Sulfur Dioxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Applications in Foods, Beverages, and Pharmaceuticals

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: Louis C. Schroeter
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185668

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Sulfur Dioxide discusses in detail the preparation and oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The book also covers the effect of the substance on organic and inorganic mixtures. The pharmaceutical application, safety, and effectiveness of the substance in the form of sulfites in food and beverage are comprehensively explained. A section of the book focuses on the physiological effects of sulfur dioxide in plants, animals, and humans. The book highlights the properties of sulfur dioxide in gaseous state and in aqueous solutions, with expanded section covering its ionic structure and spectral characteristics. Methods for determining trace amounts of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere are summarized along with ways to identify the substance in complex mixtures such as food. The text is an excellent source of information about sulfur dioxide complexes and clathrates. The book will be a useful tool for pharmacists, scientists and chemists in the fields of medicine, and students doing research and experiment on the effect of sulfur dioxide on other compounds.

Table of Contents

  • Contents



    Chapter 1—Preparation and Properties

    I. Preparation

    A. Laboratory Preparation

    B. Sulfur Burning

    C. Pyrite Roasting

    D. Gypsum Reduction

    E. Reduction of Sulfuric Acid

    F. Preparation of Sulfurous Acid Salts

    G. Thermal Decomposition of Sulfites and Pyrosulfites

    II. Properties

    A. Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide

    B. Liquid Sulfur Dioxide

    C. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Nonaqueous Systems

    D. Partition of Sulfur Dioxide between Water and Immiscible Solvents

    E. Aqueous Sulfur Dioxide

    F. Solution of Sulfurous Acid Salts

    G. Ionization Constants

    H. Ultraviolet Spectra

    I. Fluorescence Spectra

    J. Infrared Spectra and Molecular Constants

    K. Raman Spectra

    L. Rotational and Microwave Spectra

    M. Mass Spectra and Shock Tube Studies

    N. Electron Spin Resonance Data

    O. Structure of Sulfite and Pyrosulfite Ions

    P. Thermodynamic Properties and Solubilities of Sulfites

    Q. Radioactive and O18 Labeled Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfites


    Chapter 2—Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    I. Chamber Process for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

    II. Contact Process for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

    III. Atmospheric Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    IV. Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Systems

