Subsea Optics and Imaging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857093417, 9780857093523

Subsea Optics and Imaging

1st Edition

Editors: John Watson Oliver Zielinski
eBook ISBN: 9780857093523
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857093417
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 596
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


Part I: Introduction and historic review of subsea optics and imaging

Chapter 1: Subsea optics: an introduction


1.1 Light within aquatic media

1.2 Fundamentals of marine optics

1.3 Optical properties of natural waters

1.4 Optical classification of water bodies

1.5 Conclusion and future trends

1.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 2: Subsea imaging and vision: an introduction


2.1 Introduction

2.2 A ‘potted’ and selective history of underwater imaging and vision

2.3 Subsea optical imaging

2.4 Extended range imaging systems

2.5 Plankton imaging and profiling systems

2.6 Hybrid systems

2.7 Future trends

2.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: The history of subsea optics


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Exploring the arcane colouring of natural waters

3.3 Blue reflecting and green transmitting water

3.4 The principles of Capri’s Blue Grotto

3.5 Historical pieces of laboratory equipment

3.6 Historical pieces of field equipment

3.7 Ocean colour comparator scales

3.8 Conclusion

3.9 Remarkable notes and thoughts

Part II: Biogeochemical optics in the environment

Chapter 4: Measurement of hyperspectral underwater light fields


4.1 Hyperspectral versus multispectral radiometry

4.2 Radiometry fundamentals

4.3 Sensor design and collector geometry

4.4 Spectral resolution, noise levels and temporal response

4.5 Radiometer calibration and deployment

4.6 Hyperspectral characteristics of natural waters

4.7 Significance of transpectral processes

4.8 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 5: Colored dissolved organic matter in seawater


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Optical properties of CDOM

5.3 Measurement of CDOM

5.4 Applications of CDOM measurement in the ocean

5.5 Future trends

5.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 6: Optical assessment of nutrients in seawater


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Direct optical measurement

6.3 Indirect optical measurement

6.4 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Bioluminescence in the sea


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Measurement of bioluminescence in the ocean

7.3 Propagation of bioluminescence in and out of the ocean

7.4 Future trends

7.5 Acknowledgements

Chapter 8: Optical assessment of harmful algal blooms (HABs)


8.1 Introduction: addressing the diversity of harmful algal blooms

8.2 Algal features for bio-optical assessment

8.3 Scale and resolution in surveillance of algal blooms

8.4 Emerging advancement in bio-optical sensor technologies

8.5 Transfer to operational oceanography

Chapter 9: Optical techniques in studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in marine environments


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Particles in seawater: their mass, density and settling speed

9.3 Particle size distributions

9.4 Particles and turbulence

9.5 Light scattering by particles

9.6 Light absorption by particles

9.7 Direct and remote sensing

9.8 Future trends

Part III: Subsea optical systems and imaging

Chapter 10: Geometric optics and strategies for subsea imaging


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fundamentals of optics

10.3 Imaging optics

10.4 Aberrations and resolving power

10.5 Sensor

10.6 Illumination

10.7 Data and communication

10.8 Limitations

10.9 Acknowledgement

10.11 Appendix: Legend to the symbols

Chapter 11: Underwater imaging: photographic, digital and video techniques


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Conventional imaging

11.3 Illumination

11.4 Future trends

Chapter 12: Subsea holography and submersible ‘holocameras’


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Concepts of holography

12.3 Electronic recording and replay (digital holography)

12.4 Aberrations and resolution in underwater holography

12.5 Holographic cameras

12.6 Future trends

12.7 Conclusion

12.8 Sources of further information and advice

12.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: Subsea laser scanning and imaging systems


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Laser range gated (LRG) systems

13.3 Laser line scan (LLS) systems

13.4 Synchronous scanning: time gated imaging (pulsed gated laser line scan system or PG-LLS)

13.5 Scanning bistatic imaging systems and temporal coding

13.6 Multistatic LLS imaging channel via amplitude modulated FDMA

13.7 Scanning 3-D optical imaging systems

13.8 Scanning optical imaging methods using frequency conversion

Chapter 14: Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) for marine environments


14.1 Introduction to particle image velocimetry (PIV)

14.2 Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV)

