Superlattice to Nanoelectronics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080968131, 9780080968148

Superlattice to Nanoelectronics

2nd Edition

Authors: Raphael Tsu
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080968131
eBook ISBN: 9780080968148
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 22nd October 2010
Page Count: 346
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Superlattice to Nanoelectronics, Second Edition, traces the history of the development of superlattices and quantum wells from their origins in 1969. Topics discussed include the birth of the superlattice; resonant tunneling via man-made quantum well states; optical properties and Raman scattering in man-made quantum systems; dielectric function and doping of a superlattice; and quantum step and activation energy. The book also covers semiconductor atomic superlattice; Si quantum dots fabricated from annealing amorphous silicon; capacitance, dielectric constant, and doping quantum dots; porous silicon; and quantum impedance of electrons.

Key Features

  • Written by one of the founders of this field
  • Delivers over 20% new material, including new research and new technological applications
  • Provides a basic understanding of the physics involved from first principles, while adding new depth, using basic mathematics and an explanation of the background essentials


Academics, researchers and industry professionals working in nanoelectronics, materials science and electrical engineering

Table of Contents



1 Superlattice

1.1 The Birth of the Man-Made Superlattice

1.2 A Model for the Creation of Man-Made Energy Bands

1.3 Transport Properties of a Superlattice

1.4 More Rigorous Derivation of the NDC

1.5 Response of a Time-Dependent Electric Field and Bloch Oscillation

1.6 NDC from the Hopping Model and Electric Field-Induced Localization

1.7 Experiments

1.8 Type-III Superlattice (Historically Type-II Superlattice)

1.9 Physical Realization and Characterization of a Superlattice

1.10 Summary

2 Resonant Tunneling via Man-Made Quantum Well States

2.1 The Birth of Resonant Tunneling

2.2 Some Fundamentals

2.3 Conductance from the TsuEsaki Formula

2.4 Tunneling Time from the Time-Dependent Schro¨dinger Equation

2.5 Damping in Resonant Tunneling

2.6 Very Short ℓ and w for an Amorphous QW

2.7 Self-Consistent Potential Correction of DBRT

2.8 Experimental Confirmation of Resonant Tunneling

2.9 Instability in RTD

2.10 Summary

3 Optical Properties and Raman Scattering in Man-Made Quantum Systems

3.1 Optical Absorption in a Superlattice

3.2 Photoconductivity in a Superlattice

3.3 Raman Scattering in a Superlattice and QW

3.4 Summary

4 Dielectric Function and Doping of a Superlattice

4.1 Dielectric Function of a Superlattice and a Quantum Well

4.2 Doping a Superlattice

4.3 Summary

5 Quantum Step and Activation Energy

5.1 Optical Properties of Quantum Steps

5.2 Determination of Activation Energy in Quantum Wells

5.3 Summary

6 Semiconductor Atomic Superlattice (SAS)

6.1 Silicon-Based Quantum Wells

6.2 Si-Interface Adsorbed Gas (IAG) Superlattice

6.3 Amorphous Silicon/Silicon Oxide Superlattice

6.4 SiliconOxygen (SiO) Superlattice

6.5 Estimate of the Band-Edge Alignment Using Atomic States

6.6 Estimate of the Band-Edge Alignment With HOMOLUMO

6.7 Estimation of Strain from a Ball-and-Stick Model

6.8 Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence

6.9 Transport through a SiO Superlattice

6.10 A SiO Superlattice and Other Si/Ge, Si/Co, Si/C Monolayer Superlattice

6.11 Summary

7 Si Quantum Dots

7.1 Energy States of Silicon Quantum Dots

7.2 Resonant Tunneling in Silicon Quantum Dots

7.3 Slow Oscillations and Hysteresis

7.4 Avalanche Multiplication from Resonant Tunneling

7.5 Influence of Light and Repeatability under Multiple Scans

7.6 Many Body Effects in Coupled Quantum Dots

7.7 Summary

8 Capacitance, Dielectric Constant, and Doping Quantum Dots

8.1 Capacitance of Silicon Quantum Dots

8.2 Dielectric Constant of a Silicon Quantum Dot

8.3 Doping a Silicon Quantum Dot

8.4 Capacitance: Spatial Symmetry of Discrete Charge Dielectric

8.5 Summary

9 Porous Silicon

9.1 Porous Silicon: Light-Emitting Silicon

9.2 PSi: Other Applications

9.3 Summary

10 Some Novel Devices

10.1 Field Emission with Quantum Well and Nanometer Thick Multilayer Structured Cathode

