Surface Production Operations, Volume 1

Surface Production Operations, Volume 1

Design of Oil Handling Systems and Facilities

3rd Edition - August 30, 2007

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  • Authors: Maurice Stewart, Ken Arnold
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678537
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080555072

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Description

The latest edition of this best-selling title is updated and expanded for easier use by engineers. New to this edition is a section on the fundamentals of surface production operations taking up topics from the oilfield as originally planned by the authors in the first edition. This information is necessary and endemic to production and process engineers. Now, the book offers a truly complete picture of surface production operations, from the production stage to the process stage with applications to process and production engineers.

Key Features

  • New in-depth coverage of hydrocarbon characteristics, the different kinds of reservoirs, and impurities in crude
  • Practical suggestions help readers understand the art and science of handling produced liquids
  • Numerous, easy-to-read figures, charts, tables, and photos clearly explain how to design, specify, and operate oilfield surface production facilities

Readership

Petroleum engineers, plant engineers, process engineers, oilfield surface production managers, field engineers, mechanical engineers

Table of Contents

  • CHAPTER 1: THE PRODUCTION FACILITY
    INTRODUCTION
    MAKING THE EQUIPMENT WORK
    FACILITIES TYPES
    CHAPTER 2: CHOOSING A PROCESS
    INTRODUCTION
    CONTROLLING THE PROCESS
    Operation of a Control Valve
    Pressure Control
    Level Control
    Temperature Control
    Flow Control
    BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
    Wellhead and Manifold
    Separation
    INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE
    STAGE SEPARATION
    SELECTION OF STAGES
    FIELDS WITH DIFFERENT FLOWING TUBING PRESSURE
    DETERMINING SEPARATOR OPERATING PRESSURES
    TWO-PHASE vs THREE-PHASE SEPARATORS
    Process Flowsheet
    Oil Treating and Storage
    Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT)
    Pumps
    Water Treating
    Compressor
    Gas Dehydration
    WELL TESTING
    GAS LIFT
    OFFSHORE PLATFORM CONSIDERATIONS
    Overview
    Modular Construction
    Equipment Arrangement
    CHAPTER 3: BASIC PRINCIPLES
    INTRODUCTION
    BASIC OIL-FIELD CHEMISTRY
    Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
    Atomic and Molecular Weight
    BASIC HYDROCARBON NOMENCLATURE
    Paraffin Series (CnH2n+2)
    Olefin or Ethylene Series (Alkenes): (CnH2n)
    Acetylenie or Alkyne Series : (CnH2n-2)
    Diolefins: (CnH2n-2)
    Aromatic (Benzene) Series: (CnH2n-6)
    Napthene Series: (CnH2n)
    PARAFFIN HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS
    ACID, BASES, AND SALTS
    ANALYS OF MIXTURES
    PHYSICAL OF MIXTURES
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    Molecular Weight and Apparent Molecular Weight
    Gas Specific Gravity and Density
    Non-Ideal Gas Equations of State
    Reduced Properties
    Liquid Density and Specific Gravity
    Viscosity
    GAS VISCOSITY
    LIQUID VISCOSITY
    OIL¡VWATER MIXTURES¡¦ VISCOSITY
    PHASE BEHAVIOR
    System Components
    Single-Component Systems
    Multicomponent Systems
    Lean Gas Systems
    Rich Gas Systems
    Retrograde Systems
    Application of Phase Envelopes
    BLACK OIL RESERVOIR
    Phase Diagram Characteristics
    Field Characteristics
    Laboratory Analysis
    VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR
    Phase Diagram Characteristics
    Field Characteristics
    Laboratory Analysis
    RECTROGRADE GAS RESERVOIR
    Phase Diagram Characteristics
    Field Characteristics
    Laboratory Analysis
    WET GAS RESERVOIR
    Phase Diagram Characteristics
    Field Characteristics
    Laboratory Analysis
