Surface Active Ethylene Oxide Adducts - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080128191, 9781483186252

Surface Active Ethylene Oxide Adducts

1st Edition

Authors: N. Schönfeldt
eBook ISBN: 9781483186252
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 964
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Surface Active Ethylene Oxide Adducts covers the fundamental problems associated with the surface active ethylene oxide adduct. This book contains six chapters that consider the progress on modifications of ethylene oxide adducts.

The opening chapters examine the preparation and industrial application of ethylene oxide adducts. These chapters provide a formulation based on the starting materials and divides the ethylene oxide adducts in different classes according to the bond between the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic part of the molecule. The next chapters describe the physical, chemical, and functional properties of these adducts. These chapters also look into the biodegradability and industrial uses of ethoxylated products, with an emphasis on their applications to the mineral oil industry. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical modifications of ethylene oxide adducts, including etherification of the terminal hydroxyl group with aliphatic or cyclic, hydrophobic radicals and carboxymethylation of adducts. The final chapter focuses on the analytical methods used in the industrial control laboratory an in product analysis.

This book is intended primarily for laboratory chemists, plant chemists, and chemical engineers.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1 Ethylene Oxide

1.1 Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties

Explosive Properties

Physiological Properties


Safety Measures

1.2 Manufacturing Processes

1.2.1 Raw Material

1.2.2 Manufacture of Ethylene Oxide


Chapter 2 Production of Ethylene Oxide Adducts


2.1 Ethylene Oxide Addition

2.1.1 Reaction Mechanism

2.1.2 Distribution of Polymer Homologues

2.2 Classification of Ethylene Oxide Adducts on the Basis of Bond


2.3 Industrial Production of Adducts

2.3.1 Processes in Common Use

2.3.2 Free-Flowing Solid Products

2.3.3 Production Figures

2.4 Surface Active Ethylene Oxide Adducts Produced by the Former IG-Farbenindustrie AG

I Ester Adducts

II Aliphatic Ether Adducts

III Cyclic Ether Adducts

IV Amide Adducts

V Amine Adducts


Chapter 3 Description of Ethylene Oxide Adducts

3.1 Physical and Chemical Properties

3.1.1 Structure

3.1.2 Solubility

3.1.3 Viscosity

3.1.4 Surface Activity

3.1.5 Adsorption of Adducts by Other Substances

3.1.6 Micelle Formation

3.1.7 Effect of Electrokinetic Potential

3.1.8 Antistatic Activity

3.1.9 Other Physical Properties

3.1.10 Chemical Stability

3.2 Functional Properties

3.2.1 Wetting Power

3.2.2 Foaming Power

3.2.3 Emulsifying Power

3.2.4 Dispersing Power and Protective Colloid Action

3.2.5 Solubilization

3.2.6 Levelling Power

3.2.7 Detergency and Cleansing

3.3 Biological Properties

3.3.1 Dermatological Activity

3.3.2 Medical Effect

3.3.3 Toxicity

3.3.4 Bactericidal Effect

3.3.5 Biodegradation and Waste Water Purification

3.4 Corrosion

3.5 Comparison of the Properties of Adducts Having Varying Numbers of Etho-Groups

3.6 Pure (Homogeneous) Surface Active Alkyl- and Alkylaryl-Polyoxyethylene Glycol Ethers


Cloud Point

Surface Tension, Surface Films

Micelle Formation


Effect on Dispersion Stability

Comparison of Various Functional Properties of Pure and Technical Polyoxyethylene Derivatives


Chapter 4 Uses of Ethylene Oxide Adducts

4.1 Detergents and Cleaning Agents

4.1.1 Domestic and Industrial Laundry Detergents

4.1.2 Dishwashing Agents

4.1.3 Dry-Cleaning Detergents

4.1.4 Cleaners (Hard Surfaces)

4.1.5 Detergent Sanitizers

4.1.6 Polishes

4.2 The Pulp and Paper Industry

4.2.1 Reduction of Resin Content

4.2.2 Dispersion of Resin

4.2.3 Other Uses

4.3 The Man-Made Fibre Industry: Manufacture

4.3.1 Regenerated Natural Fibres Based on Cellulose: The Viscose Process

4.3.2 Synthetic Fibres: Manufacture

4.4 The Textile Industry

4.4.1 Wool

4.4.2 Silk

4.4.3 Cotton

4.4.4 Rayon

4.4.5 Man-Made Fibres: Processing

4.5 Pesticides

4.6 Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Preparations

4.6.1 Pharmaceutical Preparations

4.6.2 Cosmetic Preparations

4.6.3 Iodophors

4.7 Foods and Feeds

4.7.1 Foods

4.7.2 Feeds

4.8 Leather and Fur Industry

4.8.1 Leather Industry

4.8.2 The Fur Industry

4.9 The Metal Industry

4.9.1 Metal Cleaning

4.9.2 Metal Working

4.10 Paint, Varnish, and Plastics Industries

4.11 Mineral Oil Industry

4.11.1 Crude Oil Production

4.11.2 Breaking of Crude Oil Emulsions

4.11.3 Additives

4.12 Other Uses

4.12.1 Stabilization of Natural Rubber Latex

4.12.2 Self-Glazing Emulsions

4.12.3 Bitumen Emulsions and Additives

4.12.4 Photographic Emulsions

4.12.5 Silicone Emulsions

4.12.6 Emulsifiers

4.12.7 Mineral Technology

4.12.8 Mortar and Concrete Additives

4.12.9 Dispersing or Precipitating Agents for Inorganic Compounds

4.12.10 Dust Control

4.12.11 Antifoams

4.12.12 Fire Prevention

4.12.13 Antioxidants

4.12.14 Fertilizer Additives

4.12.15 Corrosion Inhibitors

4.12.16 Surface Coating for Glass

4.12.17 Antimist and De-Icing Products

4.12.19 Miscellaneous


Chapter 5 Modified Ethylene Oxide Adducts

5.1 Ether Esters

5.1.1 Ether Sulphates

5.1.2 Ether Phosphates

5.1.3 Miscellaneous Ether Esters

5.2 Etherified Adducts

5.2.1 Aliphatic Ethers of Adducts

5.2.2 Cyclic Ethers of Adducts

5.3 Carboxymethylated Adducts

5.4 Miscellaneous Terminal Groups

5.5 Quarternary Ammonium Compounds Having Etho-Groups


Chapter 6 Analysis of Ethylene Oxide Adducts

6.1 Qualitative Chemical Analysis

6.2 Quantitative Chemical Analysis

6.2.1 Gravimetric Determination of Adducts

6.2.2 Volumetric Determination of Adducts

6.2.3 Colorimetric Determination of Adducts

6.2.4 Determination of Oxyethylene Groups

6.2.5 Determination of the Hydroxyl Number

6.3 Other Methods

Cloud Point; Cloud-Point Titration

Physical Characteristics

Chromatographic Techniques

Spectroscopic Methods

Miscellaneous Methods

6.4 Microchemical Methods

6.5 Determination of Free Polyoxyethylene Glycols Present in Adducts

Salting-Out Methods

Chromatographic Techniques

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

Evaluation of Total Ethylene Oxide Content and of % OH-Groups

6.6 Determination of Adducts Present in Mixtures with Other Types of Surfactant

Chromatographic Techniques

Other Methods

6.7 Analysis of Anionic Adducts (Also in Mixtures with Other Surfactants)

6.8 Analysis of Cationic Surfactants in Mixtures with Adducts


List of Products


Author Index

Firm Index

Subject Index

Register of Patents (Arranged in Order of Countries and Numbers)


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1969
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

N. Schönfeldt