Sulfur Dioxide - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080114323, 9781483185668

Sulfur Dioxide

1st Edition

Applications in Foods, Beverages, and Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Louis C. Schroeter
eBook ISBN: 9781483185668
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 356
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Sulfur Dioxide discusses in detail the preparation and oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The book also covers the effect of the substance on organic and inorganic mixtures. The pharmaceutical application, safety, and effectiveness of the substance in the form of sulfites in food and beverage are comprehensively explained. A section of the book focuses on the physiological effects of sulfur dioxide in plants, animals, and humans. The book highlights the properties of sulfur dioxide in gaseous state and in aqueous solutions, with expanded section covering its ionic structure and spectral characteristics. Methods for determining trace amounts of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere are summarized along with ways to identify the substance in complex mixtures such as food. The text is an excellent source of information about sulfur dioxide complexes and clathrates. The book will be a useful tool for pharmacists, scientists and chemists in the fields of medicine, and students doing research and experiment on the effect of sulfur dioxide on other compounds.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1—Preparation and Properties

I. Preparation

A. Laboratory Preparation

B. Sulfur Burning

C. Pyrite Roasting

D. Gypsum Reduction

E. Reduction of Sulfuric Acid

F. Preparation of Sulfurous Acid Salts

G. Thermal Decomposition of Sulfites and Pyrosulfites

II. Properties

A. Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide

B. Liquid Sulfur Dioxide

C. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Nonaqueous Systems

D. Partition of Sulfur Dioxide between Water and Immiscible Solvents

E. Aqueous Sulfur Dioxide

F. Solution of Sulfurous Acid Salts

G. Ionization Constants

H. Ultraviolet Spectra

I. Fluorescence Spectra

J. Infrared Spectra and Molecular Constants

K. Raman Spectra

L. Rotational and Microwave Spectra

M. Mass Spectra and Shock Tube Studies

N. Electron Spin Resonance Data

O. Structure of Sulfite and Pyrosulfite Ions

P. Thermodynamic Properties and Solubilities of Sulfites

Q. Radioactive and O18 Labeled Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfites


Chapter 2—Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

I. Chamber Process for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

II. Contact Process for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

III. Atmospheric Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

IV. Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Systems

A. Theoretical Aspects

B. Metal Ion Catalysis

C. Oxygen Absorption Rates in Catalyzed Sulfite Systems

D. Thiosulfate Catalysis of Sulfite Oxidation

E. Inhibition of Aqueous Sulfite Oxidation

V. Potentiometric Determination of Sulfite Oxidation Rates

VI. Fermentor Evaluation by Oxygen Absorption Rates

VII. Miscellaneous Applications of Aqueous Sulfite Systems


Chapter 3—Inorganic Reactions, Complexes and Clathrates

I. Inorganic Reactions

A. Hydrogen Peroxide

B. Anodic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid

C. Iodine

D. Chlorine

E. Iodate

F. Landolt Clock Reaction

G. Bromate

H. Chlorate

I. Permanganate, Chromate and Arsenate

J. Nitrites and Nitrogen Oxides

K. Nitroprussides and Cyanides

L. Ferric Ion

M. Selenious and Tellurous Acid

N. Manganese Oxides

O. Sodium

P. Zinc

Q. Sulfur

R. Sulfur Halides

S. Sulfides and the Wackenroder Reaction

T. Polythionates

II. Complexes and Clathrates

A. Inorganic Complexes

B. Organic Complexes

C. Gas Hydrates

D. Hydroquinone Clathrates

E. Phenol Clathrates


Chapter 4—Organic Reactions

I. Reactions with Carbonyl Compounds

A. Aliphatic and Alicyclic Carbonyl Compounds

