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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444626967, 9780444626974

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

1st Edition

Editors: Vladimir Anikeev Maohong Fan
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444626967
eBook ISBN: 9780444626974
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 21st December 2013
Page Count: 284
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations.

A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes.

This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues.

Key Features

  • Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications
  • Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations
  • Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection


primary audience: chemists, physical chemists, chemical engineers (catalysis, process engineers), academics and researchers of new technologies in academia, government and corporate research
secondary audience: environmental chemists/engineers

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Synthesis of Biodiesel Fuel in Supercritical Lower Alcohols with and without Heterogeneous Catalysts (Thermodynamics, Phase and Chemical Equilibriums, Experimental Studies)


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Calculation of Thermodynamic and Physicochemical Data for Individual Compounds

1.3 Phase Equilibrium in Transesterification of Triglycerides of Fatty Acids with Methanol

1.4 Chemical Equilibrium: Calculation Models and Methods

1.5 Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil in Supercritical Methanol in a Flow Reactor

1.6 Conclusion


Chapter 2. Particle Formation Using Sub- and Supercritical Fluids


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Modeling of Supercritical Micronization Processes

2.3 Micronization Processes Using Sub- and Supercritical Fluids

2.4 Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions (PGSS™)

2.5 Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter 3. Environmentally Benign Transformations of Monoterpenes and Monoterpenoids in Supercritical Fluids


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Transformations of Monoterpenoids with Pinane Framework

3.3 Transformations of Monoterpenoids with para-Menthane Framework

3.4 Catalytic Transformations of Acyclic Monoterpenoids

3.5 Conclusions


Chapter 4. Biomass Conversion in Supercritical Water


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Cellulose Dissolution in High-Temperature Water

4.3 Kinetics in Supercritical Water and Cellulose Hydrolysis

4.4 Chemicals Recovery from Glucose

4.5 Chemical Recovery from Lignin

4.6 Conclusion


Chapter 5. Environmentally Benign Route for Nanomaterial Synthesis by Using SCW


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Principles of Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

5.3 Apparatus for Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

5.4 NP Synthesis by Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis

5.5 Organic–Inorganic Hybrid NP Synthesis Using SCW

5.6 Controlled Assembly of NPs

5.7 Hybrid Nanomaterials

5.8 Conclusion


Chapter 6. Supercritical Water Gasification for Hydrogen Production: Current Status and Prospective of High-Temperature Operation



6.1 Introduction

6.2 High-Temperature Water

6.3 Thermodynamics of SCWG

6.4 Gasification of Simple Feedstocks

6.5 Gasification of Fossil Fuels

6.6 Challenges/Outlook

6.7 Conclusion


Chapter 7. Hydrolysis in Near- and Supercritical Water for Biomass Conversion and Material Recycling



7.1 Why Perform Hydrolysis Reactions in Near- and Supercritical Water?

7.2 Biomass Liquefaction toward Biofuels and Platform Molecules

7.3 Chemical Recycling Using Supercritical Fluids

7.4 Conclusion


Chapter 8. Applications of Aerogels and Their Composites in Energy-Related Technologies



8.1 Introduction

8.2 Aerogels as Thermal Insulators

8.3 Aerogels as Catalyst Supports

8.4 Aerogels as Catalysts

8.5 Aerogels as Energy Storage Devices

8.6 Aerogels as Adsorbents

8.7 Aerogels in Solar Cells

8.8 Conclusion


Chapter 9. Supercritical Water Oxidation for Wastewater Destruction with Energy Recovery


9.1 Introduction

9.2 SCWO Requirements

9.3 Model Compounds and Wastewaters Studied

9.4 Economics Aspects of SCWO

9.5 Energy Recovery

9.6 Atmospheric Pressure Water Heating

9.7 Conclusions


Chapter 10. Supercritical Water Gasification of Organic Wastes for Energy Generation



10.1 Introduction

10.2 Supercritical Water Gasification

10.3 Conclusions


Chapter 11. Application of Supercritical Pressure in Power Engineering: Specifics of Thermophysical Properties and Forced-Convective Heat Transfer


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Thermophysical Properties at Critical and Supercritical Pressures

11.3 Specifics of Forced-Convection Heat Transfer at Supercritical Pressure

11.4 Hydraulic Resistance

11.5 Conclusions



Chapter 12. Biopolymer Degradation in Sub- and Supercritical Water for Biomass Waste Recycling


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Properties of Water in Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

12.3 Development of Reactors and Experimental Techniques

12.4 Hydrolysis of Cellulose

12.5 Hydrolysis of Proteins

12.6 General Reaction Pathways and Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Biopolymers

12.7 Carbonic (or Carbon Dioxide) Enhancement of Hydrolysis

12.8 Coupling with Electromagnetic Methods to Enhance Reaction Rates

12.9 Conclusion and Outlook


Chapter 13. Energy Conversion of Biomass and Recycling of Waste Plastics Using Supercritical Fluid, Subcritical Fluid and High-Pressure Superheated Steam



13.1 Introduction

13.2 Energy Conversion of Biomass Using Subcritical Water and High-Pressure Superheated Steam

13.3 Recycling of Waste Plastics Using Super/Subcritical Fluids

13.4 Conclusions




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© Elsevier 2014
21st December 2013
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About the Editors

Vladimir Anikeev

Vladimir Anikeev

Affiliations and Expertise

Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

Maohong Fan

Maohong Fan

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

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