Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.


Scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics.

Table of Contents

1. The Supercritical State 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Physical Transformation of Pure Substances 3.0 Critical Constants 4.0 Critical and Boiling Points 5.0 Supercritical State 6.0 Solvents and Antisolvents 7.0 Solubility Issues of Supercritical Fluids 8.0 Hildebrand Solubility Parameter 9.0 Carbon Dioxide 10.0 Candidates for Supercritical Fluids 11.0 Conclusions References 2. Solubility in Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Contaminant Solubility 3.0 Models for Cleaning 4.0 Conclusion References 3. Design for Cleanability 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Process Design Guidelines 3.0 Conclusions Appendix 1: Guidelines for Design of Parts for Cleanability Appendix 2: Vendor Process Contamination Checklist 4. Dynamics of Particle Removal by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 The Boundary Layer in Turbulent Flow Over a Plate 3.0 Adhesive Forces 4.0 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 5.0 Conclusions References 5. Surfactants and Microemulsions in Supercritical Fluids Abstract 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Microemulsion Structure 3.0 Microemulsions in Supercritical Fluids 4.0 Microemulsions in CO2 5.0 Supercritical Microemulsion Cleaning Processes 6.0 Kinetics of Cleaning 7.0 Recent Developments 8.0 Conclusions Acknowledgment References 6. Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Interactions wit


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© 1998
William Andrew
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About the author

Samuel P. Sawan

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA