Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444414038, 9780444598998

Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits, Volume 3

1st Edition

Textures and Fabrics

Authors: Author Unknown
eBook ISBN: 9780444598998
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1976
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Evolution of Ores of Sedimentary Affiliation through Geologic History; Relations to the General Tendencies in Evolution of the Crust, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Biosphere

Introduction

Ores of Sedimentary Affiliation and their Trends in Geologic History

Residual Deposits and Weathering Crusts

Deposits Associated with Fluviatile to Deltaic Clastic Sediments

Base-Metal Strata-Bound Deposits of Marine and Marine-Volcanogenic Associations

Sedimentary Iron and Manganese Deposits

Potential Resources

Interim Summary

Evolution and Composition of the Continental Crust

Evolution and Composition of Sedimentary Rocks

Consequences

Discontinuities in the Geologic Record

General Tendencies in the Evolution of the Earth's Crust, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere - a Discussion

Evolution of the Crust

Evolution of Oxygen

Evolution of Carbon Dioxide(?)

Final Vomments

Note Added in Proof

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 2. Ore Deposits in the Light of Palaeoclimatology

Introduction

Climatic Control of Fe and Mn Deposits

Banded Iron-Formations

Oolitic Iron Ores

Manganese Deposits

Ore Deposits of Warm and Hot Climates

Laterites

Bauxite

Supergene Uranium Deposits

Arid Concentration Deposits

Metals in Evaporitic Basins

Ores in Reef Complexes and Carbonate Shelves

Ore Deposits of Glacial and Cool-Temperate Climates

Influence of Glacial Climate on Ore Formation and Ore Prospection

Lake and Bog Iron Ores of Cool-Temperate Climates

Weathering of Primary Ore Bodies

Placer Deposits

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Pedogenesis, Chemical Weathering and Processes of Formation of Some Supergene Ore Deposits

Introduction

Geochemical Differentiation During Chemical Weathering and Pedogenetic Processes

Pedogenesis and Chemical Weathering Types

"Weathering Balance" of Zonal Pedogeneses

Major Factors of Pedological Differentiation

Conclusion

Aluminium Ore Deposists: The Problem of Bauxites and Laterites

Generalities

Analytical Study of Bauxites

Mineralogy of Bauxites

Genesis of Bauxites and Laterites

Supergene Concentration of Manganese

Generalities

Conclusion

Supergene Concentration of Nickel

Generalities on the Geochemistry of Nickel

Nickel Concentration-Importance of Secondary Concentrations

Conditions of Formation of Weathering Ore Deposists

Conclusion

Behaviour of Chemical Elements in Supergene Conditions

Distribution of Elements in Minerals

Empirical Determination of Supergene Behaviour of Elements

Mechanisms Controlling the Mobility

Conlcusion

References

Chapter 4. Karsts and Economic Mineral Deposits

Introduction

Summary of Current Literature

General Characteristics of Karst Deposits

Karst Typology and Environmental Characteristics

Formation of Karstic Cavities

Formation of Karstic Accumulations

Examples of Economic Deposits in Karsts

The Lead-Zinc (Barite-Fluorite-Silica) Deposits of Laurium, Greece

The Zinc-Lead Deposit of Salafossa, Central Italian Alps

The Galena-Cerrussite-Barite Deposit of Arenas, Sardinia

The Barite Deposits of Barega, Sardinia

The Zinc Deposits of the Lower Ordovician Kingsport Formation and Mascot Dolomite of East Tennessee

Fluorite Deposits in Triassic Complexes of the Central Alps

The Lead-Zinc Deposit of Ali-ou-Daoud, Morocco

The Uranium-Vanadate ("Tyuyamanite") Deposit of Tyuya Mayun, Fergana, U.S.S.R

Comparison with Similar Deposits

Conclusion

Bibliography

I. Karstification

II. Chemico-Physical Equilibria

III. General Problems of Karsts and Ore-Metal Deposits

Chapter 5. Placer Deposits

Introduction

Cassiterite (SnO2)

Gold

Monazite

Marine (Offshore) Placers

Alluvial (Stream) Placers

Beach Placers

Eluvial, Residual and Fossil Placers

References

Chapter 6. Mineral (Inorganic) Resources of the Oceans and Ocean Floors: A General Review

Introduction

Raw Materials from Ocean Water

Mineral (Inorganic) Resources of the Ocean Floors

Locally Enriched Minerals

Minerals Originating from Chemical Concentration

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Typical and Nontypical Sedimentary Ore Fabrics

Introduction

General Remarks

Bedding, Fine Bedding, Rhythm

Pb-Zn-Fe-Ba-Ores

Manganese Ores

Bauxites

Gels

Nonparallel Apposition: Oblique Bedding, Cross-Bedding

Syndiagenetic Deformations

Resedimentation

Geopetal Fabrics

Internal or External Apposition?

Nontypical Sedimentary Ore Fabrics

Recrystallized Aggregates

Syndiagenetic Network Mineralization

Resedimentary Breccias

Syndiagenetic Vein Breccias, Vein Mineralization

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 8. Rhythmicity of Barite-Shale and of SrIN Strata-Bound Deposits of Arkansas

Introduction

Strata-Bound Barite and Shale in the Chamberlain Creek Syncline. Arkansas

Rhythmicity of Sr in Barite Nodules and in Bedded Barite Sequences

Relations of the Sr Contents in Barite Strata

Interpretation of Genesis of Rhythmicity

References

Description

Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits; Textures and Fabrics is a collection of papers that deals with economic geological deposits, particularly as endogenic type, or as an integral part of their geological environment. One paper explores the possibility that the evolution of ores of sedimentary affiliation or of sedimentary rocks and their chemistry during geologic history can be a product of the evolution of the outer spheres of the earth combined with a cycling phenomena that proceeds in a spiral way. Another paper discusses the role of climate on a large range of depositional environments through mobilization, both by chemical and physical events, of metal-ions. Mobilization can also occur by controlled deposition and enrichment of the "mobilized" ions in a certain sedimentary environment. Various depositions occur in different climates, for example, bauxites, requiring higher precipitation levels, form in humid zones. One paper points that ore-mineral accumulations controlled by descending supergene solutions play a significant role in ore-mineral depositions. The collection is beneficial to geologists, industrial chemists, researchers, technical designers, and engineers whose works are related with ore deposits and mining.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444598998

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About the Authors

Author Unknown Author