Subsea Optics and Imaging

Subsea Optics and Imaging

1st Edition - October 31, 2013

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  • Editors: John Watson, Oliver Zielinski
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093523

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The use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and optical sensing is of increasing importance in understanding our marine environment. Subsea optics can make an important contribution to the protection and sustainable management of ocean resources and contribute to monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. This important book provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications.The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis. Part two reviews the use of subsea optics in environmental analysis. An introduction to the concepts of underwater light fields is followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and an assessment of nutrients in the water column. This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in the marine environment. Part three reviews subsea optical systems technologies. A general overview of imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video leads onto advanced techniques like digital holography, laser line-scanning and range-gated imaging as well as their use in controlled observation platforms or global observation networks. This section also outlines techniques like Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral sensing and imaging, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), optical fibre sensing and LIDAR systems. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies brings the volume to a close.With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Subsea optics and imaging is a standard reference for those researching, developing and using subsea optical technologies as well as environmental scientists and agencies concerned with monitoring the marine environment.

Key Features

  • Provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications
  • Outlines the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis
  • Reviews the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact


Scientists and engineers interested in oceanography environmental science and marine technology; Oil and gas engineers, civil, structural and geotechnical engineers and professionals interested in structural health monitoring (SHM) in the domains of safety, maintenance, design or construction of subsea structures; Researchers and professors of optical engineering, ocean engineering, petrochemical, civil, and electrical engineering whose area of interest is SHM or who use SHM as a tool in their research; Subsea infrastructure owners and managers; Individuals involved in undersea R&D

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials


    Part I: Introduction and historic review of subsea optics and imaging

    Chapter 1: Subsea optics: an introduction


    1.1 Light within aquatic media

    1.2 Fundamentals of marine optics

    1.3 Optical properties of natural waters

    1.4 Optical classification of water bodies

    1.5 Conclusion and future trends

    1.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 2: Subsea imaging and vision: an introduction


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 A ‘potted’ and selective history of underwater imaging and vision

    2.3 Subsea optical imaging

    2.4 Extended range imaging systems

    2.5 Plankton imaging and profiling systems

    2.6 Hybrid systems

    2.7 Future trends

    2.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 3: The history of subsea optics


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Exploring the arcane colouring of natural waters

    3.3 Blue reflecting and green transmitting water

    3.4 The principles of Capri’s Blue Grotto

    3.5 Historical pieces of laboratory equipment

    3.6 Historical pieces of field equipment

    3.7 Ocean colour comparator scales

    3.8 Conclusion

    3.9 Remarkable notes and thoughts

    Part II: Biogeochemical optics in the environment

    Chapter 4: Measurement of hyperspectral underwater light fields


    4.1 Hyperspectral versus multispectral radiometry

    4.2 Radiometry fundamentals

    4.3 Sensor design and collector geometry

    4.4 Spectral resolution, noise levels and temporal response

    4.5 Radiometer calibration and deployment

    4.6 Hyperspectral characteristics of natural waters

    4.7 Significance of transpectral processes

    4.8 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 5: Colored dissolved organic matter in seawater


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Optical properties of CDOM

    5.3 Measurement of CDOM

    5.4 Applications of CDOM measurement in the ocean

    5.5 Future trends

    5.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 6: Optical assessment of nutrients in seawater


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Direct optical measurement

    6.3 Indirect optical measurement

    6.4 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Bioluminescence in the sea


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Measurement of bioluminescence in the ocean

    7.3 Propagation of bioluminescence in and out of the ocean

    7.4 Future trends

    7.5 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 8: Optical assessment of harmful algal blooms (HABs)


    8.1 Introduction: addressing the diversity of harmful algal blooms

    8.2 Algal features for bio-optical assessment

    8.3 Scale and resolution in surveillance of algal blooms

    8.4 Emerging advancement in bio-optical sensor technologies

    8.5 Transfer to operational oceanography

    Chapter 9: Optical techniques in studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in marine environments


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Particles in seawater: their mass, density and settling speed

    9.3 Particle size distributions

    9.4 Particles and turbulence

    9.5 Light scattering by particles

    9.6 Light absorption by particles

    9.7 Direct and remote sensing

    9.8 Future trends

    Part III: Subsea optical systems and imaging

    Chapter 10: Geometric optics and strategies for subsea imaging


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Fundamentals of optics

    10.3 Imaging optics

    10.4 Aberrations and resolving power

    10.5 Sensor

    10.6 Illumination

    10.7 Data and communication

    10.8 Limitations

    10.9 Acknowledgement

    10.11 Appendix: Legend to the symbols

    Chapter 11: Underwater imaging: photographic, digital and video techniques


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Conventional imaging

    11.3 Illumination

    11.4 Future trends

    Chapter 12: Subsea holography and submersible ‘holocameras’


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Concepts of holography

    12.3 Electronic recording and replay (digital holography)

    12.4 Aberrations and resolution in underwater holography

    12.5 Holographic cameras

    12.6 Future trends

    12.7 Conclusion

    12.8 Sources of further information and advice

    12.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 13: Subsea laser scanning and imaging systems


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Laser range gated (LRG) systems

    13.3 Laser line scan (LLS) systems

    13.4 Synchronous scanning: time gated imaging (pulsed gated laser line scan system or PG-LLS)

    13.5 Scanning bistatic imaging systems and temporal coding

    13.6 Multistatic LLS imaging channel via amplitude modulated FDMA

    13.7 Scanning 3-D optical imaging systems

    13.8 Scanning optical imaging methods using frequency conversion

    Chapter 14: Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) for marine environments


    14.1 Introduction to particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    14.2 Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV)

    14.3 Multiphase measurements with PIV and PTV – masking techniques

    14.4 Synthetic Schlieren – density gradient measurements

    14.5 Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA)

    14.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 15: Underwater 3D vision, ranging and range gating


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Basics of underwater 3D vision with laser-based devices

    15.3 Subsea triangulation systems

    15.4 Subsea modulation/demodulation technique

    15.5 Subsea time-of-flight systems

    15.6 Subsea range gating

    15.7 Future trends

    15.8 Sources of further information and advice

    15.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 16: Raman spectroscopy for subsea applications


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 A brief history of the Raman effect

    16.3 The physics of Raman spectroscopy

    16.4 Requirements for Raman spectroscopy in the ocean

    16.5 Operation of a Raman spectrometer for deep ocean application

    16.6 Deep ocean Raman in situ spectroscopy applications

    16.7 Advancing deep ocean Raman spectroscopy

    16.8 Conclusion

    16.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 17: Fiber optic sensors for subsea structural health monitoring


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Structural health monitoring

    17.3 Fiber optic sensors for structural health monitoring

    17.4 Structural and integrity monitoring approaches using FOS

    17.5 Challenges related to subsea applications

    17.6 Future trends

    17.7 Sources of further information and advice

    17.8 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 18: Subsea LIDAR systems


    18.1 Introduction to oceanographic LIDAR

    18.2 Exploring the vertical structure of the ocean with LIDAR

    18.3 Quantifying the vertical structure of the ocean with LIDAR

    18.4 Case study: using LIDAR to understand ocean biogeochemistry

    18.5 Future trends

    18.6 Conclusion

    18.7 Sources of further information and advice

    18.8 Acknowledgment

    Chapter 19: Operational multiparameter subsea observation platforms


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 General subsea research infrastructures

    19.3 Network architecture, control system and data management

    19.4 Applications of optical and image sensors on subsea infrastructures

    19.5 Conclusion

    Chapter 20: Underwater hyperspectral imagery to create biogeochemical maps of seafloor properties


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Underwater hyperspectral imaging (UHI) techniques

    20.3 UHI on different underwater platforms

    20.4 Sensor and navigational requirements

    20.5 Optical processing of hyperspectral imagery

    20.6 Applications of UHI-based biogeochemical seafloor mapping

    20.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 21: Advances in underwater fluorometry: from bulk fluorescence to planar laser imaging


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Planar laser imaging fluorometry and its ocean-going implementation

    21.3 Systems to observe phytoplankton: in situ imaging of large diatoms and a lab version of a miniature planar laser imaging fluorometer

    21.4 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 596
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: October 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093523

About the Editors

John Watson

John Watson is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Optical Engineering at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Oliver Zielinski

Oliver Zielinski is Professor in the Institute for the Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM) and Head of Marine Sensor Systems at the University of Oldenburg Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Professor Watson and Professor Zielinski are internationally-renowned for their research in the area of subsea optics.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Oldenburg, Germany

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