Subsea Pipeline Design, Analysis, and Installation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123868886, 9780123868893

Subsea Pipeline Design, Analysis, and Installation

1st Edition

Authors: Qiang Bai Yong Bai
eBook ISBN: 9780123868893
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123868886
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 14th March 2014
Page Count: 824
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As deepwater wells are drilled to greater depths, pipeline engineers and designers are confronted with new problems such as water depth, weather conditions, ocean currents, equipment reliability, and well accessibility. Subsea Pipeline Design, Analysis and Installation is based on the authors' 30 years of experience in offshore. The authors provide rigorous coverage of the entire spectrum of subjects in the discipline, from pipe installation and routing selection and planning to design, construction, and installation of pipelines in some of the harshest underwater environments around the world. All-inclusive, this must-have handbook covers the latest breakthroughs in subjects such as corrosion prevention, pipeline inspection, and welding, while offering an easy-to-understand guide to new design codes currently followed in the United States, United Kingdom, Norway, and other countries.

Key Features

  • Gain expert coverage of international design codes
  • Understand how to design pipelines and risers for today's deepwater oil and gas
  • Master critical equipment such as subsea control systems and pressure piping


Piping Engineers, Designers, Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers and Chemical Engineers, Project Production Engineer, and Project Reservoir Engineer

