Surface Production Operations, Volume 1 - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780750678537, 9780080555072

Surface Production Operations, Volume 1

3rd Edition

Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities

Authors: Maurice Stewart Ken Arnold
eBook ISBN: 9780080555072
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678537
Paperback ISBN: 9781493303106
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 30th August 2007
Page Count: 768
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Description

The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition. This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers.

Key Features

  • New in-depth coverage of hydrocarbon characteristics, the different kinds of reservoirs, and impurities in crude
  • Practical suggestions help readers understand the art and science of handling produced liquids
  • Numerous, easy-to-read figures, charts, tables, and photos clearly explain how to design, specify, and operate oilfield surface production facilities

Readership

Petroleum engineers, plant engineers, process engineers, oilfield surface production managers, field engineers, mechanical engineers

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: THE PRODUCTION FACILITY
INTRODUCTION
MAKING THE EQUIPMENT WORK
FACILITIES TYPES
CHAPTER 2: CHOOSING A PROCESS
INTRODUCTION
CONTROLLING THE PROCESS
Operation of a Control Valve
Pressure Control
Level Control
Temperature Control
Flow Control
BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Wellhead and Manifold
Separation
INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE
STAGE SEPARATION
SELECTION OF STAGES
FIELDS WITH DIFFERENT FLOWING TUBING PRESSURE
DETERMINING SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURES
TWO-PHASE vs THREE-PHASE SEPARATORS
Process Flowsheet
Oil Treating and Storage
Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT)
Pumps
Water Treating
Compressor
Gas Dehydration
WELL TESTING
GAS LIFT
OFFSHORE PLATFORM CONSIDERATIONS
Overview
Modular Construction
Equipment Arrangement
CHAPTER 3: BASIC PRINCIPLES
INTRODUCTION
BASIC OIL-FIELD CHEMISTRY
Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
Atomic and Molecular Weight
BASIC HYDROCARBON NOMENCLATURE
Paraffin Series (CnH2n+2)
Olefin or Ethylene Series (Alkenes): (CnH2n)
Acetylenie or Alkyne Series : (CnH2n-2)
Diolefins: (CnH2n-2)
Aromatic (Benzene) Series: (CnH2n-6)
Napthene Series: (CnH2n)
PARAFFIN HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS
ACID, BASES, AND SALTS
ANALYS OF MIXTURES
PHYSICAL OF MIXTURES
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Molecular Weight and Apparent Molecular Weight
Gas Specific Gravity and Density
Non-Ideal Gas Equations of State
Reduced Properties
Liquid Density and Specific Gravity
Viscosity
GAS VISCOSITY
LIQUID VISCOSITY
OIL¡VWATER MIXTURES¡¦ VISCOSITY
PHASE BEHAVIOR
System Components
Single-Component Systems
Multicomponent Systems
Lean Gas Systems
Rich Gas Systems
Retrograde Systems
Application of Phase Envelopes
BLACK OIL RESERVOIR
Phase Diagram Characteristics
Field Characteristics
Laboratory Analysis
VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR
Phase Diagram Characteristics
Field Characteristics
Laboratory Analysis
RECTROGRADE GAS RESERVOIR
Phase Diagram Characteristics
Field Characteristics
Laboratory Analysis
WET GAS RESERVOIR
Phase Diagram Characteristics
Field Characteristics
Laboratory Analysis
DRY GAS RESERVOIR
Phase Diagram Characteristics
INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN
FLASH CALCULATIONS
CHARACTERIZING THE FLOW STREAM
Molecular Weight of Gas
Gas Flow Rate
Liquid Molecular Weight
Specific Gravity of Liquid
The Flow Stream
APPROXIMATE FLASH CALCULATIONS
OTHER PROPERTIES
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 4: TWO¡VPHASE OIL AND GAS SEPARATION
INTRODUCTION
Phase Equilibrium
Factors Affecting Separation
FUNCTIONAL SECTION OF A GAS¡VLIQUID SEPARATOR
Inlet Diverter Section
Liquid Collection Section
Gravity Settling Section
Mist Extractor Section
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Horizontal Separators
Vertical Separators
Spherical Separators
Other Configurations
CENTIFUGAL SEPARATORS
VENTURI SEPARATORS
DOUBLE¡VBARREL HORIZONTAL SEPARATORS
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR WITH A ¡§BOOT¡¨ OR ¡§WATER POT¡¨
FILTER SEPARATORS
SCRUBBERS
SLUG CATCHER
SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
