Surface Chemistry

Surface Chemistry

Theory and Applications

2nd Edition - January 1, 1958

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  • Author: J. J. Bikerman
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274485

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Surface Chemistry Theory and Applications focuses on liquid-gas, liquid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-solid surfaces. The book first offers information on liquid-gas surfaces, including surface tension, measurement of surface tension, rate of capillarity rise, capillary attraction, bubble pressure and pore size, and surface tension and temperature. The text then ponders on liquid-liquid and solid-gas surfaces. Discussions focus on surface energy of solids, surface roughness and cleanness, adsorption of gases and vapors, adsorption hysteresis, interfacial tension, and interfacial tension in multicomponent systems. The manuscript takes a look at solid-liquid surfaces, as well as stagnant layers at solid-liquid interfaces, heat transfer, surface roughness or electrodes, adsorption of liquids heat of wetting, and thin metal films condensed from vapor. The text also examines solid-liquid-gas and solid-liquid-liquid surfaces and electric surface phenomena. The book is a vital source of information for readers interested in surface chemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    I. Liquid-Gas

    Surface Tension

    Measurement of Surface Tension

    A. The Radii of Curvature

    B. Sessile Drops and Bubbles

    C. Capillary Pull

    D. Hanging Drops and Fibers

    E. Capillary Rise

    F. Liquid Jets

    G. Floating Sheet

    H. Drop Weight

    I. Oscillating Drops

    J. Ripples

    K. Rupture of the Surface. "Tensiometer"

    L. Maximum Bubble Pressure

    Rate of Capillary Rise

    Capillary Attraction

    Drop Size. Spraying

    Bubble Size

    Bubbling Pressure and Pore Size

    Surface Tension Values

    Surface Tension and Temperature. Surface Tension and Other Properties

    Surface Tension and Chemical Composition

    Thermodynamics of Surface Tension. Surface Tension and Vapor Pressure

    Electric, Magnetic, and Light Effects on Surface Tension

    Surface Tension of Solutions

    Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures

    Unimolecular Films or Monolayers

    Retardation of Evaporation by Unimolecular Films

    Surface Viscosity

    Drops Floating Above a Surface

    Movements in a Liquid Surface

    Gibbs Adsorption Equation. Chemical Equilibrium at Interfaces

    The Structure of Surfaces

    Foam Films and Foam Bubbles

    Foam, Froth, Lather

    Utilization of Foam

    Foam Prevention

    Liquid Aerosols, Mist, Fog

    Utilization of Mists

    Dissipation of Fogs


    II. Liquid-Liquid

    Interfacial Tension

    Values of Interfacial Tension

    Interfacial Tension in Multicomponent Systems

    Liquid Lenses and Spreading of Liquids over Liquids

    Films at Interfaces


    Preparation of Emulsions

    Stability of Emulsions

    Inversion of Emulsions

    Utilization of Emulsions

    Breaking of Emulsions


    III. Solid-Gas

    Surface Energy of Solids

    Surface Cleanness

    Surface Roughness

    Methods for Determining Surface Roughness

    Data on Surface Roughness

    Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Solid Surfaces

    Adsorption of Gases and Vapors

    The Adsorption Isotherm

    The Adsorption Isobar

    The Adsorption Isostere

    Adsorption Hysteresis

    The Heat of Adsorption

    The Nature of the Adsorbent

    The Surface Area of the Adsorbent

    A. Geometrical Determination

    B. Permeability Method

    C. Heat Conductance Method

    D. Gas Adsorption Method

    E. Heat of Wetting Method

    Adsorption of Gas Mixtures

    The Rate of Adsorption

    Migration in the Adsorption Layer

    A. Rate of Crystal Growth

    B. Diffusion Through a Porous Adsorbent

    C. Radioactive Tracers

    D. Electron Emission

    Utilization of the Adsorption of Gases and Vapors

    Corrosion by Gases

    Dust and Smoke

    Determination of Particle Size

    A. Sieving

    B. Air Permeability

    C. Separation and Measurement of Single Particles

    D. Electrostatic Determination

    Utilization and Precipitation of Dust and Smoke


    IV. Solid-Liquid

    Interfacial Energy

    Stagnant Layers at Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    Heat Transfer

    Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Solid Surfaces

    Surface Roughness of Electrodes

    Thin Metal Films Condensed from Vapor

    Adsorption of Liquids. Heat of Wetting

    Adsorption from Solutions

    The Isotherm of Apparent Adsorption

    The Temperature Coefficient of Adsorption

    The Nature of the Adsorbent

    The Rate of Adsorption

    Adsorption on Crystal Faces

    The Absolute Magnitude of Adsorption. The Surface Area of Adsorbent

    A. Adsorption Method

    B. Radioactive Exchange Method

    C. Other Methods

    The Importance of Adsorption

    Utilization of Adsorption for Removing Unwanted Constituents

    Utilization of Adsorption for Recovering Valuable Constituents

    Corrosion by Liquids



    V. Solid-Liquid-Gas. Solid-Liquid-Liquid

    The Contact Angle

    A. Direct Measurement

    B. Computation from the Drop Size

    C. Level Surface Method

    Reproducibility of Contact Angle Values

    The Hysteresis of the Contact Angle

    Contact Angles and Surface Roughness

    Numerical Values for Contact Angles

    Contact Angles in Solid-Liquid-Liquid Systems

    Imbibition and Wetting 3

    Importance and Utilization of Wetting

    Solid Particles in Liquid Surfaces

    Comminution and Surface Energy


    Friction and Lubrication


    VI. Electric Surface Phenomena

    Static Electricity

    Conductance of Solid-Gas Interfaces

    Prevention of Static Electricity


    Electrokinetic Phenomena

    Electrokinetic Measurements

    The Theory of Electrokinetic Phenomena

    Surface Conductance. Electroviscous Effect

    Effect of the Composition of the Liquid Phase on Electrokinetic Phenomena

    Effect of the Solid on Electrokinetic Phenomena

    The Electric Double Layer

    Mutual Repulsion of Electric Double Layers

    Utilization of Electrokinetic Phenomena



    The Capacity of the Double Layer

    Secondary Electrocapillary Effects


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1958
  • Published: January 1, 1958
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274485

About the Author

J. J. Bikerman

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