Table of Contents



Part I Mechanical Design

1. Introduction

1. Introduction

2. Design Stages and Process

3. Design through Analysis

4. Pipeline Design Analysis

5. Finite Element Analysis

2. Wall Thickness and Material Grade Selection

1. Introduction

2. Material Grade Selection

3. Pressure Containment Design

4. Equivalent Stress Criterion

5. Hydrostatic Collapse

6. Buckle Arrestors

3. Buckling and Collapse of Metallic Pipes

1. Introduction

2. Analytical Solution of Limit Moment

3. Finite Element Analysis

4. Guidelines for Bending Strength Calculations

4. Limit-State Based Strength Design

1. Introduction

2. Stress Based Design and Strain Based Design

3. Ultimate Limit State

4. Serviceability Limit State

5. Fatigue Limit State

6. Accidental Limit State

Part II Pipeline Design

5. Hydraulic and Thermal Analysis of Subsea Pipelines

1. Introduction

2. Crude Oil Transportation Pipelines

3. Gas Transmission Pipelines

4. Hydraulic Analysis of Oil-Gas Production Pipelines

5. Water Transportation Pipelines

6. Commercial Software for Design and Analysis

6. Soil and Pipe Interaction

1. Introduction

2. Pipe Penetration in Cohesive Soil

3. Pipe Penetration in Noncohesive Soils

4. Axial Load–Displacement Response of Pipelines

5. Lateral Load–Displacement Response of Pipelines

7. Hydrodynamics around Pipes

1. Introduction

2. Wave Theory

3. Steady Currents

4. Hydrodynamic Forces

8. Finite Element Analysis of In Situ Behavior

1. Introduction

2. Finite Element Modeling of the Pipeline System

3. Procedure and Load Steps in Finite Element Analysis

4. Element Types Used in the Model

5. Nonlinearity and the Seabed Model

6. Validation of the Finite Element Model

7. Dynamic Buckling Analysis

8. Cyclic In-Place Behavior During Shutdown Operations

9. Thermal Expansion Design

1. Introduction

2. Pipeline Strains

3. Pipeline Stresses

4. Effective Axial Force of the Pipeline

5. Expansion of a Single-Pipe Pipeline

6. Expansion of the Pipe-in-Pipe System

7. Examples of Expansion Analysis

10. Lateral Buckling and Pipeline Walking

1. Introduction

2. Buckle Initiation

3. Mitigation of Lateral Buckling

4. Pipeline Walking

11. Upheaval Buckling

1. Introduction

2. Analytical Solution of Upheaval Buckling

3. Finite Element Analysis of Upheaval Buckling

4. Stabilization Against Upheaval Buckling

5. Design Against Upheaval Buckling

12. Fatigue and Fracture

1. Introduction

2. Fatigue S-N Approach

3. Fracture

4. Recognized Industry Codes of ECA

13. On-Bottom Stability

1. Introduction

2. Vertical On–Bottom Stability

3. Lateral On-Bottom Stability

4. Pipe-Soil Interaction

5. Stabilization Measures

6. Acceptance Criteria

7. Stability Analysis

14. Pipeline Spans and VIV Fatigue

1. Introduction

2. Static Analysis

3. Dynamic Analysis

4. VIV Mitigation and Span Correction

5. Example Case

15. Force Model and Wave Fatigue

1. Introduction

2. Fatigue Analysis

3. Force Model

4. Comparison of Frequency Domain and Time Domain Approaches

5. Summary

16. Trawl Impact, Pullover, and Drop Objects

1. Introduction

2. Trawl Gears

3. Acceptance Criteria

4. Impact Response Analysis

5. Pullover Loads

6. FE Model for Pullover Response Analyses

7. Case Study

17. Pipe-in-Pipe and Bundle Systems

1. Introduction

2. PIP Systems

3. Bundle Systems

18. Seismic Design

1. Introduction

2. Seismic Hazards

3. Pipeline Seismic Design Guidelines

4. Seismic Design Methodology

5. Analysis Example

6. Mitigation Methods

19. Corrosion Prevention and Advanced CP Design

1. Introduction

2. Fundamentals of Cathodic Protection

3. Pipeline Coatings

4. CP Design Parameters

5. Galvanic Anodes System Design

6. Internal Corrosion Inhibitors

20. Arctic Pipelines

1. Introduction

2. Arctic Pipeline Considerations

3. Arctic Pipeline Design Approach

4. Geothermal Analysis

5. Ice Scour Analysis

6. Installation Techniques

21. Subsea Survey and Positioning

1. Introduction

2. Subsea Survey

3. Subsea Metrology and Positioning

4. Subsea Soil Investigation

22. Route Optimization, Shore Approach, Tie-In, and Protection

1. Introduction

2. Pipeline Routing

3. Shore Approach

4. Pipeline Tie-Ins

5. Pipeline Trenching and Burying

6. Pipeline Rock Dumping

23. Åsgard Flowlines Design Examples

1. Introduction

2. Wall Thickness and Line Pipe Material Selection

3. Limit State Strength Criteria

4. Installation and On-Bottom Stability

5. Design for Global Buckling, Fishing Gear Loads, and VIV

Part III Flexible and RTP Pipelines

24. Flexible Pipe

1. Introduction

2. Applications of Flexible Pipe

3. Flexible Pipe System and Components

25. Cross-Sectional and Dynamic Analyses of Flexible Pipes

1. Introduction

2. Flexible Pipe Guidelines

3. Material and Mechanical of Properties Flexible Pipes

4. Analytical Formulations in Flexible Pipe Design

5. FE Analysis of Unbonded Flexible Pipe

26. Tensile and Compressive Strengths of RTP Pipeline

1. Introduction

2. Code Requirements

3. RTP Pipe Under Tension

4. RTP Pipe Under Compression

27. Burst Strength of RTP Pipeline

1. Introduction

2. Experimental Analysis

3. Analytical Analysis

4. Finite Element Analysis

5. Results and Comparison

28. Collapse of RTP Pipelines

1. Introduction

2. Analytical Analysis of RTP Collapse

3. FE Analysis of RTP Collapse

4. Analysis Example of RTP Collapse

5. Sensitivity Analysis

29. Offshore Installation of RTP

1. Introduction

2. Code Requirements

3. Analytical Analysis of RTP Installation

4. FE Analysis of RTP Installation

5. Parametric Studies

6. Summary

30. On-Bottom Stability of RTP

1. Introduction

2. Stabilizing Methods

3. On-Bottom Stability Analysis of RTP

Part IV Welding, Installation, and Precommissioning

31. Use of High-Strength Pipeline Steels

1. Introduction

2. Usage of High-Strength Steel Line Pipes

3. Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of High-Strength Steel

4. Welding of High-Strength Line Pipe

5. Cathodic Protection

6. Fatigue and Fracture of High-Strength Steel

7. Material Property Requirements

32. Welding and Defect Acceptance

1. Introduction

2. Weld Repair Analysis

3. Allowable Excavation Length Assessment

4. Conclusions

33. Installation Design

1. Introduction

2. Pipeline Installation Vessels

3. Pipe Laying Methods

4. Installation Software and Code Requirements

5. Physical Background for Installation

6. Analytical Method for S-Lay Installation

7. FEA of Pipeline Installation with an In-line Valve

8. Two-Medium Pipeline Design Concept

34. Pipeline Commissioning, Operations, and Maintenance

1. Introduction

2. Precommissioning Activities

3. Commissioning

4. Operations

5. Maintenance



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About the Author

Qiang Bai

Dr. Qiang Bai obtained a doctorate for Mechanical Engineering at Kyushu University, Japan in 1995. He has more than 20 years of experience in subsea/offshore engineering including research and engineering execution. He has worked at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA, OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. His experience includes various aspects of flow assurance and the design and installation of subsea structures, pipelines and riser systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.

Yong Bai

Dr. Yong Bai obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. He is currently President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR Inc., a design/consulting firm in the field of subsea pipelines, risers and floating systems. In the 1990's, he had been a technical leader for several Asgard Transport pipeline and flowline projects at JP Kenny as Manager of the advanced engineering department. Yong was previously a lead riser engineer at Shell and assisted in offshore rules development at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) as Manager of the offshore technology department. While a professor, he wrote several books and served as a course leader on the design of subsea pipelines and irsers as well as design of floating systems. He also serves at Zhejiang University in China as professor.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.