    DRY GAS RESERVOIR
    Phase Diagram Characteristics
    INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN
    FLASH CALCULATIONS
    CHARACTERIZING THE FLOW STREAM
    Molecular Weight of Gas
    Gas Flow Rate
    Liquid Molecular Weight
    Specific Gravity of Liquid
    The Flow Stream
    APPROXIMATE FLASH CALCULATIONS
    OTHER PROPERTIES
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 4: TWO¡VPHASE OIL AND GAS SEPARATION
    INTRODUCTION
    Phase Equilibrium
    Factors Affecting Separation
    FUNCTIONAL SECTION OF A GAS¡VLIQUID SEPARATOR
    Inlet Diverter Section
    Liquid Collection Section
    Gravity Settling Section
    Mist Extractor Section
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Horizontal Separators
    Vertical Separators
    Spherical Separators
    Other Configurations
    CENTIFUGAL SEPARATORS
    VENTURI SEPARATORS
    DOUBLE¡VBARREL HORIZONTAL SEPARATORS
    HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR WITH A ¡§BOOT¡¨ OR ¡§WATER POT¡¨
    FILTER SEPARATORS
    SCRUBBERS
    SLUG CATCHER
    SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
    VESSEL INTERNALS
    Inlet Diverters
    Wave Breakers
    Defoaming Plates
    Vortex Breaker
    Stilling Well
    Sand Jets and Drains
    Mist Extractors
    INTRODUCTION
    GRAVITATIONAL AND DRAG FORCES ACTING ON A DROPLET
    IMPINGEMENT-TYPE
    Inertial Impaction
    Direct Interception
    Diffusion
    BAFFLES
    WIRE-MESH
    MICRO-FIBER
    OTHER CONFIGURATIONS
    FINAL SELECTION
    POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
    Foamy Crudes
    Paraffin
    Sand
    Liquid Carryover
    Gas Blow-by
    Liquid Slugs
    DESIGN THEORY
    Settling
    Droplet Size
    Retention Time
    Liquid Re-Entrainment
    SEPARATOR DESIGN
    Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full
    Gas Capacity Constraint
    LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
    SLENDERNESS RATIO
    Procedure for Sizing Horizontal Separators: Half-Full
    Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full
    GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    Vertical Separators Sizing
    GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
    SLENDERNESS RATIO
    Procedure for Sizing Vertical Separators
    EXAMPLES
    Example 4-1: Sizing a vertical separator (field units)
    Example 4-2: Sizing a vertical separator (SI units)
    Example 4-3: Sizing a horizontal separator (field units)
    Example 4-4: Sizing a horizontal separator (SI units)
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE OIL AND WATER SEPARATION
    INTRODUCTION
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Horizontal Separators
    Free-Water Knockout
    Flow Splitter
    Horizontal Three-Phase Separator with Liquid ¡¨Boot¡¨
    Vertical Separators
    SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS
    VESSEL INTERNALS
    Coalescing Plates
    Turbulent Flow Coalescers
    POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS
    Emulsions
    DESIGN THEORY
    Gas Separation
    Oil/Water Settling
    Water Droplet Size in Oil
    Oil Droplet Size in Water
    Retention Time
    SEPARATOR DESIGN
    Horizontal Separators Sizing: Half-Full
    GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
    SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE
    SEPARATING OIL DROPLET FROM WATER PHASE
    SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
    SLENDERNESS RATIO
    Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Horizontal Separators: Half-Full
    Horizontal Separators Sizing Other Than Half-Full
    GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
    SETTLING EQUATION CONSTRAINT
    Vertical Separators Sizing
    GAS CAPACITY CONSTRAINT
    SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE
    RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT
    SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH
    SLENDERNESS RATIO
    Procedure for Sizing Three-Phase Vertical Separators
    EXAMPLES
    Example 5-1: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (field units)
    Example 5-2: Sizing a vertical three-phase separator (SI units)
    Example 5-3: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (field units)
    Example 5-4: Sizing a horizontal three-phase separator (SI units)
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 6: MECHANICAL DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS
    INTRODUCTION
    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    Design Temperature
    Design Pressure
    Maximum Allowable Stress Values
    Determining Wall Thickness
    Corrosion Allowance
    INSPECTION PROCEDURES
    ESTIMATING VESSEL WEIGHTS
    SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF PRESSURE VESSELS
    Pressure Vessel Specifications
    Shop Drawings
    Nozzles
    Vortex Breaker
    Manways
    Vessel Supports
    Ladder and Platform
    Pressure Relief Devices
    Corrosion Protection
    EXAMPLES
    Example 6-1: Determining the weight of an FWKO vessel (field units)
    REFERENCE
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 7: CRUDE OIL TREATING SYSTEM
    INTRODUCTION
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Free-Water Knockouts
    Gun Barrel Tanks with Internal and External Gas Boots
    Example 7-1: Determination of external water leg height
    Horizontal Flow Treaters
    Heaters
    INDIRECT FIRED HEATERS
    DIRECT FIRED HEATERS
    WATER HEAT RECOVERY
    HEATER SIZING
    Heater-Treaters
    VERTICAL HEATER-TEATERS
    COALESCING MEDIA
    HORIZONTAL HEATER-TREATERS
    ELECTROSTATIC HEATER-TREATERS
    OIL DEHYDRATORS
    HEATER-TREATERS SIZING
    EMULSION TREATING THEORY
    Introductions
    Emulsions
    DIFFERENTIAL DENSITY
    SIZE OF WATER DROPLETS
    VISCOSITY
    INTERFACIAL TENSION
    PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF EMULSIFYING AGENTS
    WATER SALINITY
    AGE OF THE EMULSION
    AGITATION
    Emulsifying Agents
    Demulsifiers
    BOTTLE TEST
    FIELD TRIAL
    FIELD OPTIMIZATION
    CHANGING THE DEMULSIFIER
    DEMULSIFIER TROUBLESHOOTING
    EMULSION TREATING METHODS
    General Considerations
    Chemical Addition
    AMOUNT OF CHEMICAL
    BOTTLE TEST CONSIDERATIONS
    Water Dropout Rate
    Sludge
    Interface
    Water Turbidity
    Oil Color
    Centrifuge Results
    CHEMICAL SELECTION
    Settling Tank or ¡§Gun Barrel¡¨
    Vertical Heater-Treater
    Horizontal Heater-Treater
    Settling Time
    Coalescence
    Viscosity
    Heat Effect
    Electrostatic Coalescers
    Water Droplet Size and Retention Time
    TREATER EQUIPMENT SIZING
    General Considerations
    Heat Input Required
    Gravity Separation Considerations
    Settling Equations
    HORIZONTAL VESSELS
    VERTICAL VESSELS
    GUNBARRELS
    HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS
    Retention Time Equations
    HORIZONTAL VESSELS
    VERTICAL VESSELS
    GUNBARRELS
    HORIZONTAL FLOW TREATERS
    Water Droplet Size
    DESIGN PROCEDURE
    General Design Procedure
    Design Procedure for Vertical Heater-Treaters and Gunbarrels (Wash Tank with Internal/External Gas Boot)
    Design Procedure for Horizontal Heater-Treaters
    Design Procedure for Horizontal Flow Treaters
    EXAMPLES
    Example 7-1: Sizing a horizontal treater (field units)
    Example 7-2: Sizing a horizontal treater (SI units)
    Example 7-3: Sizing a vertical treater (field units)
    Example 7-4: Sizing a vertical treater (SI units)
    PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    Gunbarrels with Internal/External Gas Boot
    Heater-Treaters
    Electrostatic Heater-Treaters
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 8: OIL DESALTING
    INTRODUCTION
    THEORY
    Process Description
    Mixing
    Single-Stage Desalting
    Two-Stage Desalting
    Multistage Desalting
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Desalters
    Mixing Equipment
    MANUAL GLOBE VALVES
    MIXING VALVES
    STATIC MIXERS
