Sustainable Construction Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081009857

Sustainable Construction Materials

1st Edition

Recycled Aggregates

Authors: Ravindra K. Dhir OBE
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009857
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st January 2019
Page Count: 550
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Table of Contents


1 Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Scope and Objectives

1.3 Outline of the Review


2 Methodology

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Identification and Sourcing of Literature

2.3 Initial Appraisal

2.3.1 Rate of Publications

2.3.2 Literature by countries

2.3.3 Key Researchers

2.3.4 Journals and Conferences

2.3.5 Institutions

2.4 Sorting Literature

2.5 Case Studies and Standards

2.6 Analysis and Evaluation of Data

2.6.1 Analysis of the Literature by Materials

2.6.2 Analysis of the Literature by Application

2.6.3 Repackaging and Modelling of Data

2.7 Writing of Draft Review

2.8 Finalising the Review

2.9 Concluding Remarks


3 Availability of Recycled Aggregates

3.1 Sources

3.2 Barriers to Reuse and Recycling

3.3 Fiscal Incentives

3.4 Benefits of the Reclamation and Recycling Industries

3.5 Statistics for Europe

3.6 Concluding Remarks


4 Processing of Recycled Aggregates

4.1 Deconstruction

4.2 Methods and Equipment for Production and Collection

4.3 Recycling Plants

4.3.1 Recycling Procedure

4.3.2 Crushers

4.3.3 Sorting and Contamination Removal

4.4 Alternative Contamination Removal Methods

4.5 Storage of CDW Before and After Processing

4.6 Concluding Remarks


5 Aggregates Properties and Composition

5.1 Classification

5.1.1 Impurities

5.2 Chemical Composition

5.2.1 Sulphate Content

5.2.2 Chloride Content

5.2.3 Alkali content

5.3 Size and Shape

5.3.1 Size

5.3.2 Shape

5.4 Density

5.4.1 Processing

5.4.2 Amount of Old Cement Paste Adhered to the Aggregates

5.4.3 Strength of the Source Material

5.4.4 Size

5.5 Water Absorption

5.5.1 Processing

5.5.2 Amount of Old Cement Paste Adhered to the Aggregates

5.5.3 Strength of the Source Materials

5.5.4 Size

5.5.5 Porosity of Aggregates

5.6 Mechanical Properties

5.6.1 Processing

5.6.2Amount of Old Cement Paste Adhered to the Aggregates

5.6.3Strength of the Source Materials

5.7 Standards and Specifications

5.7.1 Recycled Aggregates Classification

5.7.2 Recycled Aggregate Requirements

5.8 Performance Relative to Natural Aggregates

5.9 Practical Relevance

5.9.1 Proposed Methodology for the Use of RA

5.9.2 Required Research


6 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Unbound Applications

6.1 Compaction

6.2 Shear Strength

6.2.1 Maximum Deviator Stress

6.2.2 California Bearing Ratio

6.3 Stiffness and Stability

6.3.1 Resilient Modulus

6.3.2 Resistance to Permanent Deformation

6.4 Field Performance Monitoring

6.4.1 International Roughness Index

6.4.2 Deflection

6.5 Freeze-Thaw Resistance

6.6 Soundness of Aggregate Exposed to Sulphate

6.7 Permeability

6.8 Concluding Remarks


7 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Hydraulically Bound Applications

7.1 Compaction

7.2 Workability

7.3 Strength

7.3.1 Unconfined Compressive Strength

7.3.2 Tensile Strength

7.3.3 Modulus of Elasticity

7.3.4 Resilient Modulus

7.4 International Roughness Index

7.5 Deflection

7.6 Frost Susceptibility

7.7 Water Sensitivity

7.8 Concluding Remarks


8 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Bitumen Bound Applications

