Sustainable Construction Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081009840

Sustainable Construction Materials

1st Edition

Glass Cullet

Authors: Ravindra K. Dhir OBE
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009840
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st March 2018
Page Count: 460
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Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

1.1.1 Human life and glass

1.1.2 Waste Glass Classification

1.1.3 Waste Glass Recycling Rate

1.1.4 Waste Glass Recycling

1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

1.3 OUTLINE OF REVIEW

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 IDENTIFICATION AND SOURCING OF LITERATURE

2.2.1 Rate of Publication

2.2.2 Key Researchers

2.2.3 Literature by Countries

2.2.4 Institutions

2.2.5 Published Literatures

2.2.5.1 Journals

2.2.5.2 Reports

2.2.5.3 Conferences

2.2.5.4 Others

2.3. INITIAL APPRAISAL AND SORTING

2.4 ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

2.5 REPACKAGING AND MODELING

2.6 DRAFTING AND WRITING

3. SOURCING, PROCESSING AND MARKETING

3.1. SOURCING

3.1.1 Availability and Collections

3.1.2 Guidance and Specifications

3.2 PROCESSING

3.2.1 Contamination removal

3.2.2 Technology

3.2.3 Handling and Treatment

3.2.4 Guidance and Specifications

3.3 MARKETING

3.3.1 Barriers

3.3.2 Closed-loop and open loop recycling

3.3.3 GC Markets

3.4 CONCLUSIONS

3.4.1 Sourcing

3.4.2 Processing

3.4.3 Marketing

4. USE OF GROUND GLASS CULLET AS CEMENT COMPONENT IN CONCRETE

4.1. INTRODUCTION

4.2 BASIC CHARACTERICS OF GGC AS CEMENT COMPONENT

4.2.1 Chemical Compositions

4.2.2 Fineness

4.2.3 Particle Size Distribution

4.2.4 Grinding

4.2.4.1 Grinding Process

4.2.4.2 Grindability

4.2.4.3 Grinding Time

4.2.5 Specific Gravity

4.2.6 Consistency

4.2.7 Water Requirement

4.2.8 Initial and Final Setting Time

4.2.9 Hydration

4.2.10 Rate of Heat Evolution

4.2.11 Strength Index

4.2.12 Electrical Conductivity (Pozzolanic Activity)

4.2.13 Strength Grades of Cement Composite with GGC

4.2.13.1 Effect of Replacement

4.2.13.2 Effect of Fineness

4.2.13.3 Effect of Temperature

4.2.13.4 Comparing GGC with pozzolanic cement and GGBS

4.2.13.5 Mortar Strength Studies with Unspecified Standard Tests

4.2.14 Flexural Strength

4.2.15 Influence of Washing

4.3 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES

4.3.1 Workability

4.3.2 Stability

4.3.3 Density

4.3.4 Setting of Concrete

4.3.5 Hydration Temperature

4.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

4.4.1 Compressive Strength

4.4.1.1 Effect of GGC Replacement Level

4.4.1.2 Water/Cement Ratio - Strength Relationship

4.4.1.3 Effect of Concrete Age

4.4.1.4 Effect of Fineness

4.4.1.5 Effect of GGC with recycled aggregate

4.4.1.6 Comparing with Other Pozzolans

4.4.1.7 Use of GGC in Special Concrete

4.4.2 Tensile Strength

4.4.3 Flexural Strength

4.4.4 Modulus of Elasticity

4.4.5 Creep

4.4.6 Drying Shrinkage

4.4.7 Fracture Energy

4.4.8 Impact Strength

4.4.9 Bond Strength

4.5 PERMEATION

4.5.1 Absorption

4.5.2 Capillary Absorption/ Sorptivity

4.5.3 Diffusion

4.6 DURABILITY

4.6.1 Chloride Ingression

4.6.2 Carbonation

4.6.3 Sulfate Attack

4.6.4 Acid Resistance

4.6.5 Abrasion

4.6.6 Freeze-thaw Resistance

4.6.7 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity (Ed)