    A. Theoretical Aspects

    B. Metal Ion Catalysis

    C. Oxygen Absorption Rates in Catalyzed Sulfite Systems

    D. Thiosulfate Catalysis of Sulfite Oxidation

    E. Inhibition of Aqueous Sulfite Oxidation

    V. Potentiometric Determination of Sulfite Oxidation Rates

    VI. Fermentor Evaluation by Oxygen Absorption Rates

    VII. Miscellaneous Applications of Aqueous Sulfite Systems


    Chapter 3—Inorganic Reactions, Complexes and Clathrates

    I. Inorganic Reactions

    A. Hydrogen Peroxide

    B. Anodic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid

    C. Iodine

    D. Chlorine

    E. Iodate

    F. Landolt Clock Reaction

    G. Bromate

    H. Chlorate

    I. Permanganate, Chromate and Arsenate

    J. Nitrites and Nitrogen Oxides

    K. Nitroprussides and Cyanides

    L. Ferric Ion

    M. Selenious and Tellurous Acid

    N. Manganese Oxides

    O. Sodium

    P. Zinc

    Q. Sulfur

    R. Sulfur Halides

    S. Sulfides and the Wackenroder Reaction

    T. Polythionates

    II. Complexes and Clathrates

    A. Inorganic Complexes

    B. Organic Complexes

    C. Gas Hydrates

    D. Hydroquinone Clathrates

    E. Phenol Clathrates


    Chapter 4—Organic Reactions

    I. Reactions with Carbonyl Compounds

    A. Aliphatic and Alicyclic Carbonyl Compounds

    B. Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds

    C. Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

    D. Sugars

    E. Applications of the Bisulfite-Carbonyl Reaction

    II. Reactions with Alkenes and Alkynes

    III. Reaction with Aromatic Nitro Compounds—ThePiria Reaction

    IV. Reaction with Benzyl Alcohols

    V. The Bucherer Reaction

    VI. Reaction with Disulfides

    VII. The Strecker Reaction

    A. Reaction with Halocarboxylic Acids and Esters

    B. Bisulfite Reaction with Di- and Tri-halomethanes

    C. Reaction with Trichloromethyl Sulfur Chloride

    D. Reaction with Chloral Hydrate

    E. Reaction with Alkylene Halides

    F. Reaction with Aryl-substituted Alkyl Halides

    VIII. Reaction with Aryl Halides

    IX. Thiamine Reaction with Bisulfite

    X. Oxidative Sulfonation of Phenols and Aniline

    XI. Sulfomethylation

    XII. Reaction of Sulfate Esters with Sulfite

    XIII. Reactions with Diazo Compounds

    XIV. Reactions of Sulfoxides and Sulfonyl Halides

    XV. Sulfur Dioxide Reaction with Hydroxylamines and Grignard Reagents

    XVI. Synthesis of á-Amino Sulfonic Acids

    XVII. Miscellaneous "Name" Reactions


    Chapter 5—Analytical

    I. Atmospheric Monitoring

    II. Iodometric Methods

    III. Non-iodometric Oxidations

    IV. Polarographic Methods

    V. Colorimetry

    VI. X-Ray and Optical Crystallography

    VII. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

    VIII. Infrared and Raman Spectrophotometry

    IX. Chromatography

    X. Qualitative Methods

    XI. Special Methods for Foods

    XII. Special Methods for Beverages


    Chapter 6—Food and Beverage Applications

    I. General Considerations

    A. Introduction

    B. Combinations of Sulfur Dioxide with other Antioxidants

    C. Sulfite Distribution in Foods

    D. Desulfitization

    E. S02 Effect on Proteins

    F. S02 Effect on Thiamine

    G. S02 Effect on Sugars and other Carbonyl Constituents

    H. S02 Effect on Enzymatic Browning

    I. S02 Effect on Non-enzymatic Browning

    II. Specific Applications

    A. Meat, Fish and Milk

    B. Fruits

    C. Coconut

    D. Sugared Fruits and Preserves

    E. Cherries, Berries and Grapes

    F. Sugars

    G. Peppers and Tomatoes

    H. Cabbage

    I. Pumpkins and Squash

    J. Beans and Peas

    K. Root Vegetables

    L. Flour and Starch

    M. Corn and Ensilage

    N. Citrus Juices

    O. Cider

    P. Grape Juice

    Q. Wine

    R. Beer


    Chapter 7—Pharmaceutical Applications

    I. General Considerations

    II. Antioxidant Requirements in Solution Formulations

    III. Air and Oxygen Solubility in Aqueous Systems

    IV. Oxygen Adsorption by Solid Drugs

    V. Antioxidant Requirements in Pharmaceutical Suspensions

    VI. Special Problems with Plastic Containers and Rubber Closures

    VII. Formulation pH and Buffer Capacity

    VIII. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide and Its Salts in Aqueous Systems

    IX. Relative Reducing Power of Sulfurous Acid Salts

    X. Sodium Chloride Equivalents and Iso-osmotic Values for Sulfurous Acid Salts

    XI. Theoretical Aspects of Sulfite Antioxidant Activity

    XII. Antioxidant Evaluation in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    XIII. Detecting Sulfite Reactivity toward Formulation Components

    XIV. The Unexpected Loss in Epinephrine Activity—An Example of a Drug-Bisulfite Reaction

    XV. The Use of Model Compounds to define the Mechanism of a Drug-Bisulfite Reaction

    XVI. New Preparative Reactions Revealed by Isolation and Characterization of Drug-Bisulfite Products

    XVII. Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Drug-Bisulfite Reactions define Stability of the system

    XVIII. Knowledge of Drug-Bisulfite Reaction Mechanism permits Design of Appropriate Counter Measures

    XIX. Specific Applications of Sulfite Antioxidants with Various Drugs

    A. Sympathomimetic Amines

    B. Sulfonamides

    C. Antibiotics

    D. Steroids

    E. Miscellaneous Pharmacologic Agents

    F. Vitamins

    G. Local Anesthetics and Morphine

    H. Heparin


    Chapter 8—Toxicity

    I. Government Regulations (U.S. and Foreign)

    II. Plants

    III. Animals

    A. Inhalation

    B. Topical

    C. Oral

    D. Parenteral

    IV. Human

    A. Inhalation

    B. Topical

    C. Oral


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 356
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185668

About the Author

Louis C. Schroeter

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