8.1 Compaction

8.1.1 Stability and Flow

8.1.2 Bulk density

8.1.3 Void Content

8.1.4 Optimum Binder Content

8.2 Tensile Strength

8.3 Stiffness

8.4 Resistance to Abrasion

8.5 Resistance to Permanent Deformations

8.6 Fatigue

8.7 Water Sensitivity

8.8 Field Performance Testing

8.9 Concluding Remarks


9 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Mortar

9.1 Fresh Mortar

9.1.1 Consistency

9.1.2 Rheological Characterization of Fresh Mortar Mixes

9.1.3 Fresh Density

9.1.4 Air Content

9.1.5 Water Retentivity

9.1.6 Concluding Remarks

9.2 Strength

9.2.1 Compressive Strength

9.2.2 Flexural Strength

9.2.3 Compressive and Shear Strength of Masonry Panels

9.2.4 Modulus of Elasticity

9.2.5 Drying Shrinkage

9.2.6 Susceptibility to Cracking

9.2.7 Adhesive and Bond Strength

9.2.8 Non-Destructive Testing of Recycled Aggregate Mortar

9.2.9 Concluding Remarks

9.3 Durability Performance

9.3.1 Absorption, Permeability and Diffusion

9.3.2 Hardened Density

9.3.3 Water Vapour Permeability

9.3.4 Freeze-Thaw Resistance

9.3.5 Efflorescence

9.3.6 Resistance to Sulphate Attack

9.3.7 Concluding Remarks


10 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Concrete

10.1 Fresh Concrete

10.1.1 Workability

10.1.2 Stability

10.1.3 Density

10.1.4 Air Content

10.2 Strength

10.2.1 Compressive Strength

10.2.2 Flexural and Tensile Strength

10.2.3 Modulus of Elasticity

10.2.4 Creep

10.2.5 Shrinkage

10.2.6 Impact Loading

10.2.7 Resistance to High Temperatures

10.2.8 Non-Destructive Testing of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

10.2.9 Ductility

10.2.10 Prestressed Beams made With Recycled Aggregate Concrete

10.3 Durability Performance

10.3.1 Absorption, Permeability and Diffusion

10.3.2 Carbonation

10.3.3 Chloride Ion Penetration

10.3.4 Freeze-Thaw Resistance

10.3.5 Internal and External Chemical Attack

10.3.6 Abrasion Resistance

10.4 Standards and Specifications


11 Potential for Recycled Aggregate Market

11.1 Environmental Impact

11.1.1 Introduction

11.1.2 Impacts

11.1.3 Life-Cycle Assessment

11.2 Guidance and Recommendations

11.2.1 Guidance on Construction and Demolition Site Management

11.2.2 Processes Commonly Found at Construction and Demolition Sites

11.2.3 The Choice between the Use of Stationary or Mobile Recycling Plants

11.2.4 How to Minimize Environmental Impact

11.2.5 Certification of Recycled Aggregates

11.2.6 Recommendations for Further Action

11.3 Case Studies

11.3.1 Unbound Applications

11.3.2 Hydraulically Bound Applications

11.3.3 Bitumen Bound Applications

11.3.4 Mortar Applications

11.3.5 Concrete Applications

11.4 Concluding Remarks


12 Final Conclusions and Recommendation for Further Research

12.1 Final Conclusions

12.1.1 Recycled Aggregates: Their Production and Impacts

12.1.2 Recycled Aggregates for Production of Unbound Materials

12.1.3 Recycled Aggregates for Production of Hydraulically Bound Materials

12.1.4 Recycled Aggregates for Production of Bituminous Materials

12.1.5 Recycled Aggregates in Mortar Production

12.1.6 Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Production

12.1.7 Recycled Aggregates’ Potential in Future Constructions

12.2 Recommendations for Further Research

12.2.1 Unbound Applications

12.2.2 Hydraulically Bound Materials

12.2.3 Bituminous Mixtures

12.2.4 Mortar

12.2.5 Concrete

References Concerning Recycled Aggregates

Additional References

Standards and Specifications


Appendix A-1: Journals/Conferences

Appendix A-2: Institutions

Appendix A-3: Data Matrix (excerpt)

Appendix A-4: Case Studies

Appendix A-5: Standards and Specifications

Appendix A-6: Concrete Mixes (excerpt)

Appendix A-7: Repackaging and Modelling of Data

Appendix A-8: Chemical Composition

Appendix A-9: Size and Shape

Appendix A-10: Density

Appendix A-11: Water Absorption

Appendix A-12: Mechanical Properties

Appendix A-13: Workability

Appendix A-14: Stability

Appendix A-15: Flexural and Tensile Strength

Appendix A-16: Modulus of Elasticity

Appendix A-17: Creep

Appendix A-18: Shrinkage

Appendix A-19: Resistance to High Temperatures

Appendix A-20: Non-Destructive Testing of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Appendix A-21: Ductility

Appendix A-22: Absorption, Permeability and Diffusion

Appendix A-23: Carbonation

Appendix A-24: Chloride Ion Penetration

Appendix A-25: Freeze-Thaw Resistance

Appendix A-26: Internal and External Chemical Attack

Appendix A-27: Abrasion Resistance END


Sustainable Construction Materials: Recycled Aggregates focuses on the massive systematic need that is necessary to encourage the uptake of recycled and secondary materials (RSM) by the construction industry. Currently, the global use of virgin aggregates is about 30 billion tons/annum, with CO2polluter, Portland cement, at about 5 billion tons. Given the global sustainability agenda, much of the demand for these two sets of materials can be substantially reduced through the appropriate use of waste materials. Realistically, this change can only be realized and sustained through engineering ingenuity, new concepts in design, and engineers who embrace the use of recycled and secondary materials (RSM).

This book identifies and sources information from the published literature in each of the selected subject areas (totaling 5000 publications up to year 2014), making critical evaluations, analysis, synthesis and repackaging of the published data, with an emphasis on their potential for future use in construction.

Key Features

  • Provides an exhaustive and comprehensively organized list of globally-based published literature spanning 5000 references
  • Offers an analysis, evaluation, repackaging and modeling of existing knowledge that encourages more responsible use of waste materials
  • Provides a wealth of knowledge for use in many sectors relating to the construction profession, including academia, research, practice, and adoption of RSM


Major new economies such China, India, Brazil as well as developing countries. Government-level departments of construction and environment


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© Woodhead Publishing 2019
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Authors

Ravindra K. Dhir OBE Author

Ravindra Kumar Dhir OBE is an honorary professor of concrete engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; adjunct professor at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, and emeritus professor of concrete technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, where he held the position of founding director of the Concrete Technology Unit (1988-2008) and developed it into an internationally acknowledged Centre of Excellence. His approach to research is visionary and creative, and by working closely with industry, he ensured a meaningful dissemination of his research into practice. He won many awards and honours,including the Order of the British Empire for services to concrete technology from the Queen (1998), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry for innovative partnership with

industry (1989 and 1990 consecutively) and honorary fellowships from the Institute of Concrete Technology, United Kingdom; Indian Concrete Institute. He served on numerous technical committees, including as president of the Concrete Society (2009-2010) and on the editorial board of the Magazine of Concrete Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Concrete Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK