Surface Chemistry - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781483229379, 9781483274485

Surface Chemistry

2nd Edition

Theory and Applications

Authors: J. J. Bikerman
eBook ISBN: 9781483274485
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1958
Page Count: 512
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Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial tension in multicomponent systems.
The manuscript takes a look at solid-liquid surfaces, as well as stagnant layers at solid-liquid interfaces, heat transfer, surface roughness or electrodes, adsorption of liquids heat of wetting, and thin metal films condensed from vapor. The text also examines solid-liquid-gas and solid-liquid-liquid surfaces and electric surface phenomena.
The book is a vital source of information for readers interested in surface chemistry.

Table of Contents


I. Liquid-Gas

Surface Tension

Measurement of Surface Tension

A. The Radii of Curvature

B. Sessile Drops and Bubbles

C. Capillary Pull

D. Hanging Drops and Fibers

E. Capillary Rise

F. Liquid Jets

G. Floating Sheet

H. Drop Weight

I. Oscillating Drops

J. Ripples

K. Rupture of the Surface. "Tensiometer"

L. Maximum Bubble Pressure

Rate of Capillary Rise

Capillary Attraction

Drop Size. Spraying

Bubble Size

Bubbling Pressure and Pore Size

Surface Tension Values

Surface Tension and Temperature. Surface Tension and Other Properties

Surface Tension and Chemical Composition

Thermodynamics of Surface Tension. Surface Tension and Vapor Pressure

Electric, Magnetic, and Light Effects on Surface Tension

Surface Tension of Solutions

Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures

Unimolecular Films or Monolayers

Retardation of Evaporation by Unimolecular Films

Surface Viscosity

Drops Floating Above a Surface

Movements in a Liquid Surface

Gibbs Adsorption Equation. Chemical Equilibrium at Interfaces

The Structure of Surfaces

Foam Films and Foam Bubbles

Foam, Froth, Lather

Utilization of Foam

Foam Prevention

Liquid Aerosols, Mist, Fog

Utilization of Mists

Dissipation of Fogs


II. Liquid-Liquid

Interfacial Tension

Values of Interfacial Tension

Interfacial Tension in Multicomponent Systems

Liquid Lenses and Spreading of Liquids over Liquids

Films at Interfaces


Preparation of Emulsions

Stability of Emulsions

Inversion of Emulsions

Utilization of Emulsions

Breaking of Emulsions


III. Solid-Gas

Surface Energy of Solids

Surface Cleanness

Surface Roughness

Methods for Determining Surface Roughness

Data on Surface Roughness

Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Solid Surfaces

Adsorption of Gases and Vapors

The Adsorption Isotherm

The Adsorption Isobar

The Adsorption Isostere

Adsorption Hysteresis

The Heat of Adsorption

The Nature of the Adsorbent

The Surface Area of the Adsorbent

A. Geometrical Determination

B. Permeability Method

C. Heat Conductance Method

D. Gas Adsorption Method

E. Heat of Wetting Method

Adsorption of Gas Mixtures

The Rate of Adsorption

Migration in the Adsorption Layer

A. Rate of Crystal Growth

B. Diffusion Through a Porous Adsorbent

C. Radioactive Tracers

D. Electron Emission

Utilization of the Adsorption of Gases and Vapors

Corrosion by Gases

Dust and Smoke

Determination of Particle Size

A. Sieving

B. Air Permeability

C. Separation and Measurement of Single Particles

D. Electrostatic Determination

Utilization and Precipitation of Dust and Smoke


IV. Solid-Liquid

Interfacial Energy

Stagnant Layers at Solid-Liquid Interfaces

Heat Transfer

Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Solid Surfaces

Surface Roughness of Electrodes

Thin Metal Films Condensed from Vapor

Adsorption of Liquids. Heat of Wetting

Adsorption from Solutions

The Isotherm of Apparent Adsorption

The Temperature Coefficient of Adsorption

The Nature of the Adsorbent

The Rate of Adsorption

Adsorption on Crystal Faces

The Absolute Magnitude of Adsorption. The Surface Area of Adsorbent

A. Adsorption Method

B. Radioactive Exchange Method

C. Other Methods

The Importance of Adsorption

Utilization of Adsorption for Removing Unwanted Constituents

Utilization of Adsorption for Recovering Valuable Constituents

Corrosion by Liquids



V. Solid-Liquid-Gas. Solid-Liquid-Liquid

The Contact Angle

A. Direct Measurement

B. Computation from the Drop Size

C. Level Surface Method

Reproducibility of Contact Angle Values

The Hysteresis of the Contact Angle

Contact Angles and Surface Roughness

Numerical Values for Contact Angles

Contact Angles in Solid-Liquid-Liquid Systems

Imbibition and Wetting 3

Importance and Utilization of Wetting

Solid Particles in Liquid Surfaces

Comminution and Surface Energy


Friction and Lubrication


VI. Electric Surface Phenomena

Static Electricity

Conductance of Solid-Gas Interfaces

Prevention of Static Electricity


Electrokinetic Phenomena

Electrokinetic Measurements

The Theory of Electrokinetic Phenomena

Surface Conductance. Electroviscous Effect

Effect of the Composition of the Liquid Phase on Electrokinetic Phenomena

Effect of the Solid on Electrokinetic Phenomena

The Electric Double Layer

Mutual Repulsion of Electric Double Layers

Utilization of Electrokinetic Phenomena



The Capacity of the Double Layer

Secondary Electrocapillary Effects


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1958
Academic Press
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About the Author

J. J. Bikerman

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