Surface Production Operations, Volume 1 - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780750678537, 9780080555072

Surface Production Operations, Volume 1

3rd Edition

Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities

Authors: Maurice Stewart Ken Arnold
eBook ISBN: 9780080555072
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678537
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 30th August 2007
Page Count: 768
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
95.00
118.00
14600.00
155.00
143.00
Unavailable
File Compatibility per Device

PDF, EPUB, VSB (Vital Source):
PC, Apple Mac, iPhone, iPad, Android mobile devices.

Mobi:
Amazon Kindle eReader.

Institutional Access


Description

The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition. This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers.

Key Features

· New in-depth coverage of hydrocarbon characteristics, the different kinds of reservoirs, and impurities in crude. · Practical suggestions help readers understand the art and science of handling produced liquids. · Numerous, easy-to-read figures, charts, tables, and photos clearly explain how to design, specify, and operate oilfield surface production facilities.

Readership

petroleum engineers, plant engineers, process engineers, oilfield surface production managers, field engineers, mechanical engineers

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: THE PRODUCTION FACILITY INTRODUCTION MAKING THE EQUIPMENT WORK FACILITIES TYPES CHAPTER 2: CHOOSING A PROCESS INTRODUCTION CONTROLLING THE PROCESS Operation of a Control Valve Pressure Control Level Control Temperature Control Flow Control BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Wellhead and Manifold Separation INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE STAGE SEPARATION SELECTION OF STAGES FIELDS WITH DIFFERENT FLOWING TUBING PRESSURE DETERMINING SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURES TWO-PHASE vs THREE-PHASE SEPARATORS Process Flowsheet Oil Treating and Storage Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) Pumps Water Treating Compressor Gas Dehydration WELL TESTING GAS LIFT OFFSHORE PLATFORM CONSIDERATIONS Overview Modular Construction Equipment Arrangement CHAPTER 3: BASIC PRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION BASIC OIL-FIELD CHEMISTRY Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Atomic and Molecular Weight BASIC HYDROCARBON NOMENCLATURE Paraffin Series (CnH2n+2) Olefin or Ethylene Series (Alkenes): (CnH2n) Acetylenie or Alkyne Series : (CnH2n-2) Diolefins: (CnH2n-2) Aromatic (Benzene) Series: (CnH2n-6) Napthene Series: (CnH2n) PARAFFIN HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS ACID, BASES, AND SALTS ANALYS OF MIXTURES PHYSICAL OF MIXTURES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Molecular Weight and Apparent Molecular Weight Gas Specific Gravity and Density Non-Ideal Gas Equations of State Reduced Properties Liquid Density and Specific Gravity Viscosity GAS VISCOSITY LIQUID VISCOSITY OIL¡VWATER MIXTURES¡¦ VISCOSITY PHASE BEHAVIOR System Components Single-Component Systems Multicomponent Systems Lean Gas Systems Rich Gas Systems Retrograde Systems Application of Phase Envelopes BLACK OIL RESERVOIR Phase Diagram Characteristics Field Characteristics Laboratory Analysis VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR Phase Diagram Characteristics Field Characteristics Laboratory Analysis RECTROGRADE GAS RESERVOIR Phase Diagram Characteristics Field Characteristics Laboratory Analysis WET GAS RESERVOIR Phase Diagram Characteristics Field Characteristics Laboratory Analysis DRY GAS RESERVOIR Phase Diagram Characteristics INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN FLASH CALCULATIONS CHARACTERIZING THE FLOW STREAM Molecular Weight of Gas Gas Flow Rate Liquid Molecular Weight Specific Gravity of Liquid The Flow Stream APPROXIMATE FLASH CALCULATIONS OTHER PROPERTIES NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 4: TWO¡VPHASE OIL AND GAS SEPARATION INTRODUCTION Phase Equilibrium Factors Affecting Separation FUNCTIONAL SECTION OF A GAS¡VLIQUID SEPARATOR Inlet Diverter Section Liquid Collection Section Gravity Settling Section Mist Extractor Section EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Horizontal Separators Vertical Separators Spherical Separators Other Configurations CENTIFUGAL SEPARATORS VENTURI SEPARATORS DOUBLE¡VBARREL HORIZONTAL SEPARATORS HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR WITH A ¡§BOOT¡¨ OR ¡§WATER POT¡¨ FILTER SEPARATORS SCRUBBERS SLUG CATCHER SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS VESSEL INTERNALS Inlet Diverters Wave Breakers Defoaming Plates Vortex Breaker Stilling Well Sand Jets and Drains Mist Extractors INTRODUCTION GRAVITATIONAL AND DRAG FORCES ACTING ON A DROPLET IMPINGEMENT-TYPE Inertial Impaction Direct Interception Diffusion BAFFLES WIRE-MESH MICRO-FIBER OTHER CONFIGURATIONS FINAL SELECTION POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS Foamy Crudes Paraffin Sand Liquid Carryover Gas Blow-by Liquid Slugs DESIGN THEORY Settling Droplet Size Retention Time Liquid Re-Entrainment SEPARATOR DESIGN Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full Gas Capacity Constraint LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH SLENDERNESS RATIO Procedure for Sizing Horizontal Separators: Half-Full Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT Vertical Separators Sizing GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH SLENDERNESS RATIO Procedure for Sizing Vertical Separators EXAMPLES Example 4-1: Sizing a vertical separator (field units) Example 4-2: Sizing a vertical separator (SI units) Example 4-3: Sizing a horizontal separator (field units) Example 4-4: Sizing a horizontal separator (SI units) NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE OIL AND WATER SEPARATION INTRODUCTION EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Horizontal Separators Free-Water Knockout Flow Splitter Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with Liquid ¡¨Boot¡¨ Vertical Separators SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS VESSEL INTERNALS Coalescing Plates Turbulent Flow Coalescers POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS Emulsions DESIGN THEORY Gas Separation Oil/Water Settling Water Droplet Size in Oil Oil Droplet Size in Water Retention Time SEPARATOR DESIGN Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE SEPARATING OIL DROPLET FROM WATER PHASE SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH SLENDERNESS RATIO Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Horizontal Separators: Half-Full Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT SETTLING EQUATION CONSTRAINT Vertical Separators Sizing GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH SLENDERNESS RATIO Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Vertical Separators EXAMPLES Example 5-1: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (field units) Example 5-2: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (SI units) Example 5-3: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (field units) Example 5-4: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (SI units) NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 6: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS INTRODUCTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Design Temperature Design Pressure Maximum Allowable Stress Values Determining Wall Thickness Corrosion Allowance INSPECTION PROCEDURES ESTIMATING VESSEL WEIGHTS SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure Vessel Specifications Shop Drawings Nozzles Vortex Breaker Manways Vessel Supports Ladder and Platform Pressure Relief Devices Corrosion Protection EXAMPLES Example 6-1: Determining the weight of an FWKO vessel (field units) REFERENCE REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 7: CRUDE OIL TREATING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Free-Water Knockouts Gun Barrel Tanks with Internal and External Gas Boots Example 7-1: Determination of external water leg height Horizontal Flow Treaters Heaters INDIRECT FIRED HEATERS DIRECT FIRED HEATERS WATER HEAT RECOVERY HEATER SIZING Heater-Treaters VERTICAL HEATER-TEATERS COALESCING MEDIA HORIZONTAL HEATER-TREATERS ELECTROSTATIC HEATER-TREATERS OIL DEHYDRATORS HEATER-TREATERS SIZING EMULSION TREATING THEORY Introductions Emulsions DIFFERENTIAL DENSITY SIZE OF WATER DROPLETS VISCOSITY INTERFACIAL TENSION PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS WATER SALINITY AGE OF THE EMULSION AGITATION Emulsifying Agents Demulsifiers BOTTLE TEST FIELD TRIAL FIELD OPTIMIZATION CHANGING THE DEMULSIFIER DEMULSIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING EMULSION TREATING METHODS General Considerations Chemical Addition AMOUNT OF CHEMICAL BOTTLE TEST CONSIDERATIONS Water Dropout Rate Sludge Interface Water Turbidity Oil Color Centrifuge Results CHEMICAL SELECTION Settling Tank or ¡§Gun Barrel¡¨ Vertical Heater-Treater Horizontal Heater-Treater Settling Time Coalescence Viscosity Heat Effect Electrostatic Coalescers Water Droplet Size and Retention Time TREATER EQUIPMENT SIZING General Considerations Heat Input Required Gravity Separation Considerations Settling Equations HORIZONTAL VESSELS VERTICAL VESSELS GUNBARRELS HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS Retention Time Equations HORIZONTAL VESSELS VERTICAL VESSELS GUNBARRELS HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS Water Droplet Size DESIGN PROCEDURE General Design Procedure Design Procedure for Vertical Heater-Treaters and Gunbarrels (Wash Tank with Internal/External Gas Boot) Design Procedure for Horizontal Heater-Treaters Design Procedure for Horizontal Flow Treaters EXAMPLES Example 7-1: Sizing a horizontal treater (field units) Example 7-2: Sizing a horizontal treater (SI units) Example 7-3: Sizing a vertical treater (field units) Example 7-4: Sizing a vertical treater (SI units) PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot Heater-Treaters Electrostatic Heater-Treaters NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 8: OIL DESALTING INTRODUCTION THEORY Process Description Mixing Single-Stage Desalting Two-Stage Desalting Multistage Desalting EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Desalters Mixing Equipment MANUAL GLOBE VALVES MIXING VALVES STATIC MIXERS MECHANICAL MIXERS DOWNSTREAM COALESCENCE DESIGN PROCEDURE Process Selection Single-Stage Desalter Design Procedure Two-Stage Desalter Design Procedure EXAMPLES Example 8-1: Single-stage desalter design example (field units) Example 8-2: Multistage desalter design example (field units) Example 8-3: Single-stage desalter design example (SI units) Example 8-4: Two-stage desalter design example (SI units) Example 8-5: Multistage desalter design example (SI units) NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISES CHAPTER 9: PRODUCED WATER TREATING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTIONS DISPOSAL STANDARDS Offshore Operations Onshore Operations CHARECTERISTICS OF PRODUCED WATER Dissolved Solids Precipitated Solids (Scales) CALCIUM CARBONATE (CaCO3) CALCIUM SULFATE (CaSO4) IRON SULFIDE (FeS2) BARIUM AND STRONTIUM SULFATE (BaSO4 AND SrSO4) SCALE REMOVAL CONTROLLING SCALE USING CHEMICAL INHIBITORS Sand and Other Suspended Solids Dissolved Gases Oil-in-Water Emulsions Dissolved Oil Concentrations Dispersed Oil Toxicants Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) Bacteria AEROBIC ANAEROBIC FACULTATIVE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION THEORY Gravity Separation Coalescence Dispersion Floatation EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND SIZING Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels CONFIGURATIONS Vertical Horizontal PRESSURE vs ATMOSPHERIC VESSELS RETENTION TIME PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS SKIMMER SIZING EQUATIONS Horizontal Cylindrical Vessel: Half-Full Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Skimmer Vertical Cylindrical Skimmer Coalescers PLATE COALESCERS PARALLEL PLATE INTERCEPTOR (PPI) CORRUGATED PLATE INTERCEPTOR (CPI) CROSS-FLOW DEVICES PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS SELECTION CRITERIA COALESCER SIZING EQUATIONS CPI SIZING CROSS-FLOW DEVICE SIZING Example 9-1: Determining the dispersed oil content in the effluent water from a CPI plate separator Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators OIL/WATER/SEDIMENT SIZING PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS Skimmer/Coalescers MATRIX TYPE LOOSE MEDIA PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS Precipitators/Coalescing Filters Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs) PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS Flotation Units DISSOLVED GAS UNITS DISPERSED GAS UNITS Hydraulic Induced Units Mechanical Induced Units Other Configurations SIZING DISPERSED GAS UNITS PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS Hydrocyclones GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OPERATING PRINCIPLES STATIC HYDROCYCLONES Oil Drop Size Differential Specific Gravity Inlet Temperature Inlet Flow Rate DYNAMIC HYDROCYCLONES Reject Flow Rotational Speed SELECTION CRITERIA AND APPLICATION GUIDELINES SIZING AND DESIGN Disposal Piles DISPOSAL PILE SIZING Skim Piles SKIM PILE SIZING DRAIN SYSTEM INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN Effluent Quality Produced Water Flow Rate Specific Gravity of Produced Water Wastewater Viscosity at Flowing Temperatures Concentration of Oil in Water to Be Treated Specific Gravity of Oil at Flowing Temperature Particle Size Distribution Curve for Oil Droplets in the Produced Water Design Rainfall Rate Flow Rate for Wash Down Particle Size Distribution Curve for ¡§Free Oil¡¨ Droplets in Deck Drainage Concentration of Soluble Oil at Discharge Conditions INFLUENT WATER QUALITY Produced Water Soluble Water Deck Drainage EQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCEDURE EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION Skim Tank SP Pack CPI Separator Cross-Flow Device Flotation Cell Disposal Pile Example 9-2: Design the produced water treating system for the data given NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISE CHAPTER 10: WATER INJECTION INTRODUCTION SOLID REMOVAL THEORY Removal of Suspended Solids from Water Gravity Settling Flotation Units Filtration INERTIAL IMPACTION DIFFUSIONAL INTERCEPTION DIRECT INTERCEPTION FILTER TYPES Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media Fixed-Pore Structure Media Surface Media Summary of Filter Types REMOVAL RATINGS Nominal Rating Absolute Rating Beta (ƒÒ) Rating CHOOSING THE PROPER FILTER Nature of Fluids Flow Rate Temperature Pressure Drop Surface Area Void Volume Degree of Filtration Prefiltration Coagulants and Flocculation GAS REMOVAL THEORY Oxygen Scavengers Gas Stripping¡XO2 Gas Stripping¡XH2S Vacuum De-aeration Other Options OXYGEN AND/OR CHLORINE OXIDATION SULFUR OXIDATION IN BACTERIA MEASURING WATER COMPATIBILITY SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Gravity Settling Tanks Horizontal Cylindrical Gravity Settlers Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Gravity Settlers Vertical Cylindrical Gravity Settlers Plate Coalescers Hydrocyclones Centrifuges Flotation Units Disposable Cartridge Filters Backwashable Cartridge Filters Granular Media Filters Diatomateous Earth Filters Chemical Scavenging Equipment GAS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Gas Stripping Columns Co-Current Stripping in Pipelines Vacuum De-aeration Columns Effect of Other Dissolved Gases on Gas Stripping and Vacuum De-aeration DESIGN PROCEDURE Equipment Selection Equipment Specifications EXAMPLES Example 10-1: Chemical scavenging Example 10-2: Gas stripping Example 10-3: Vacuum de-aeration Example 10-4: Vacuum de-aeration with nitrogen present Example 10-5: Water injection system NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES CHAPTER 11: CRUDE STABILIZATION INTRODUCTION THEORY OF CRUDE STABILIZATION General Phase Equilibrium Flash Calculation Dew Point Bubble Point Multistage Separation INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE STAGE SEPARATION SELECTION OF STAGE Crude Oil Treaters Crude Oil Stabilize COLD FEED STABILIZE CRUDE STABILIZE WITH REFLUX Key Components Reid Vapor Pressure Component Recovery Column Constraints EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION Stabilizer Column Stabilizer Reboiler Stabilizer Bottom Product Cooler Stabilizer Reflux Systems Stabilizer Feed Cooler Stabilizer Feed Heater DESIGN PROCEDURE Multistage Separator Design MULTISTAGE SEPARATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE Crude Oil Treater Design Crude Oil Stabilizer Design EXAMPLES Example 11-1: Multistage separation design example (field units) Example 11-2: Multistage separation design example (SI units) Example 11-3: Crude stabilization design example (field units) Example 11-4: Crude stabilization design example (SI units) NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES REVIEW QUESTIONS EXERCISE GLOSSARY OF TERMS APPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF KEY WATER TREATING TERMS APPENDIX B: WATER SAMPLING TECHNIQUES APPENDIX C: OIL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Details

No. of pages:
768
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2008
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780080555072
Hardcover ISBN:
9780750678537

About the Author

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company

Ken Arnold