Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits

Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits

Textures and Fabrics

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: Author Unknown
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444598998

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Supergene and Surficial Ore Deposits; Textures and Fabrics is a collection of papers that deals with economic geological deposits, particularly as endogenic type, or as an integral part of their geological environment. One paper explores the possibility that the evolution of ores of sedimentary affiliation or of sedimentary rocks and their chemistry during geologic history can be a product of the evolution of the outer spheres of the earth combined with a cycling phenomena that proceeds in a spiral way. Another paper discusses the role of climate on a large range of depositional environments through mobilization, both by chemical and physical events, of metal-ions. Mobilization can also occur by controlled deposition and enrichment of the "mobilized" ions in a certain sedimentary environment. Various depositions occur in different climates, for example, bauxites, requiring higher precipitation levels, form in humid zones. One paper points that ore-mineral accumulations controlled by descending supergene solutions play a significant role in ore-mineral depositions. The collection is beneficial to geologists, industrial chemists, researchers, technical designers, and engineers whose works are related with ore deposits and mining.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Evolution of Ores of Sedimentary Affiliation through Geologic History; Relations to the General Tendencies in Evolution of the Crust, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Biosphere


    Ores of Sedimentary Affiliation and their Trends in Geologic History

    Residual Deposits and Weathering Crusts

    Deposits Associated with Fluviatile to Deltaic Clastic Sediments

    Base-Metal Strata-Bound Deposits of Marine and Marine-Volcanogenic Associations

    Sedimentary Iron and Manganese Deposits

    Potential Resources

    Interim Summary

    Evolution and Composition of the Continental Crust

    Evolution and Composition of Sedimentary Rocks


    Discontinuities in the Geologic Record

    General Tendencies in the Evolution of the Earth's Crust, Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere - a Discussion

    Evolution of the Crust

    Evolution of Oxygen

    Evolution of Carbon Dioxide(?)

    Final Vomments

    Note Added in Proof



    Chapter 2. Ore Deposits in the Light of Palaeoclimatology


    Climatic Control of Fe and Mn Deposits

    Banded Iron-Formations

    Oolitic Iron Ores

    Manganese Deposits

    Ore Deposits of Warm and Hot Climates



    Supergene Uranium Deposits

    Arid Concentration Deposits

    Metals in Evaporitic Basins

    Ores in Reef Complexes and Carbonate Shelves

    Ore Deposits of Glacial and Cool-Temperate Climates

    Influence of Glacial Climate on Ore Formation and Ore Prospection

    Lake and Bog Iron Ores of Cool-Temperate Climates

    Weathering of Primary Ore Bodies

    Placer Deposits



    Chapter 3. Pedogenesis, Chemical Weathering and Processes of Formation of Some Supergene Ore Deposits


    Geochemical Differentiation During Chemical Weathering and Pedogenetic Processes

    Pedogenesis and Chemical Weathering Types

    "Weathering Balance" of Zonal Pedogeneses

    Major Factors of Pedological Differentiation


    Aluminium Ore Deposists: The Problem of Bauxites and Laterites


    Analytical Study of Bauxites

    Mineralogy of Bauxites

    Genesis of Bauxites and Laterites

    Supergene Concentration of Manganese



    Supergene Concentration of Nickel

    Generalities on the Geochemistry of Nickel

    Nickel Concentration-Importance of Secondary Concentrations

    Conditions of Formation of Weathering Ore Deposists


    Behaviour of Chemical Elements in Supergene Conditions

    Distribution of Elements in Minerals

    Empirical Determination of Supergene Behaviour of Elements

    Mechanisms Controlling the Mobility



    Chapter 4. Karsts and Economic Mineral Deposits


    Summary of Current Literature

    General Characteristics of Karst Deposits

    Karst Typology and Environmental Characteristics

    Formation of Karstic Cavities

    Formation of Karstic Accumulations

    Examples of Economic Deposits in Karsts

    The Lead-Zinc (Barite-Fluorite-Silica) Deposits of Laurium, Greece

    The Zinc-Lead Deposit of Salafossa, Central Italian Alps

    The Galena-Cerrussite-Barite Deposit of Arenas, Sardinia

    The Barite Deposits of Barega, Sardinia

    The Zinc Deposits of the Lower Ordovician Kingsport Formation and Mascot Dolomite of East Tennessee

    Fluorite Deposits in Triassic Complexes of the Central Alps

    The Lead-Zinc Deposit of Ali-ou-Daoud, Morocco

    The Uranium-Vanadate ("Tyuyamanite") Deposit of Tyuya Mayun, Fergana, U.S.S.R

    Comparison with Similar Deposits



    I. Karstification

    II. Chemico-Physical Equilibria

    III. General Problems of Karsts and Ore-Metal Deposits

    Chapter 5. Placer Deposits


    Cassiterite (SnO2)



    Marine (Offshore) Placers

    Alluvial (Stream) Placers

    Beach Placers

    Eluvial, Residual and Fossil Placers


    Chapter 6. Mineral (Inorganic) Resources of the Oceans and Ocean Floors: A General Review


    Raw Materials from Ocean Water

    Mineral (Inorganic) Resources of the Ocean Floors

    Locally Enriched Minerals

    Minerals Originating from Chemical Concentration

    Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Typical and Nontypical Sedimentary Ore Fabrics


    General Remarks

    Bedding, Fine Bedding, Rhythm


    Manganese Ores



    Nonparallel Apposition: Oblique Bedding, Cross-Bedding

    Syndiagenetic Deformations


    Geopetal Fabrics

    Internal or External Apposition?

    Nontypical Sedimentary Ore Fabrics

    Recrystallized Aggregates

    Syndiagenetic Network Mineralization

    Resedimentary Breccias

    Syndiagenetic Vein Breccias, Vein Mineralization

    Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 8. Rhythmicity of Barite-Shale and of SrIN Strata-Bound Deposits of Arkansas


    Strata-Bound Barite and Shale in the Chamberlain Creek Syncline. Arkansas

    Rhythmicity of Sr in Barite Nodules and in Bedded Barite Sequences

    Relations of the Sr Contents in Barite Strata

    Interpretation of Genesis of Rhythmicity


Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444598998

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