VESSEL INTERNALS
Inlet Diverters
Wave Breakers
Defoaming Plates
Vortex Breaker
Stilling Well
Sand Jets and Drains
Mist Extractors
INTRODUCTION
GRAVITATIONAL AND DRAG FORCES ACTING ON A DROPLET
IMPINGEMENT-TYPE
Inertial Impaction
Direct Interception
Diffusion
BAFFLES
WIRE-MESH
MICRO-FIBER
OTHER CONFIGURATIONS
FINAL SELECTION
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
Foamy Crudes
Paraffin
Sand
Liquid Carryover
Gas Blow-by
Liquid Slugs
DESIGN THEORY
Settling
Droplet Size
Retention Time
Liquid Re-Entrainment
SEPARATOR DESIGN
Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full
Gas Capacity Constraint
LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
SLENDERNESS RATIO
Procedure for Sizing Horizontal Separators: Half-Full
Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
Vertical Separators Sizing
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
SLENDERNESS RATIO
Procedure for Sizing Vertical Separators
EXAMPLES
Example 4-1: Sizing a vertical separator (field units)
Example 4-2: Sizing a vertical separator (SI units)
Example 4-3: Sizing a horizontal separator (field units)
Example 4-4: Sizing a horizontal separator (SI units)
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE OIL AND WATER SEPARATION
INTRODUCTION
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Horizontal Separators
Free-Water Knockout
Flow Splitter
Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with Liquid ¡¨Boot¡¨
Vertical Separators
SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
VESSEL INTERNALS
Coalescing Plates
Turbulent Flow Coalescers
POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
Emulsions
DESIGN THEORY
Gas Separation
Oil/Water Settling
Water Droplet Size in Oil
Oil Droplet Size in Water
Retention Time
SEPARATOR DESIGN
Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE
SEPARATING OIL DROPLET FROM WATER PHASE
SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
SLENDERNESS RATIO
Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Horizontal Separators: Half-Full
Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
SETTLING EQUATION CONSTRAINT
Vertical Separators Sizing
GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE
RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
SLENDERNESS RATIO
Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Vertical Separators
EXAMPLES
Example 5-1: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (field units)
Example 5-2: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (SI units)
Example 5-3: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (field units)
Example 5-4: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (SI units)
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 6: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Design Temperature
Design Pressure
Maximum Allowable Stress Values
Determining Wall Thickness
Corrosion Allowance
INSPECTION PROCEDURES
ESTIMATING VESSEL WEIGHTS
SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS
Pressure Vessel Specifications
Shop Drawings
Nozzles
Vortex Breaker
Manways
Vessel Supports
Ladder and Platform
Pressure Relief Devices
Corrosion Protection
EXAMPLES
Example 6-1: Determining the weight of an FWKO vessel (field units)
REFERENCE
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 7: CRUDE OIL TREATING SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Free-Water Knockouts
Gun Barrel Tanks with Internal and External Gas Boots
Example 7-1: Determination of external water leg height
Horizontal Flow Treaters
Heaters
INDIRECT FIRED HEATERS
DIRECT FIRED HEATERS
WATER HEAT RECOVERY
HEATER SIZING
Heater-Treaters
VERTICAL HEATER-TEATERS
COALESCING MEDIA
HORIZONTAL HEATER-TREATERS
ELECTROSTATIC HEATER-TREATERS
OIL DEHYDRATORS
HEATER-TREATERS SIZING
EMULSION TREATING THEORY
Introductions
Emulsions
DIFFERENTIAL DENSITY
SIZE OF WATER DROPLETS
VISCOSITY
INTERFACIAL TENSION
PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS
WATER SALINITY
AGE OF THE EMULSION
AGITATION
Emulsifying Agents
Demulsifiers
BOTTLE TEST
FIELD TRIAL
FIELD OPTIMIZATION
CHANGING THE DEMULSIFIER
DEMULSIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING
EMULSION TREATING METHODS
General Considerations
Chemical Addition
AMOUNT OF CHEMICAL
BOTTLE TEST CONSIDERATIONS
Water Dropout Rate
Sludge
Interface
Water Turbidity
Oil Color
Centrifuge Results
CHEMICAL SELECTION
Settling Tank or ¡§Gun Barrel¡¨
Vertical Heater-Treater