10.2 Saturation Intensity of PbS QDs

10.3 Multipole Electrode Heterojunction Hybrid Structures

10.4 Some Fundamental Issues: Mainly Difficulties

10.5 Comments on Quantum Computing

10.6 Recent Activities in Superlattice

10.7 Graphene Adventure

10.8 Summary

11 Quantum Impedance of Electrons

11.1 Landauer Conductance Formula

11.2 Electron Quantum Waveguide

11.3 Wave Impedance of Electrons

11.4 Summary

12 Why Super and Why Nano?

12.1 Finite Solid, Giant Molecule, and Composite

12.2 Generalization of Superlattices into Components

12.3 QDs as Individual Components

12.4 Size Requirements

12.5 Superlattice and the World of Nano

12.6 Some New Opportunities

12.7 A Word of Caution


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About the Author

Raphael Tsu

Dr. R. Tsu started his professional career at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, 1961, working on the theory and experiments related to electron-phonon interaction in piezoelectric solids. He became a close collaborator of Leo Esaki (Nobel Laureate in 1973) at IBM T.J. Watson Research Center where he joined in 1966, working on theory and experiments of optical- and transport-properties, band structures, in solids, and material characterization. A man-made semiconductor superlattice and modulation doping were conceived jointly with Esaki, in 1969, which led to a rapid development of man-made quantum materials and quantum structures eventually evolved into the present day quantum dots. His original formulation of tunneling through multiple man-made heterojunctions is widely accepted in nearly all aspects of resonant tunneling devices reaching Tera-Hertz, thus far being the fastest device to date. The theory and experiments of man-made superlattices and resonant tunneling through a quantum well led to his outstanding contribution award from IBM Research in 1975 and later in 1985, to sharing the International New Materials Prize of the American Physical Society with Esaki and Chang. In 1979, he became the head of Materials Research at Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., in charge of the study on the formation and structure of amorphous silicon. His major contributions involve the determination of bond angle distribution from Raman scattering and optical absorption measurements and experimental determination of conductivity percolation. In 1985, he became the head of the amorphous silicon research group at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) as a principal scientist, working on amorphous Si/Ge and Si/C alloys, showing that the famous Tauc's plot may be theoretically derived without adjustable parameters. In 1975, as the recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt award, he took a year sabbatical at Max Planck Institute for Solid State Physics in

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of North Carolina, USA


"Tsu follows the development of superlattices and quantum wells from their inception in 1969. He expects readers to have working knowledge in basic mathematics such as complex variables and partial differential equations; some skill in computer programming; and intermediate to advance courses in electromagnetics, quantum mechanics, and solid-state and semiconductor physics. Starting with superlattices, he progresses through resonant tunneling with artificial quantum well states; optical properties and Raman scattering in artificial quantum systems; dielectric function and doping of a superlattice; quantum step and activation energy; semiconductor atomic superlattices; silicon quantum dots; capacitance, dielectric constant, and doping quantum dots; porous silicon; some novel devices; the quantum impedance of a electrons; and why super and why nano."--Reference and Research Book News

"This book is an update of a volume by the same name first published in 2005. It does form one of the most definitive descriptions of the physics underlying these new materials. It is also more than that, because it gives readers a lot of fresh insight to the behaviour of electrons in crystalline solids. Much of this book is ideal for assisting lecturers and tutors in putting across some of the more difficult concepts to advanced students… Overall some of the new additions make fascinating reading because Tsu relates to the reader in a very personal style…."--Contemporary Physics