Survival in Toxic Environments - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124060500, 9780323145442

Survival in Toxic Environments

1st Edition

Editors: M.A.Q. Khan
eBook ISBN: 9780323145442
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 576
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Description

Survival in Toxic Environments is a collection of papers presented at a symposium held in Houston, Texas, in December 1973 and organized by the American Society of Zoologists, Division of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Contributors focus on chemical pollutants, as well as the pollutants’ fate and disposition in the environment and bio-environmental effects. The specific pollutants and/or toxicants include pesticides, crude and refined oils, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrilotriacetic acid, lead, carbon monoxide, and other supposedly less ominous xenobiotics. The dispositions of these substances and their effects are examined in either ecosystems and/or organisms, or components thereof. This volume is organized into five sections encompassing 21 chapters and begins with an overview of chemicals, how they are degraded, and how they affect living organisms. The first section discusses the impact of chemical pollutants, such as DDT, on the biology of organisms. The second section explores the detoxication mechanisms of survival in toxic environments, emphasizing halogenated hydrocarbons and their fate in microbes, houseflies, and fish. The reader is then methodically introduced to the role of the mixed-function oxidase and its components in survival in toxic environments, along with the trends in pesticide research. The final section considers non-pesticidal pollutants, such as NTA (a detergent builder), lead, and carbon monoxide, and their secondary effects. This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers in fields such as chemical pharmacology, chemical pathology, biology, zoology, ecology, agricultural chemistry, and entomology.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Contributors

Preface

Introduction

Section I

Impact of Chemical Pollutants on the Biology of Organisms

The Ecosystem Approach to Toxic Chemicals in the Biosphere

Environmental Impact of Pesticides

Environmental Pollution in Relation to Estuarine Birds

Sublethal Effects of Oil, Heavy Metals, and PCBs on Marine Organisms

Section II

Detoxication Mechanisms of Survival in Toxic Environments

Introduction

Microbial Degradation of Pesticides

Detoxication of Acaricides by Animals

Detoxication of Foreign Chemicals by Invertebrates

The Disposition of Xenobiotics by Fishes

Section III

Role of Mixed-Function Oxidase and Its Components in Survival in Toxic Environments

Comparative Studies of the Cytochrome P-450 and Its Interaction with Pesticides

Mammalian Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxlases in Cell Cultures: Mechanism of Induction and Role in Carcinogenesis

Genetic Regulation and Mechanisms of P-450 Oxygenase Reaction

Genetics of Detoxication Systems in Insects

Section IV

Recent Trends in Pesticide Research

Ecological and Health Effects of the Photolysis of Insecticides

Factors Affecting Behavior of Chemicals in the Environment

Insecticide Resistance in Vertebrates

Insecticide Resistance and Its Ecological and Economic Thrust

Costs and Benefits of Pesticides: An Overview

Section V

Non-Pesticidal Pollutants

Biodegradation of Nitrilotriacetic Acid and NTA-Metal Ion Complexes: (The Chemo-Biological Life Cycle of a Detergent Builder) Ecological and Health Effects of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust

i) Introduction

ii) Ecological Effects of Lead in Auto-Exhaust

iii) Developmental Effects of Lead

iv) Cardiovascular Effects of Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Epilogue

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
576
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323145442

About the Editor

M.A.Q. Khan