Horizontal Heater-Treater
Settling Time
Coalescence
Viscosity
Heat Effect
Electrostatic Coalescers
Water Droplet Size and Retention Time
TREATER EQUIPMENT SIZING
General Considerations
Heat Input Required
Gravity Separation Considerations
Settling Equations
HORIZONTAL VESSELS
VERTICAL VESSELS
GUNBARRELS
HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS
Retention Time Equations
HORIZONTAL VESSELS
VERTICAL VESSELS
GUNBARRELS
HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS
Water Droplet Size
DESIGN PROCEDURE
General Design Procedure
Design Procedure for Vertical Heater-Treaters and Gunbarrels (Wash Tank with Internal/External Gas Boot)
Design Procedure for Horizontal Heater-Treaters
Design Procedure for Horizontal Flow Treaters
EXAMPLES
Example 7-1: Sizing a horizontal treater (field units)
Example 7-2: Sizing a horizontal treater (SI units)
Example 7-3: Sizing a vertical treater (field units)
Example 7-4: Sizing a vertical treater (SI units)
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot
Heater-Treaters
Electrostatic Heater-Treaters
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 8: OIL DESALTING
INTRODUCTION
THEORY
Process Description
Mixing
Single-Stage Desalting
Two-Stage Desalting
Multistage Desalting
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Desalters
Mixing Equipment
MANUAL GLOBE VALVES
MIXING VALVES
STATIC MIXERS
MECHANICAL MIXERS
DOWNSTREAM COALESCENCE
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Process Selection
Single-Stage Desalter Design Procedure
Two-Stage Desalter Design Procedure
EXAMPLES
Example 8-1: Single-stage desalter design example (field units)
Example 8-2: Multistage desalter design example (field units)
Example 8-3: Single-stage desalter design example (SI units)
Example 8-4: Two-stage desalter design example (SI units)
Example 8-5: Multistage desalter design example (SI units)
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISES
CHAPTER 9: PRODUCED WATER TREATING SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTIONS
DISPOSAL STANDARDS
Offshore Operations
Onshore Operations
CHARECTERISTICS OF PRODUCED WATER
Dissolved Solids
Precipitated Solids (Scales)
CALCIUM CARBONATE (CaCO3)
CALCIUM SULFATE (CaSO4)
IRON SULFIDE (FeS2)
BARIUM AND STRONTIUM SULFATE (BaSO4 AND SrSO4)
SCALE REMOVAL
CONTROLLING SCALE USING CHEMICAL INHIBITORS
Sand and Other Suspended Solids
Dissolved Gases
Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Dissolved Oil Concentrations
Dispersed Oil
Toxicants
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)
Bacteria
AEROBIC
ANAEROBIC
FACULTATIVE
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
THEORY
Gravity Separation
Coalescence
Dispersion
Floatation
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND SIZING
Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels
CONFIGURATIONS
Vertical
Horizontal
PRESSURE vs ATMOSPHERIC VESSELS
RETENTION TIME
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SKIMMER SIZING EQUATIONS
Horizontal Cylindrical Vessel: Half-Full
Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Skimmer
Vertical Cylindrical Skimmer
Coalescers
PLATE COALESCERS
PARALLEL PLATE INTERCEPTOR (PPI)
CORRUGATED PLATE INTERCEPTOR (CPI)
CROSS-FLOW DEVICES
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
SELECTION CRITERIA
COALESCER SIZING EQUATIONS
CPI SIZING
CROSS-FLOW DEVICE SIZING
Example 9-1: Determining the dispersed oil content in the effluent water from a CPI plate separator
Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators
OIL/WATER/SEDIMENT SIZING
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Skimmer/Coalescers
MATRIX TYPE
LOOSE MEDIA
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Precipitators/Coalescing Filters
Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs)
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Flotation Units
DISSOLVED GAS UNITS
DISPERSED GAS UNITS
Hydraulic Induced Units
Mechanical Induced Units
Other Configurations
SIZING DISPERSED GAS UNITS
PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Hydrocyclones
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
OPERATING PRINCIPLES
STATIC HYDROCYCLONES
Oil Drop Size
Differential Specific Gravity
Inlet Temperature
Inlet Flow Rate
DYNAMIC HYDROCYCLONES
Reject Flow
Rotational Speed
SELECTION CRITERIA AND APPLICATION GUIDELINES
SIZING AND DESIGN
Disposal Piles
DISPOSAL PILE SIZING
Skim Piles
SKIM PILE SIZING
DRAIN SYSTEM
INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN
Effluent Quality
Produced Water Flow Rate
Specific Gravity of Produced Water
Wastewater Viscosity at Flowing Temperatures
Concentration of Oil in Water to Be Treated
Specific Gravity of Oil at Flowing Temperature
Particle Size Distribution Curve for Oil Droplets in the Produced Water
Design Rainfall Rate
Flow Rate for Wash Down
Particle Size Distribution Curve for ¡§Free Oil¡¨ Droplets in Deck Drainage
Concentration of Soluble Oil at Discharge Conditions
INFLUENT WATER QUALITY
Produced Water
Soluble Water
Deck Drainage
EQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCEDURE
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION
Skim Tank
SP Pack
CPI Separator
Cross-Flow Device
Flotation Cell
Disposal Pile
Example 9-2: Design the produced water treating
system for the data given
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISE
CHAPTER 10: WATER INJECTION
INTRODUCTION
SOLID REMOVAL THEORY
Removal of Suspended Solids from Water
Gravity Settling
Flotation Units
Filtration
INERTIAL IMPACTION
DIFFUSIONAL INTERCEPTION
DIRECT INTERCEPTION
FILTER TYPES
Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media
Fixed-Pore Structure Media
Surface Media
Summary of Filter Types
REMOVAL RATINGS
Nominal Rating
Absolute Rating
Beta (ƒÒ) Rating
CHOOSING THE PROPER FILTER
Nature of Fluids
Flow Rate
Temperature
Pressure Drop
Surface Area
Void Volume
Degree of Filtration
Prefiltration
Coagulants and Flocculation
GAS REMOVAL THEORY
Oxygen Scavengers
Gas Stripping¡XO2
Gas Stripping¡XH2S
Vacuum De-aeration
Other Options
OXYGEN AND/OR CHLORINE OXIDATION
SULFUR OXIDATION IN BACTERIA
MEASURING WATER COMPATIBILITY
SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Gravity Settling Tanks
Horizontal Cylindrical Gravity Settlers
Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Gravity Settlers
Vertical Cylindrical Gravity Settlers
Plate Coalescers
Hydrocyclones
Centrifuges
Flotation Units
Disposable Cartridge Filters
Backwashable Cartridge Filters
Granular Media Filters
Diatomateous Earth Filters
Chemical Scavenging Equipment
GAS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Gas Stripping Columns
Co-Current Stripping in Pipelines
Vacuum De-aeration Columns
Effect of Other Dissolved Gases on Gas Stripping and Vacuum De-aeration
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Equipment Selection
Equipment Specifications
EXAMPLES
Example 10-1: Chemical scavenging
Example 10-2: Gas stripping
Example 10-3: Vacuum de-aeration
Example 10-4: Vacuum de-aeration with nitrogen present
Example 10-5: Water injection system
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11: CRUDE STABILIZATION
INTRODUCTION
THEORY OF CRUDE STABILIZATION
General
Phase Equilibrium
Flash Calculation
Dew Point
Bubble Point
Multistage Separation
INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE
STAGE SEPARATION
SELECTION OF STAGE
Crude Oil Treaters
Crude Oil Stabilize
COLD FEED STABILIZE
CRUDE STABILIZE WITH REFLUX
Key Components
Reid Vapor Pressure
Component Recovery
Column Constraints
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
Stabilizer Column
Stabilizer Reboiler
Stabilizer Bottom Product Cooler
Stabilizer Reflux Systems
Stabilizer Feed Cooler
Stabilizer Feed Heater
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Multistage Separator Design
MULTISTAGE SEPARATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE
Crude Oil Treater Design
Crude Oil Stabilizer Design
EXAMPLES
Example 11-1: Multistage separation design example (field units)
Example 11-2: Multistage separation design example (SI units)
Example 11-3: Crude stabilization design example (field units)
Example 11-4: Crude stabilization design example (SI units)
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
EXERCISE
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
APPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF KEY WATER TREATING TERMS
APPENDIX B: WATER SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
APPENDIX C: OIL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Details

No. of pages:
768
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2008
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780080555072
Hardcover ISBN:
9780750678537
Paperback ISBN:
9781493303106

About the Author

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company

Ken Arnold

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