14.3 Multiphase measurements with PIV and PTV – masking techniques

14.4 Synthetic Schlieren – density gradient measurements

14.5 Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA)

14.6 Acknowledgement

Chapter 15: Underwater 3D vision, ranging and range gating


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Basics of underwater 3D vision with laser-based devices

15.3 Subsea triangulation systems

15.4 Subsea modulation/demodulation technique

15.5 Subsea time-of-flight systems

15.6 Subsea range gating

15.7 Future trends

15.8 Sources of further information and advice

15.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 16: Raman spectroscopy for subsea applications


16.1 Introduction

16.2 A brief history of the Raman effect

16.3 The physics of Raman spectroscopy

16.4 Requirements for Raman spectroscopy in the ocean

16.5 Operation of a Raman spectrometer for deep ocean application

16.6 Deep ocean Raman in situ spectroscopy applications

16.7 Advancing deep ocean Raman spectroscopy

16.8 Conclusion

16.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 17: Fiber optic sensors for subsea structural health monitoring


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Structural health monitoring

17.3 Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring

17.4 Structural and integrity monitoring approaches using FOS

17.5 Challenges related to subsea applications

17.6 Future trends

17.7 Sources of further information and advice

17.8 Acknowledgments

Chapter 18: Subsea LIDAR systems


18.1 Introduction to oceanographic LIDAR

18.2 Exploring the vertical structure of the ocean with LIDAR

18.3 Quantifying the vertical structure of the ocean with LIDAR

18.4 Case study: using LIDAR to understand ocean biogeochemistry

18.5 Future trends

18.6 Conclusion

18.7 Sources of further information and advice

18.8 Acknowledgment

Chapter 19: Operational multiparameter subsea observation platforms


19.1 Introduction

19.2 General subsea research infrastructures

19.3 Network architecture, control system and data management

19.4 Applications of optical and image sensors on subsea infrastructures

19.5 Conclusion

Chapter 20: Underwater hyperspectral imagery to create biogeochemical maps of seafloor properties


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Underwater hyperspectral imaging (UHI) techniques

20.3 UHI on different underwater platforms

20.4 Sensor and navigational requirements

20.5 Optical processing of hyperspectral imagery

20.6 Applications of UHI-based biogeochemical seafloor mapping

20.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 21: Advances in underwater fluorometry: from bulk fluorescence to planar laser imaging


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Planar laser imaging fluorometry and its ocean-going implementation

21.3 Systems to observe phytoplankton: in situ imaging of large diatoms and a lab version of a miniature planar laser imaging fluorometer

21.4 Conclusions



The use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and optical sensing is of increasing importance in understanding our marine environment. Subsea optics can make an important contribution to the protection and sustainable management of ocean resources and contribute to monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. This important book provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications.

The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis. Part two reviews the use of subsea optics in environmental analysis. An introduction to the concepts of underwater light fields is followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and an assessment of nutrients in the water column. This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in the marine environment. Part three reviews subsea optical systems technologies. A general overview of imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video leads onto advanced techniques like digital holography, laser line-scanning and range-gated imaging as well as their use in controlled observation platforms or global observation networks. This section also outlines techniques like Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral sensing and imaging, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), optical fibre sensing and LIDAR systems. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies brings the volume to a close.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Subsea optics and imaging is a standard reference for those researching, developing and using subsea optical technologies as well as environmental scientists and agencies concerned with monitoring the marine environment.

Key Features

  • Provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications
  • Outlines the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis
  • Reviews the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact


Scientists and engineers interested in oceanography environmental science and marine technology; Oil and gas engineers, civil, structural and geotechnical engineers and professionals interested in structural health monitoring (SHM) in the domains of safety, maintenance, design or construction of subsea structures; Researchers and professors of optical engineering, ocean engineering, petrochemical, civil, and electrical engineering whose area of interest is SHM or who use SHM as a tool in their research; Subsea infrastructure owners and managers; Individuals involved in undersea R&D


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© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

John Watson Editor

John Watson is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Optical Engineering at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Oliver Zielinski Editor

Oliver Zielinski is Professor in the Institute for the Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM) and Head of Marine Sensor Systems at the University of Oldenburg Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Professor Watson and Professor Zielinski are internationally-renowned for their research in the area of subsea optics.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Oldenburg, Germany