4.6.8 Alkali-Silica Reaction

4.6.8.1 ASTM C1260 Test

4.6.8.2 BS Test Method

4.6.8.3 Other Test Methods

4.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS

4.7.1 Basic Characteristic of GGC as Cement Component

4.7.2 Fresh Concrete Properties

4.7.3 Hardened Concrete Properties

4.7.4 Permeation

4.7.5 Durability

5. USE OF GLASS CULLET AS SAND IN CONCRETE

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH GC SAND

5.2.1 Compressive Strength

5.2.1.1 Grading for GC and/or Reference Sands are Not Available

5.2.1.2 Grading for GC and Reference Sands are Different

5.2.1.3 Grading for GC and Reference Sands are the Same or Similar

(i) Effect of Concrete Age

(ii) Effect of Replacement Level

(iii) Effect of Water/Cement Ratio

(iv) Effect of Curing

(v) Effect of Glass Type

5.2.1.4 GC in Fly Ash Concrete or Mortar

5.2.1.5 GC in Other Pozzolanic Cement or GGBS Concrete

(i) High Performance Concrete (HPC)

(ii) Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC)

(iii) Controlled Low Strength Materials

5.2.1.6 GC in Masonry Block

5.2.1.7 GC in Paving Block

5.2.1.8 GC as Coarse Aggregate in Normal Weight Concrete

5.2.1.9 GC in lightweight concrete

5.2.1.10 GC in heavyweight concrete

5.2.1.11 Overview of GC on Concrete Strength

5.2.2 Tensile Strength

5.2.3 Flexural Strength

5.2.4 Modulus of Elasticity

5.2.5 Creep

5.2.6 Drying Shrinkage

5.2.6.1 GC Replacement Level

5.2.6.2 Use of GC with Different Cement Type

5.2.6.3 Special study on [233]

5.2.6.4 Age Effect

5.2.7 Stress-Strain Relationship

5.2.8 Fracture Energy

5.2.9 Bond Strength

5.2.10 Thermal Properties

5.2.10.1 Thermal Conductivity

5.2.10.2 Temperature Profile Development

5.3 PERMEATION

5.3.1 Pore Structure and Permeation Voids

5.3.2 Absorption

5.3.2.1 Initial Surface Absorption Test

(i) Effect of Water/Cement Ratio

(ii) Effect of GC Type

5.3.2.2 Water Absorption Test

(i) Effect of GC Replacement Level

(ii) Effect of Pozzolanic Materials

(iii) Effect of GC size

5.3.3 Permeability

5.3.4 Sorption

5.3.5 Diffusion

5.4 DURABILITY

5.4.1 Chloride Ingression

5.4.2 Carbonation

5.4.3 Sulfate attack

5.4.4 Freeze-thaw attack

5.4.5 Acid resistance

5.4.6 Abrasion

5.4.7 Skid Resistance

5.4.8 Alkali-Silica Reaction

(i) Effect of GC Particle Size

(ii) Effect of GC Replacement Level

(iii) Effect of Container GC Colour

(iv) Effect of GC Type

(v) Effect of Pozzolans

(vi) Effect of lithium compounds

6. USE OF GLASS CULLET AS FILLER IN CONCRETE

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 EFFECT OF GLASS FILLER ON CEMENT FRESH PROPERTIES

6.2.1. Initial Setting Time

6.2.2 Soundness