    MECHANICAL MIXERS
    DOWNSTREAM COALESCENCE
    DESIGN PROCEDURE
    Process Selection
    Single-Stage Desalter Design Procedure
    Two-Stage Desalter Design Procedure
    EXAMPLES
    Example 8-1: Single-stage desalter design example (field units)
    Example 8-2: Multistage desalter design example (field units)
    Example 8-3: Single-stage desalter design example (SI units)
    Example 8-4: Two-stage desalter design example (SI units)
    Example 8-5: Multistage desalter design example (SI units)
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISES
    CHAPTER 9: PRODUCED WATER TREATING SYSTEMS
    INTRODUCTIONS
    DISPOSAL STANDARDS
    Offshore Operations
    Onshore Operations
    CHARECTERISTICS OF PRODUCED WATER
    Dissolved Solids
    Precipitated Solids (Scales)
    CALCIUM CARBONATE (CaCO3)
    CALCIUM SULFATE (CaSO4)
    IRON SULFIDE (FeS2)
    BARIUM AND STRONTIUM SULFATE (BaSO4 AND SrSO4)
    SCALE REMOVAL
    CONTROLLING SCALE USING CHEMICAL INHIBITORS
    Sand and Other Suspended Solids
    Dissolved Gases
    Oil-in-Water Emulsions
    Dissolved Oil Concentrations
    Dispersed Oil
    Toxicants
    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)
    Bacteria
    AEROBIC
    ANAEROBIC
    FACULTATIVE
    SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
    THEORY
    Gravity Separation
    Coalescence
    Dispersion
    Floatation
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION AND SIZING
    Skim Tanks and Skim Vessels
    CONFIGURATIONS
    Vertical
    Horizontal
    PRESSURE vs ATMOSPHERIC VESSELS
    RETENTION TIME
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    SKIMMER SIZING EQUATIONS
    Horizontal Cylindrical Vessel: Half-Full
    Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Skimmer
    Vertical Cylindrical Skimmer
    Coalescers
    PLATE COALESCERS
    PARALLEL PLATE INTERCEPTOR (PPI)
    CORRUGATED PLATE INTERCEPTOR (CPI)
    CROSS-FLOW DEVICES
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    SELECTION CRITERIA
    COALESCER SIZING EQUATIONS
    CPI SIZING
    CROSS-FLOW DEVICE SIZING
    Example 9-1: Determining the dispersed oil content in the effluent water from a CPI plate separator
    Oil/Water/Sediment Coalescing Separators
    OIL/WATER/SEDIMENT SIZING
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    Skimmer/Coalescers
    MATRIX TYPE
    LOOSE MEDIA
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    Precipitators/Coalescing Filters
    Free-Flow Turbulent Coalescers (SP Packs)
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    Flotation Units
    DISSOLVED GAS UNITS
    DISPERSED GAS UNITS
    Hydraulic Induced Units
    Mechanical Induced Units
    Other Configurations
    SIZING DISPERSED GAS UNITS
    PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
    Hydrocyclones
    GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    OPERATING PRINCIPLES
    STATIC HYDROCYCLONES
    Oil Drop Size
    Differential Specific Gravity
    Inlet Temperature
    Inlet Flow Rate
    DYNAMIC HYDROCYCLONES
    Reject Flow
    Rotational Speed
    SELECTION CRITERIA AND APPLICATION GUIDELINES
    SIZING AND DESIGN
    Disposal Piles
    DISPOSAL PILE SIZING
    Skim Piles
    SKIM PILE SIZING
    DRAIN SYSTEM
    INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN
    Effluent Quality
    Produced Water Flow Rate
    Specific Gravity of Produced Water
    Wastewater Viscosity at Flowing Temperatures
    Concentration of Oil in Water to Be Treated
    Specific Gravity of Oil at Flowing Temperature
    Particle Size Distribution Curve for Oil Droplets in the Produced Water
    Design Rainfall Rate
    Flow Rate for Wash Down
    Particle Size Distribution Curve for ¡§Free Oil¡¨ Droplets in Deck Drainage
    Concentration of Soluble Oil at Discharge Conditions
    INFLUENT WATER QUALITY
    Produced Water
    Soluble Water
    Deck Drainage
    EQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCEDURE
    EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION
    Skim Tank
    SP Pack
    CPI Separator
    Cross-Flow Device
    Flotation Cell
    Disposal Pile
    Example 9-2: Design the produced water treating
    system for the data given
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISE
    CHAPTER 10: WATER INJECTION
    INTRODUCTION
    SOLID REMOVAL THEORY
    Removal of Suspended Solids from Water
    Gravity Settling
    Flotation Units
    Filtration
    INERTIAL IMPACTION
    DIFFUSIONAL INTERCEPTION
    DIRECT INTERCEPTION
    FILTER TYPES
    Nonfixed-Pore Structure Media
    Fixed-Pore Structure Media
    Surface Media
    Summary of Filter Types
    REMOVAL RATINGS
    Nominal Rating
    Absolute Rating
    Beta (ƒÒ) Rating
    CHOOSING THE PROPER FILTER
    Nature of Fluids
    Flow Rate
    Temperature
    Pressure Drop
    Surface Area
    Void Volume
    Degree of Filtration
    Prefiltration
    Coagulants and Flocculation
    GAS REMOVAL THEORY
    Oxygen Scavengers
    Gas Stripping¡XO2
    Gas Stripping¡XH2S
    Vacuum De-aeration
    Other Options
    OXYGEN AND/OR CHLORINE OXIDATION
    SULFUR OXIDATION IN BACTERIA
    MEASURING WATER COMPATIBILITY
    SOLIDS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Gravity Settling Tanks
    Horizontal Cylindrical Gravity Settlers
    Horizontal Rectangular Cross-Sectional Gravity Settlers
    Vertical Cylindrical Gravity Settlers
    Plate Coalescers
    Hydrocyclones
    Centrifuges
    Flotation Units
    Disposable Cartridge Filters
    Backwashable Cartridge Filters
    Granular Media Filters
    Diatomateous Earth Filters
    Chemical Scavenging Equipment
    GAS REMOVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Gas Stripping Columns
    Co-Current Stripping in Pipelines
    Vacuum De-aeration Columns
    Effect of Other Dissolved Gases on Gas Stripping and Vacuum De-aeration
    DESIGN PROCEDURE
    Equipment Selection
    Equipment Specifications
    EXAMPLES
    Example 10-1: Chemical scavenging
    Example 10-2: Gas stripping
    Example 10-3: Vacuum de-aeration
    Example 10-4: Vacuum de-aeration with nitrogen present
    Example 10-5: Water injection system
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 11: CRUDE STABILIZATION
    INTRODUCTION
    THEORY OF CRUDE STABILIZATION
    General
    Phase Equilibrium
    Flash Calculation
    Dew Point
    Bubble Point
    Multistage Separation
    INITIAL SEPARATOR PRESSURE
    STAGE SEPARATION
    SELECTION OF STAGE
    Crude Oil Treaters
    Crude Oil Stabilize
    COLD FEED STABILIZE
    CRUDE STABILIZE WITH REFLUX
    Key Components
    Reid Vapor Pressure
    Component Recovery
    Column Constraints
    EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
    Stabilizer Column
    Stabilizer Reboiler
    Stabilizer Bottom Product Cooler
    Stabilizer Reflux Systems
    Stabilizer Feed Cooler
    Stabilizer Feed Heater
    DESIGN PROCEDURE
    Multistage Separator Design
    MULTISTAGE SEPARATOR DESIGN PROCEDURE
    Crude Oil Treater Design
    Crude Oil Stabilizer Design
    EXAMPLES
    Example 11-1: Multistage separation design example (field units)
    Example 11-2: Multistage separation design example (SI units)
    Example 11-3: Crude stabilization design example (field units)
    Example 11-4: Crude stabilization design example (SI units)
    NOMENCLATURE
    REFERENCES
    REVIEW QUESTIONS
    EXERCISE
    GLOSSARY OF TERMS
    APPENDIX A: DEFINITION OF KEY WATER TREATING TERMS
    APPENDIX B: WATER SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
    APPENDIX C: OIL CONCENTRATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

Product details

  • No. of pages: 752
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2007
  • Published: August 30, 2007
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678537
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080555072

About the Authors

Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Stewart Training Company, USA

Ken Arnold

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