Sustainable Construction Materials

Sustainable Construction Materials

Copper Slag

1st Edition - October 6, 2016

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  • Authors: Ravindra K. Dhir, Jorge de Brito, Raman Mangabhai, Chao Qun Lye
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081009888
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009864

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Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, as part of a series of five, the book aims to promote the use of sustainable construction materials. It is different to the norm and its uniqueness lies in developing a data matrix sourced from 400 publications, contributed by 712 authors from 337 institutions in 40 countries from 1964 to 2015, on the subject of copper slag as a construction material, and systematically, analysisng, evaluating and modelling this information for use in cement, concrete, geotechnics and road pavement applications. Related environmental issues, case studies and standards are also discussed. The work establishes what is already known and can be used. It would also help to avoid repetitive research and save valuable resources, which can instead be directed towards new research to progress the use of sustainable construction materials. The book is structured in an incisive and easy to digest manner. As an excellent reference source, the book is particularly suited for researchers, academics, design engineers, specifiers, contractors, developers and certifying and regulatory authorities, seeking to promote sustainability within the construction sector.

Key Features

  • Provides an extensive source of valuable database information supported by an exhaustive and comprehensively organized list of globally published literature spanning 40-50 years, up to 2016, with over 400 references
  • Offers an analysis, evaluation, repackaging, and modeling of existing knowledge, encouraging more responsible use of waste materials in construction
  • Presents a wealth of knowledge for use in many sectors relating to the construction profession


An excellent reference source for researchers, academics, design engineers, specifiers, contractors, developers, and certifying and regulatory authorities seeking to promote sustainability within the construction sector.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    • 1.1. Background
    • 1.2. Sustainable Construction Materials
    • 1.3. Copper Slag
    • 1.4. Layout and Contents

    2. Methodology

    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Sourcing and Appraisal of Literature
    • 2.3. Building the Data Matrix
    • 2.4. Analysis, Evaluation and Modelling of Data
    • 2.5. Dissemination
    • 2.6. Conclusions

    3. Production and Properties of Copper Slag

    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Production of Copper
    • 3.3. Chemical Properties
    • 3.4. Physical Properties
    • 3.5. Comparison With Typical Natural Aggregates
    • 3.6. Potential Use and Applications
    • 3.7. Environmental Considerations
    • 3.8. Conclusions

    4. Use of Copper Slag as Concrete Sand

    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. General Information
    • 4.3. Fresh Concrete Properties
    • 4.4. Strength
    • 4.5. Deformation Properties
    • 4.6. Non-destructive Tests
    • 4.7. Permeation
    • 4.8. Durability
    • 4.9. High-Performance Concrete
    • 4.10. Copper Tailings
    • 4.11. Environmental Impact
    • 4.12. Case Studies
    • 4.13. Conclusions

    5. Copper Slag in Cement Manufacture and as Cementitious Material

    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Copper Slag Used in Cement Clinker Manufacture
    • 5.3. Copper Slag as Cementitious Material
    • 5.4. Conclusions

    6. Use of Copper Slag in Geotechnical Applications

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. General Information
    • 6.3. Atterberg Limits
    • 6.4. Compaction Characteristics
    • 6.5. Permeability
    • 6.6. Consolidation
    • 6.7. Shear Strength
    • 6.8. Lateral Earth Pressure and Retaining Walls
    • 6.9. Copper Tailings
    • 6.10. Environmental Impact
    • 6.11. Case Studies
    • 6.12. Standards and Specifications
    • 6.13. Conclusions

    7. Use of Copper Slag in Road Pavement Applications

    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. General Information
    • 7.3. Unbound Applications
    • 7.4. Hydraulically Bound Applications
    • 7.5. Bituminous Bound Applications
    • 7.6. Copper Tailings
    • 7.7. Environmental Impact
    • 7.8. Case Studies
    • 7.9. Conclusions

    8. Environmental Impact, Case Studies and Standards and Specifications

    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Environmental Impact
    • 8.3. Case Studies
    • 8.4. Standards and Specifications
    • 8.5. Conclusions

    9. Epilogue

Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: October 6, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081009888
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009864

About the Authors

Ravindra K. Dhir

Ravindra Kumar Dhir OBE is an honorary professor of concrete engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; adjunct professor at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, and emeritus professor of concrete technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, where he held the position of founding director of the Concrete Technology Unit (1988-2008) and developed it into an internationally acknowledged Centre of Excellence. His approach to research is visionary and creative, and by working closely with industry, he ensured a meaningful dissemination of his research into practice. He won many awards and honours,including the Order of the British Empire for services to concrete technology from the Queen (1998), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry for innovative partnership with

industry (1989 and 1990 consecutively) and honorary fellowships from the Institute of Concrete Technology, United Kingdom; Indian Concrete Institute. He served on numerous technical committees, including as president of the Concrete Society (2009-2010) and on the editorial board of the Magazine of Concrete Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Concrete Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK

Jorge de Brito

Jorge de Brito is a full professor of civil engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of

Lisbon. His main research topic is sustainable construction, particularly on the use of recycled aggregates in concrete and mortars. He has participated in 20 competitively financed research projects (four as the principal investigator) and supervised 20 PhD and 150 MSc theses. He is the author of 3 previous books, 20 book chapters, 250 journal and 450 conference papers. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Building Engineering, an associate editor of the European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, a member of the editorial boards of 15 other international journals and a member of the CIB, FIB, RILEM, IABMAS and IABSE organisations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon, Portugal

Raman Mangabhai

Raman Mangabhai is director of Mangabhai Consulting and vice president of the Institute of Concrete Technology. He graduated in applied chemistry from Salford

University in 1978. He has worked in various positions at Salford University, King’s College London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Kvaerner Technology,

Cementitious Foundations Skanska and Flexcrete Technologies, dealing with polymer modified cements, cementitious materials, grouts, permeability of concrete and instrumentations. He was Hon Sec of the SCI Construction Materials Group and an active member of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mangabhai Consulting, UK

Chao Qun Lye

Chao Qun Lye is a graduate from the National University of Singapore and previously an assistant concrete quality control manager, for ready-mix concrete, with the G&W Group in Singapore. He is currently a PhD doctoral researcher at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, working in the area of sustainable construction materials. He holds a strong interest in sustainability and innovation, applying it to the use of cement additions such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag and the use of recycled and secondary materials in concrete, geotechnics and road pavements.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Birmingham, UK

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