6.2.3 Workability

6.2.4 Pozzolanic Test

6.3 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES

6.3.1 Workability

6.3.1.1 Effect on Mortar

6.3.1.3 Effect on self-compacting concrete

6.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

6.4.1 Compressive Strength

6.4.1.1 Effect of Glass Filler as Sand Replacement

(i) Effect of Sand Replacement Level

(ii) Effect of Age

(iii) Effect of Water/Cement Ratio

6.4.1.2 Effect of Glass Filler as Filler Replacement

(i) Effect of Replacement Level on Mortar

(ii) Effect of Replacement Level on Self-Compacting Concrete

6.4.2.1 Effect as Sand Replacement

6.4.2.2 Effect as Filler Replacement

6.6 DURABILITY

6.6.1 Carbonation

6.6.2 Sulphate Resistance

6.6.3 Freeze-thaw Resistance

6.6.5.1 Effect of glass filler as sand replacement

(i) Effect of replacement level

(ii) Effect of glass type

6.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS

6.7.1 Fresh Properties

6.7.2 Engineering Properties

6.7.3 Permeation and Durability

7. GC IN GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES

7.2.1 Compaction Characteristics

7.2.2 Direct Shear Test

7.2.3 Triaxial Shear Test

7.2.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

7.2.5 Hydraulic Conductivity

7.2.5.1 Soil made with 100% GC

(i) Effect of gradings and particle size

(ii) Effect of density

(iii) Other effects

7.2.5.2 Soil made with GC and other materials

7.2.6 Consolidation Properties

7.2.7 Degradation of GC

7.2.8 Thermal Conductivity

7.2.9 Other Properties

7.3 THE USE OF GC IN OTHER GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS

7.3.1 Pozzolanic Materials for Mine Backfill

7.3.2 Lightweight Fill Materials

7.3.3 Landfill Cover

7.3.4 Topsoil

7.3.5 Beach Fill Materials

7.3.6 Drainage

7.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

7.4.1 Engineering Properties

7.4.2 Other GC in geotechnical applications

8. USE OF GC IN ROAD PAVEMENTS

8.2 GC PROPERTIES IN ROAD PAVEMENTS

8.2.1 Particle Shape

8.2.2 Particle Size Distribution

8.2.3 Abrasion Resistance

8.2.4 Other Properties

8.3 BITUMINOUS BOUND AGGGREGATE APPLICATIONS

8.3.1 Marshall Test

8.3.1.1 Marshall Stability

(i) Effect of GC at different aggregate fraction

(ii) GC as coarse and fine aggregates

(iii) GC as fine aggregate

(iv) GC as filler

8.3.1.2 Flow

(i) Effect of GC at different aggregate size fractions

(ii) GC as coarse and fine aggregates

(iii) GC as fine aggregate

(iv) GC as filler

8.3.1.3 Density

8.3.1.4 Air voids

8.3.1.5 Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA)

8.3.1.6 Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA)

