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Surfactant Formulation Engineering using HLD and NAC - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128214817

Surfactant Formulation Engineering using HLD and NAC

1st Edition

Editor: Edgar Acosta
Paperback ISBN: 9780128214817
Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
Published Date: 1st December 2021
Page Count: 335
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Surfactants are molecules that contain groups that are water-loving (hydrophilic) and oil-loving (lipophilic). The central question in formulations is often which of the two portions dominate the behavior of the surfactant. For many years that question was answered in terms of the surfactant structure only. However, the modern view is that the hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of the surfactant is the result of surfactant structure and formulation conditions (nature of the oil, temperature, aqueous phase composition) as captured by a semi-empirical equation called the hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD). The HLD is a dimensionless number that indicate the approach to the point where the surfactant inverts its solubility from being water-soluble (negative HLD) to oil-soluble (positive HLD). The HLD alone is a good indicator of how the formulation could behave but it does not produce any formulation property that can be used to predict product performance. The net-average curvature (NAC) are a set of equations that take the value of HLD to predict the properties of the formulation, such as oil (and/or water) solubilization capacity, interfacial tension, phase diagrams, contact angle and others. The book will not only introduce the reader to HLD-NAC but also to the practical use of these concepts in numerous applications ranging from application in the petroleum industry, to environmental remediation, to food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications, and even nanotechnology. The last part of the book will look at the molecular origins of the empirical terms in HLD via the Integrated Free Energy Model (IFEM).

Key Features

  • Concentrates on the HLD and NAC, providing industrially-relevant examples
  • Provides the only single depository for HLD parameters
  • Balances theory and application, with insights from both academic and industrial authors
  • Includes examples relevant to a wide range of fields, with practical guides on how to go from the formulation objective(s) to an actual formulation design


Professionals in chemical, oil chemical, pharmaceutical, food formulation and other industries working with surfactant formulation and applications

Table of Contents

Section I: Hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD) fundamentals
1. The HLD-NAC in a nutshell: an introduction to the principles and uses of HLD-NAC.
2. History and evolution of the HLD
3. Surfactant mixtures and the measurement of characteristic curvature (Cc)
4. Oil mixtures and the measurement of equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN)
5. Effect of electrolytes, polymers, co-solvents and additives

Section II: Hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD) applications
6. Use of HLD in Surfactant-Enhanced Oil Recovery and Aquifer Remediation
7. Use of HLD for corrosion inhibitors and flow assurance chemicals
8. Use of HLD in Detergent formulations
9. Use of HLD in Fragrance formulation
10. High-throughput HLD phase scans for surfactant characterization and formulation.
11. HLD-guided surfactant design for enhanced oil recovery applications
12. High-throughput HLD-guided formulation design for latex and agrochemical formulations
13. HLD-guided surfactant structure-performance relationship in cold detergency applications
14. HLD-guided design of self-emulsifying drug delivery applications.
15. HLD-guided design of vegetable oil extraction technology

Section III: Net-Average Curvature (NAC) fundamentals
16. History and evolution of NAC.
17. Prediction of phase diagrams for surfactant-oil-water (SOW) and surfactant-water (SW) systems
18. Prediction of interfacial tension, rigidity, emulsion formation and stability
19. Prediction of oil-water-solid wettability

Section IV: Applications of the net-average curvature
20. HLD-NAC in practical applications
21. HLD-NAC in reservoir simulation
22. HLD-NAC alternatives in reservoir simulation
23. HLD-NAC design of hard surface cleaning systems
24. HLD-NAC design of microemulsion-templated nanoparticles
25. HLD-NAC design of microemulsion-templated nanostructured polymers
26. HLD-NAC guided design of extended surfactants for enhanced oil recovery operations

Section V: The Integrated Free Energy Model (IFEM)
27. Derivation and predictive capabilities of the Integrated Free Energy model
28. Applications of IFEM in detergent formulation development


No. of pages:
© Academic Press and AOCS Press 2021
1st December 2021
Academic Press and AOCS Press
Paperback ISBN:

About the Editor

Edgar Acosta

Edgar Acosta is a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto. He received his BSc in Chemical Engineering from the Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela) in 1996, and his MSc and PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, in 2000 and 2004, respectively. He has published 90 research articles in the area of colloids, complex fluids, and formulation engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

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