8. Push-pull power amplifiers
    1.9. Power gain and impedance matching
    1.10. Load-pull characterization
    1.11. Amplifier stability
    1.12. Parametric oscillations
    1.13. Bias circuits
    1.14. Distortion fundamentals
    1.14.1. Linearity
    1.14.2. Time variance
    1.14.3. Memory
    1.14.4. Distortion of electrical signals
    1.14.5. Types of distortion
    1.14.6. Nonlinear distortion analysis for sinusoidal signals measures of nonlinearity distortion
    2. Class-D power amplifiers
    2.1. Switchmode power amplifiers with resistive load
    2.2. Complementary voltage-switching configuration
    2.3. Transformer-coupled voltage-switching configuration
    2.4. Transformer-coupled current-switching configuration
    2.5. Symmetrical current-switching configuration
    2.6. Voltage-switching configuration with reactive load
    2.7. Drive and transition time
    2.8. Practical Class-D power amplifier implementation
    2.9. Class-D for digital pulse-modulation transmitters
    3. Class-F power amplifiers
    3.1. History of Class F techniques
    3.2. Idealized Class-F mode
    3.3. Class-F with maximally flat waveforms
    3.4. Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
    3.5. Effect of saturation resistance and shunt capacitance
    3.6. Load networks with lumped elements
    3.7. Load networks with transmission lines
    3.8. LDMOSFET power amplifier design examples
    3.9. Broadband capability of Class-F power amplifiers
    3.10. Practical Class-F power amplifiers and applications
    4. Inverse Class F
    4.1. History of inverse Class F techniques
    4.2. Idealized inverse Class-F mode
    4.3. Inverse Class-F with quarterwave transmission line
    4.4. Load networks with lumped elements
    4.5. Load networks with transmission lines
    4.6. LDMOSFET power amplifier design example
    4.7. Examples of practical implementation
    4.8. Inverse Class-F GaN HEMT power amplifiers for cellular applications
    5. Class E with shunt capacitance and series filter
    5.1. History of Class E techniques
    5.2. Load network with shunt capacitor and series filter
    5.3. Matching with standard load
    5.4. Effect of saturation resistance
    5.5. Driving signal and finite switching time
    5.6. Effect of nonlinear shunt capacitance
    5.7. Optimum, nominal, and off-nominal Class-E operation
    5.8. Push-pull operation mode
    5.9. Load networks with transmission lines
    5.10. Practical Class-E power amplifiers and applications
    6. Class E with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.1. Class-E with one capacitor and one inductor
    6.2. Generalized Class-E load network with finite dc-feed inductance
    6.3. Sub-harmonic Class E
    6.4. Parallel-circuit Class E
    6.5. Even-harmonic Class E
    6.6. Effect of bondwire inductance
    6.7. Load network with transmission lines
    6.8. Operation beyond maximum Class-E frequency
    6.9. Power gain
    6.10. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
    7. Class E with quarterwave transmission line
    7.1. Load network with parallel quarterwave line
    7.2. Optimum load-network parameters
    7.3. Load network with zero series reactance
    7.4. Matching circuit with lumped elements
    7.5. Matching circuit with transmission lines
    7.6. Load network with series quarterwave line and shunt filter
    7.7. Design example: 10-W 2.14-GHz Class-E GaN HEMT power amplifier
    with parallel quarterwave transmission line
    8. Class E with shunt capacitance and shunt filter
    8.1. Load network with shunt capacitor and shunt filter
    8.2. Optimum load-network parameters
    8.3. ADS simulation setup
    8.4. Load-network with transmission lines
    8.5. Load network with series reactance
    8.5.1. Variation of load-network parameters
    8.5.2. Load network with lumped parameters
    8.5.3. Load network with transmission lines
    9. Broadband Class E
    9.1. Reactance compensation technique
    9.1.1. Load networks with lumped elements
    9.1.2. Load networks with transmission lines
    9.2. Broadband Class E with shunt capacitance
    9.3. Broadband Class E with shunt filter
    9.4. Broadband parallel-circuit Class E
    9.5. High-power RF Class-E power amplifiers
    9.6. Microwave monolithic Class-E power amplifiers
    9.7. CMOS Class-E power amplifiers
    10. Alternative and mixed-mode high-efficiency power amplifiers
    10.1. Class-DE power amplifier
    10.2. Class-FE power amplifiers
    10.3. Class-E/F power amplifiers
    10.3.1 Symmetrical push-pull configurations
    10.3.2 Single-ended Class-E/F3 mode
    10.3.3. Class-E/F3 mode with series tank circuit and shunt filter
    10.4. High-efficiency mixed-mode broadband power amplifiers
    10.5. Biharmonic Class-EM power amplifiers
    10.6. Inverse Class-E power amplifiers
    10.7. Harmonic tuning using load-pull techniques
    10.8. Chireix outphasing power amplifiers
    11. High-efficiency Doherty power amplifiers
    11.1. Historical aspect and conventional structures
    11.2. Carrier and peaking amplifiers with harmonic control
    11.3. Balanced, push-pull, and dual Doherty amplifiers
    11.4. Asymmetric Doherty amplifiers
    11.5. Multistage Doherty amplifiers
    11.6. Inverted Doherty amplifiers
    11.7. Integrated and monolithic Doherty amplifiers
    11.8. Digitally driven Doherty amplifier
    11.9. Multiband and broadband capability
    11.9.1. Multiband Doherty configurations
    11.9.2. Broadband Doherty amplifier via real frequency technique
    11.9.3. Bandwidth extension using reactance compensation technique
    11.9.4. Broadband parallel Doherty architecture
    11.9.5. Broadband inverted Doherty amplifiers
    12. Predistortion linearization techniques
    12.1. Modeling of RF power amplifiers with memory
    12.2. Predistortion linearization
    12.2.1. Introduction
    12.2.2. Memoryless predistorter for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
    12.2.3. Predistorter with memory for octave-bandwidth amplifiers
    12.2.4. Postdistortion
    12.3. Analog predistortion implementation
    12.3.1. Introduction
    12.3.2. Reflective predistorters
    12.3.3. Transmissive predistorters
    12.4. Digital predistortion implementation
    12.4.1. Introduction
    12.4.2. Principles of memoryless digital predistortion
    12.4.3. Digital predistortion adaptation
    12.4.4. Digital predistorter performance
    13. Computer-aided design of switchmode power amplifiers
    13.1. HB-PLUS program for half-bridge and full-bridge direct-coupled voltage-switching Class-D and Class-DE circuits
    13.2. HEPA-PLUS CAD program for Class E
    13.3. Effect of Class-E load-network parameter variations
    13.4. HB-PLUS CAD examples for Class D and Class DE
    13.5. HEPA-PLUS CAD example for Class E
    13.6. Class-E power amplifier design using SPICE
    13.7. ADS circuit simulator and its applicability to switchmode Class E
    13.8. ADS CAD design example: high-efficiency two-stage 1.75-GHz MMIC HBT power amplifier