B. Aromatic Carbonyl Compounds

C. Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

D. Sugars

E. Applications of the Bisulfite-Carbonyl Reaction

II. Reactions with Alkenes and Alkynes

III. Reaction with Aromatic Nitro Compounds—ThePiria Reaction

IV. Reaction with Benzyl Alcohols

V. The Bucherer Reaction

VI. Reaction with Disulfides

VII. The Strecker Reaction

A. Reaction with Halocarboxylic Acids and Esters

B. Bisulfite Reaction with Di- and Tri-halomethanes

C. Reaction with Trichloromethyl Sulfur Chloride

D. Reaction with Chloral Hydrate

E. Reaction with Alkylene Halides

F. Reaction with Aryl-substituted Alkyl Halides

VIII. Reaction with Aryl Halides

IX. Thiamine Reaction with Bisulfite

X. Oxidative Sulfonation of Phenols and Aniline

XI. Sulfomethylation

XII. Reaction of Sulfate Esters with Sulfite

XIII. Reactions with Diazo Compounds

XIV. Reactions of Sulfoxides and Sulfonyl Halides

XV. Sulfur Dioxide Reaction with Hydroxylamines and Grignard Reagents

XVI. Synthesis of á-Amino Sulfonic Acids

XVII. Miscellaneous "Name" Reactions


Chapter 5—Analytical

I. Atmospheric Monitoring

II. Iodometric Methods

III. Non-iodometric Oxidations

IV. Polarographic Methods

V. Colorimetry

VI. X-Ray and Optical Crystallography

VII. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

VIII. Infrared and Raman Spectrophotometry

IX. Chromatography

X. Qualitative Methods

XI. Special Methods for Foods

XII. Special Methods for Beverages


Chapter 6—Food and Beverage Applications

I. General Considerations

A. Introduction

B. Combinations of Sulfur Dioxide with other Antioxidants

C. Sulfite Distribution in Foods

D. Desulfitization

E. S02 Effect on Proteins

F. S02 Effect on Thiamine

G. S02 Effect on Sugars and other Carbonyl Constituents

H. S02 Effect on Enzymatic Browning

I. S02 Effect on Non-enzymatic Browning

II. Specific Applications

A. Meat, Fish and Milk

B. Fruits

C. Coconut

D. Sugared Fruits and Preserves

E. Cherries, Berries and Grapes

F. Sugars

G. Peppers and Tomatoes

H. Cabbage

I. Pumpkins and Squash

J. Beans and Peas

K. Root Vegetables

L. Flour and Starch

M. Corn and Ensilage

N. Citrus Juices

O. Cider

P. Grape Juice

Q. Wine

R. Beer


Chapter 7—Pharmaceutical Applications

I. General Considerations

II. Antioxidant Requirements in Solution Formulations

III. Air and Oxygen Solubility in Aqueous Systems

IV. Oxygen Adsorption by Solid Drugs

V. Antioxidant Requirements in Pharmaceutical Suspensions

VI. Special Problems with Plastic Containers and Rubber Closures

VII. Formulation pH and Buffer Capacity

VIII. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide and Its Salts in Aqueous Systems

IX. Relative Reducing Power of Sulfurous Acid Salts

X. Sodium Chloride Equivalents and Iso-osmotic Values for Sulfurous Acid Salts

XI. Theoretical Aspects of Sulfite Antioxidant Activity

XII. Antioxidant Evaluation in Pharmaceutical Formulations

XIII. Detecting Sulfite Reactivity toward Formulation Components

XIV. The Unexpected Loss in Epinephrine Activity—An Example of a Drug-Bisulfite Reaction

XV. The Use of Model Compounds to define the Mechanism of a Drug-Bisulfite Reaction

XVI. New Preparative Reactions Revealed by Isolation and Characterization of Drug-Bisulfite Products

XVII. Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Drug-Bisulfite Reactions define Stability of the system

XVIII. Knowledge of Drug-Bisulfite Reaction Mechanism permits Design of Appropriate Counter Measures

XIX. Specific Applications of Sulfite Antioxidants with Various Drugs

A. Sympathomimetic Amines

B. Sulfonamides

C. Antibiotics

D. Steroids

E. Miscellaneous Pharmacologic Agents

F. Vitamins

G. Local Anesthetics and Morphine

H. Heparin


Chapter 8—Toxicity

I. Government Regulations (U.S. and Foreign)

II. Plants

III. Animals

A. Inhalation

B. Topical

C. Oral

D. Parenteral

IV. Human

A. Inhalation

B. Topical

C. Oral


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1966
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Louis C. Schroeter