Sustainable Construction Materials: Municipal Incinerated Bottom Ash - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081009970

Sustainable Construction Materials: Municipal Incinerated Bottom Ash

1st Edition

Authors: Ravindra K. Dhir OBE
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009970
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st November 2017
Page Count: 350
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Description

Currently the global use of virgin aggregates is about 30 billion tonnes/annum and that of CO2 polluter Portland cement about 5 billion tonnes. Given the global sustainability agenda, much of the demand for these two sets of materials can substantially be reduced through the appropriate use of waste materials thereby conserving natural resources, energy and CO2 emissions.

Realistically, this change can only be realized and sustained through engineering ingenuity, new concepts in design and by engineers having more confidence, which is at present lacking, in the use of these recycled and secondary materials (RSM), especially in terms of their engineering capabilities and environmental impact. Although a great deal of research has been published over the last fifty years, sadly, it has remained fragmented and ineffective. Indeed, recycled and secondary materials (RSM) continue to suffer from:

  • Poor perception and their association with waste do not help matters
  • Lack of understanding of the basics for the use of these materials in construction
  • Industry is unable to appreciate the real value of using RSM in construction

Professor R K Dhir, with his team of researchers, has been actively engaged in undertaking systematic, as opposed to narrative, reviews to develop a single global knowledge-base to encourage greater use of selected waste streams. This has involved identifying and sourcing of the worldwide published literature in selected subject areas (totaling 5000 publications up to year 2014), and making a critical evaluation, analysis, synthesis and repackaging of the published data, with an emphasis on their use in the area of construction.

The focus of these massive systematic reviews has been to encourage the uptake of RSM by the construction industry as well as guiding researchers to recognise what is already known and avoid wasting resources in reinventing the wheel; instead they should direct their efforts to furthering the knowledge-base. Arising from this systematic analysis and evaluation reviews are five uniquely assembled books which we propose for publishing as a series or five stand-alone titles. There are listed below:

1. Recycled Aggregates
2. Copper Slag/Washed Copper Slag
3. Sewage Sludge Incinerated Bottom Ash
4. Glass Cullet
5. Municipal Solid Waste Incinerated Bottom Ash

Key Features

  • Provides an extensive source of valuable data-base information, supported by an exhaustive and comprehensively organized list of published literature over the last 40-50 years, up to 2014, with 5000 references
  • Offers an analysis, evaluation, repackaging and modelling of existing knowledge, which should help to encourage better and more responsible use of waste materials
  • Provides a wealth of knowledge for use in many sectors relating to the construction profession: Academic (for teaching at u/g and p/g level). Research (within academic and industrial sectors). Practice (prestigious construction, design and specifying organisations). Adoption of RSM more widely (Certifying and standardizing authorities)

Readership

For global readership (including major new economies such China, India, Brazil) the emerging higher education boom and the desire to develop research within the areas of sustainable construction as a major priority, provided the books are marketed properly, they should appeal to a worldwide market and sell well, both in the developed and developing countries. All libraries worldwide should be convinced of the need to purchase these books. By keeping the prices at an affordable level, indeed, the challenge would be how to realize volume sales

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.3 OUTLINE OF Review

2. METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Identifying and Sourcing of Published Global Literature

2.2.1 Rate of Publication

2.2.2 Key Researchers

2.2.3 Global Status of Publications

2.2.4 Institutions Involved

2.2.5 Type of Published Literature

2.3 Initial Appraisal and Sorting

2.4 Analysis and Evaluation

3. MSW, INCINERATION, PROCESSING and MIBA MANAGEMENT

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

3.2.1 Legislation, Policies and Practices

3.2.2 Economic Analysis

3.2.3 Composition

3.3 INCINERATION

3.3.1 Incinerator Process

3.3.2 Management of Incineration Facilities

3.4 PROCESSING

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 MIBA Treatments

3.5 MIBA MANAGEMENT

3.5.1 Legislation, Standards and Practices

3.5.2 LCAs, Economics and Marketing Aspects

3.5.3 Landfilling

3.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS

4. MIBA CHARACTERISTICS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISITCS

4.2.1 Fineness and Particle Size Distribution

4.2.2 Density

4.2.3 Morphology

4.2.4 Absorption

4.3 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

4.3.1 Oxide Composition

4.3.2 Loss on Ignition (LOI)

4.3.2 Mineralogy

4.3.3 Trace Elements

4.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

5. USE OF MIBA IN CEMENT AND AS LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 USE IN CEMENT

5.2.1 As Raw Feed for Cement Clinker

5.2.2 As Cement Component

5.3 USE IN LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE

5.3.1 MIBA Lightweight Aggregate Production Process

5.3.2 Properties of Synthetic MIBA Lightweight Aggregates

5.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

6. USE OF MIBA IN MORTARS AND CONCRETE

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 USE IN MORTAR

6.2.1 MIBA as Fine Aggregate Replacement in Mortar

6.2.2 MIBA as Cement Replacement

6.2.3 MIBA in Clinker Free Mortar

6.2.4 MIBA in Controlled Low Strength (CLSM) Mortars

6.3 USE IN CONCRETE

6.3.1MIBA as Aggregate in Concrete

6.3.2 MIBA as a Cement Component in Concrete

6.3.3 MIBA in Special Concretes

6.3.4 MIBA in Concrete Masonry Blocks

6.4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

7. USE OF MIBA IN GEOTECHNICAL ANDROAD PAVEMENT APPLICATIONS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 MIBA AS UNBOUND MATERIAL

7.2.1 Grading of MIBA

7.2.2 Soil Classification

7.2.3 Organic Content

7.2.4 Compactability

7.2.5 Bearing Capacity

7.2.6 Permeability

7.2.7 Shear Strength

7.2.8 Elastic Modulus

7.2.9 Abrasion Resistance

7.2.10 Soundness

7.2.11 Freeze Thaw Resistance

7.2.12 Field Testing

7.2.13 Environmental Assessment

7.3 MIBA AS HYDRAULICALLY BOUND MATERIAL

7.3.1 Particle Size Distribution

7.3.2 Moisture Content and Dry Density

7.3.3 Compressive Strength

7.3.4 Tensile Strength

7.3.5 Deformation Properties

7.3.6 Expansion

7.3.7 Permeability

7.4 MIBA AS BITUMINOUS BOUND MATERIAL

7.4.1 Marshall Mix Design

7.4.2 Susceptibility to Moisture

7.4.3 Susceptibility to Rutting

7.4.4 Skid Resistance

7.4.5 Deformation

7.4.6 Cracking

7.4.7 Additional Literature

7.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS

8. FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF MIBA

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 CERAMICS

8.2.1 General Ceramics and the Sintering Process

8.2.2 Glass and Glass Ceramics

8.2.3 Tiles

8.2.4 Bricks

8.3 AGRICULTURE

8.4 ABSORBENT MATERIALS AND ZEOLITE PRODUCTION

8.5 GEOPOLYMERS

8.6 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

8.7 INSULATION

8.8 SOIL STABILIZATION

8.9 CONCLUDING REMARKS

9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 AGGREGATE

9.3 CEMENT

9.4 MORTAR/CONCRETE

9.5 ROAD PAVEMENTS

9.6 CERAMICS

9.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS

10. CASE STUDIES

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 MANAGEMENT

10.2.1 South Norfolk Case Study

10.2.2 Stockholm, Sweden LCA of MIBA Management Options

10.3 INCINERATION

10.3.1 Taranto, Italy: Health Risk Assessment of Incinerator Emissions

10.4 PROCESSING

10.4.1 Amsterdam, Netherlands: Pilot wet process on MIBA washing

10.4.2 North-East of Italy: Optimizing MIBA Weathering Before Disposal

10.5 CEMENT

10.5.1 Tacoma, Washington, USA: Combined Ash Used in Cement Manufacture

10.5.2 Charleston, SC, USA: Combined Ash in Cement Manufacture

10.6 AGGREGATE

10.6.1 Connecticut, USA: Lightweight Aggregate MIBA

10.6.2 Islip, NY, USA: Rolite Aggregate Produced from MIBA

10.7 MORTAR

10.7.1 Beaulieu, France: Stabilized MIBA Mortars as Fill in Mines

10.8 CONCRETE

10.8.1 Edmonton, UK: MIBA Construction Blocks from Ballast Phoenix

10.8.2 Conscience Bay, Long Island, USA: MIBA Blocks in Artificial Reef

10.8.3 Montgomery County, Ohio, USA: MIBA Blocks in Non-Load Bearing Walls

10.8.4 Keilehaven, The Netherlands: MIBA Concrete Paving Blocks

10.8.5 Dundee, UK: MIBA in Ready Mixed Concrete

10.8.6 Dundee, UK: MIBA in Precast Concrete

10.9 ROAD PAVEMENTS

10.9.1 Umea, Sweden: Full Scale Test Road with MIBA at Davamyran Landfill

10.9.2 Malmo, Sweden: MIBA as Sub-Base Material

10.9.3 Herouville, France: Leachate Evolution of MIBA used in Test Road

10.9.4 Dundee, UK: Full Scale Demonstrations on MIBA in Road Pavements

10.9.5 Houston, Texas: FHWA Project with MIBA as Base Course Material

10.9.6 Shelton, Connecticut, USA: MIBA used as Structural Fill and Aggregate

10.9.7 Laconia, NH, USA: MIBA as Aggregate in Asphalt Binder Course

10.10 GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS

10.10.1 Rotterdam, The Netherlands: MIBA as Fill Material for Wind Barrier

10.10.2 Rotterdam, The Netherlands: MIBA as Fill Material for Highway A-15

10.11 Landfill

10.11.1 Buch AG, Switzerland: Leaching at MIBA Monofill at Landfill Lostorf

10.11.2 Oahu, Hawaii, USA: CA as Cover Material at Waipahu Landfill

10.12 CONCLUSIONS

11. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 MANAGEMENTAND INCINERATION

11.3 MIBA AS RAW FEED IN CEMENT CLINKER

11.4 MIBA IN LIGHTWEIGHT/SYNTHETHIC AGGREGATE

11.5 MIBA IN CEMENT, MORTARS AND CONCRETE

11.6 MIBA IN ROAD PAVEMENTS

11.7 FURTHER APPLICATIONS

11.8 RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

Details

No. of pages:
350
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2018
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
9780081009970

About the Author

Ravindra K. Dhir OBE

Ravindra Kumar Dhir OBE is an honorary professor of concrete engineering, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom; adjunct professor at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, and emeritus professor of concrete technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, where he held the position of founding director of the Concrete Technology Unit (1988-2008) and developed it into an internationally acknowledged Centre of Excellence. His approach to research is visionary and creative, and by working closely with industry, he ensured a meaningful dissemination of his research into practice. He won many awards and honours,including the Order of the British Empire for services to concrete technology from the Queen (1998), Secretary of State for Trade and Industry for innovative partnership with

industry (1989 and 1990 consecutively) and honorary fellowships from the Institute of Concrete Technology, United Kingdom; Indian Concrete Institute. He served on numerous technical committees, including as president of the Concrete Society (2009-2010) and on the editorial board of the Magazine of Concrete Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Concrete Engineering, University of Birmingham, UK