8.3.1.7 Optimum Binder Content

8.3.2 Engineering Properties

8.3.2.1 Stiffness Modulus

8.3.2.2 Indirect Tensile Strength Test

8.3.2.3 Creep Stiffness

8.3.2.4 Rut Resistance

8.3.2.4 Fatigue Resistance

8.3.2.5 Stripping Resistance

(i) Effect of anti-stripping agent

(ii) Stability

(iii) Stiffness modulus

(iv) Rut Resistance

(v) Other engineering properties

8.4 UNBOUND AGGREGATE APPLICATIONS

8.4.1 Compaction

8.4.2 Shear Strength

8.4.2.1 Direct Shear Test

8.4.2.2 Triaxial Shear Test

8.4.2.3 California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

8.5 GC POWDER AS ADDITIVE IN POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDER

8.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

8.6.1 GC as Pavement Aggregates

8.6.2 GC in Asphalt Mixture

8.6.3 GC in Base, Sub-base and Embankments

9. USE OF GC IN CERAMICS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 USE OF GC IN GLASS CERAMICS

9.2.1 Physical Properties

9.2.1.1 Bulk Density

9.2.1.2 Porosity

9.2.1.3 Water Absorption

9.1.1.3 Shrinkage

9.2.2 Mechanical Properties

9.2.2.1 Flexural Strength

9.2.2.2 Compressive strength

9.2.2.3 Hardness

9.2.2.4 Other Properties

9.3 USE OF GLASS CULLET IN BRICKS

9.3.1 Physical Properties of Unfired Clay Bodies

(i) Working Moisture

(ii) Pfefferkorn Plastic Index

(iii) Weight Loss with Shrinkage

(iv) Drying Behaviour

(v) Dry Flexural Strength

(vi) Hygroscopicity

9.3.2 Deformation of Clay Bodies Before and After Firing

9.3.2.1 Drying Shrinkage

9.3.2.2 Firing Shrinkage

9.3.3 Physical Properties of Fired Clay Bodies

9.3.3.1 Apparent Porosity

9.3.3.3 Water Absorption

(i) Testing Conditions are Not Specified

(ii) Testing Conditions are Specified

9.3.4 Mechanical Properties of Fired Clay Bodies

9.3.4.1 Compressive Strength

(i) Addition from 0 to 10%

(ii) Addition from 0 to 45%

9.3.4.2 Flexural Strength

9.3.5 Other properties

9.3.6 Concluding Remarks

9.4 USE OF GLASS CULLET IN TILES

9.4.1 Physical Properties of Unfired Tiles

(i) Working Moisture

(ii) Pfefferkorn Plasticity Index

(iii) Drying Shrinkage

(iv) Weight Loss with Shrinkage

(v) Drying behavior

(vi) Hygroscopicity

(vii) Dry flexural strength

(viii) Compressability, pressing expansion and flexural strength of green tiles

9.4.2 Physical Properties of Fired Tiles

9.4.2.1 Apparent Porosity, Bulk Density and Water Absorption

(i) At constant soaking time

(ii) Effect of soaking

9.4.3 Mechanical Properties

9.4.3.1 Compressive Strength

9.4.3.2 Flexural Strength

9.4.4 Leachability of Toxic Metals

9.4.5 Other properties

9.4.6 Concluding Remarks

9.5 USE OF GLASS CULLET IN PORCELAIN

9.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

9.6.1 Use of GC in Bricks

9.6.2. Use of GC in Tiles

9.6.3 Use of GC in Porcelain

10. USE OF GLASS CULLET IN OTHER ALTERNATIVE MARKETS

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 GC IN ARTS

10.2 GC AS FILTRATION MEDIUM

10.3 GC IN FOAM GLASS AS INSULATING MATERIALS

10.3.1 Foam Glass Research Data

10.3.2 Foam Glass Practical Use

10.4 GC AS EPOXY COMPOSITE

10.5 GC AS GLASS FIBRES

10.6 GC AS BLAST ABRASIVE

10.7 GC AS PAINT FILLER

10.8 GC AS ARTIFICIAL SAND PACK

10.9 GC AS GLAZE

10.10 GC INTO ELASTOMERIC ROOF COATING PRODUCTS

10.11 OTHER APPLICATIONS

10.12 CONCLUDING REMARKS

11. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, CASE STUDIES, GUIDANCE AND SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS

11.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

11.1.1 Contribution as Cement Component

11.1.2 Contribution as Aggregate

11.1.2.1 Concrete Applications

11.1.2.2 Geotechnical Applications

11.2 CASE STUDIES

11.2.1 Use of GGC as Cement Component

11.2.2 GC as Aggregates in Concrete

11.2.3 GC in Geotechnical Applications

11.2.5 GC in Ceramics

11.3 GUIDANCE AND SPECIFICATIONS

11.3.1 GC as Cement Component

11.3.1.1 Proposed Specifications from Building Research Establish (BRE) and Concrete Technology Unit (CTU) of University of Dundee