Product details

  • No. of pages: 840
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: March 19, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128227541
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128214480

About the Authors

Andrei Grebennikov

Andrei Grebennikov
Dr. Andrei Grebennikov is a Senior Member of the IEEE and a Member of Editorial Board of the International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering. He received his Dipl. Ing. degree in radio electronics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Ph.D. degree in radio engineering from the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics in 1980 and 1991, respectively.

He has obtained a long-term academic and industrial experience working with the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics, Russia, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, M/A-COM, Ireland, Infineon Technologies, Germany/Austria, and Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland, as an engineer, researcher, lecturer, and educator.

He lectured as a Guest Professor in the University of Linz, Austria, and presented short courses and tutorials as an Invited Speaker at the International Microwave Symposium, European and Asia-Pacific Microwave Conferences, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore, and Motorola Design Centre, Malaysia. He is an author or co-author of more than 80 technical papers, 5 books, and 15 European and US patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Ireland

Marc Franco

Marc Franco
Marc J. Franco holds a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Drexel University, Philadelphia. He is currently with RFMD, Technology Platforms, Component Advanced Development, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, where he is involved with the design of advanced RF integrated circuits and integrated front-end modules. He was previously with Linearizer Technology, Inc. Hamilton, New Jersey, where he led the development of advanced RF products for commercial, military and space applications.

Dr. Franco is a regular reviewer for the Radio & Wireless Symposium, the European Microwave Conference and the MTT International Microwave Symposium. He is a member of the MTT-17 HF-VHF-UHF Technology Technical Coordination Committee and has co-chaired the IEEE Topical Conference on Power Amplifiers for Radio and Wireless Applications. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

His current research interests include high-efficiency RF power amplifiers, nonlinear distortion correction, and electromagnetic analysis of structures.

Affiliations and Expertise

RFMD, Greensboro, NC, USA

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