11.3.1.1.1 Chemical Test

11.3.1.1.2 Physical and Mechanical Test

11.3.1.1.3 Production Control

11.3.1.1.4 Additional Clause of Using GGC as Cement Component

11.3.1.1.5 Concluding Remarks

11.3.2 GC as Aggregates (including Filler) in Concrete

11.3.2.1 Proposed Guidance and Specifications of the Use of GC in Concrete by Various Organizations

11.3.3 GC in Geotechnical Applications

11.3.3.1 National or State Specifications

11.3.4 Use of GC in Road Pavement Applications

11.3.4.1 National/ State Specification

11.3.4.2 Publications Related to Specifications

11.4 STANDARDS

11.4.1 GGC as Cement Component

11.4.2 GC as Filler

11.4.2.1 Concrete Applications

11.4.2.2 Bituminous Applications

11.4.3 GC as Fine Aggregate

11.4.3.1 Concrete Applications

11.4.3.2 Geotechnical and Road Pavement Applications

11.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS

11.5.1 Environmental Impacts

11.5.2 Case Studies

11.5.3 Guidance and Specifications

11.5.3.1 Cement Component

11.5.3.2 Aggregate in Concrete Applications

11.5.3.3 Aggregate in Geotechnical Applications

11.5.3.4 Aggregate in Road Pavement Applications

11.5.4 Standards

11.5.4.1 Cement Component

11.5.4.2 Filler in Concrete

11.5.4.3 Filler in Bituminous Mixtures

11.5.4.4 Sand in Concrete Applications

11.5.4.5 Sand in Geotechnical Applications (including Road Pavements)

12. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.2 CONCLUSIONS

12.2.1 GC AS CEMENT COMPONENT

12.2.2 GC as Aggregate in Concrete

12.2.3 GC as Filler in Concrete

12.2.4 GC as Aggregate in Geotechnical Applications

12.2.5 GC as Aggregate in Road Pavements Applications

12.2.6 GC as Fluxing Agent in Ceramics

12.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

12.3 Regional – Singapore

12.4 Global

12.4.1 Collection and Sourcing

12.4.2 Cement Applications

12.4.3 Concrete Applications

12.4.5 Geotechnical Applications

12.4.4 Road Pavement Applications

REFERENCE

APPENDIX - A1. STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE

APPENDIX – A2. REFERENCES TO ADDITIONAL LITERATURE

APPENDIX - A3. EXCEL OUTPUT OF INITIAL APPRAISAL


Description

Sustainable Construction Materials: Glass Cullet discusses the global use of virgin aggregates and CO2 polluter Portland cement. Given the global sustainability agenda, much of the demand for these two sets of materials can be substantially reduced through the appropriate use of waste materials, thereby conserving natural resources, energy and CO2 emissions. Realistically, this change can only be realized and sustained through engineering ingenuity and new concepts in design. Although a great deal of research has been published over the last 50 years, it remains fragmented and ineffective. This book develops a single global knowledge-base, encouraging greater use of selected waste streams.

The focus of these massive systematic reviews is to encourage the uptake of recycled secondary materials (RSM) by the construction industry and guide researchers to recognize what is already known regarding waste.

Key Features

  • Provides an extensive source of valuable database information, supported by an exhaustive list of globally-based published literature over the last 40-50 years
  • Offer an analysis, evaluation, repackaging and modeling of existing knowledge on sustainable construction practices
  • Provides a wealth of knowledge for use in many sectors relating to the construction profession

Readership

For global readership (including major new economies such China, India, Brazil) the emerging higher education boom and the desire to develop research within the areas of sustainable construction as a major priority both in the developed and developing countries. All libraries worldwide.


Details

No. of pages:
460
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2018
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
9780081009840

About the Authors

Ravindra K. Dhir OBE Author

Ravindra Kumar Dhir OBE is an honorary professor of concrete engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; adjunct professor at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, and emeritus professor of concrete technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, where he held the position of founding director of the Concrete Technology Unit (1988-2008) and developed it into an internationally acknowledged Centre of Excellence. His approach to research is visionary and creative, and by working closely with industry, he ensured a meaningful dissemination of his research into practice. He won many awards and honours,including the Order of the British Empire for services to concrete technology from the Queen (1998), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry for innovative partnership with

industry (1989 and 1990 consecutively) and honorary fellowships from the Institute of Concrete Technology, United Kingdom; Indian Concrete Institute. He served on numerous technical committees, including as president of the Concrete Society (2009-2010) and on the editorial board of the Magazine of Concrete Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Concrete Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK