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Sturkie's Avian Physiology - 6th Edition - ISBN: 9780124071605, 9780124072435

Sturkie's Avian Physiology

6th Edition

Editor: Colin Scanes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124071605
eBook ISBN: 9780124072435
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th August 2014
Page Count: 1056
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Sturkie's Avian Physiology is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. The Sixth Edition is thoroughly revised and updated, and features several new chapters with entirely new content on such topics as migration, genomics and epigenetics. Chapters throughout have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. The text also covers the physiology of flight, reproduction in both male and female birds, and the immunophysiology of birds.

The Sixth Edition, like the earlier editions, is a must for anyone interested in comparative physiology, poultry science, veterinary medicine, and related fields. This volume establishes the standard for those who need the latest and best information on the physiology of birds.

Key Features

  • Includes new chapters on endocrine disruptors, magnetoreception, genomics, proteomics, mitochondria, control of food intake, molting, stress, the avian endocrine system, bone, the metabolic demands of migration, behavior and control of body temperature
  • Features extensively revised chapters on the cardiovascular system, pancreatic hormones, respiration, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal gland, muscle, gastro-intestinal physiology, incubation, circadian rhythms, annual cycles, flight, the avian immune system, embryo physiology and control of calcium
  • Stands out as the only comprehensive, single volume devoted to bird physiology
  • Offers a full consideration of both blood and avian metabolism on the companion website ( 9780124071605). Tables feature hematological and serum biochemical parameters together with circulating concentrations of glucose in more than 200 different species of wild birds


Researchers in comparative physiology, animal physiology, and ornithology, behavioral and ecological biology and ecology; as well as advanced undergraduate & graduate students in these areas

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • <li>Part I. Undergirding Themes<ul><li>Chapter 1. Avian Genomics<ul><li>1.1. Introduction</li><li>1.2. Genome Size</li><li>1.3. Chromosomes</li><li>1.4. Genome Sequences</li><li>1.5. Annotation</li><li>1.6. Genome Browsers</li><li>1.7. Genes</li><li>1.8. Transposons</li><li>1.9. Genome Diversity</li><li>1.10. Connecting Sequence to Phenotype</li><li>1.11. Conclusions and Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 2. Transcriptomics of Physiological Systems<ul><li>2.1. Introduction</li><li>2.2. Early Efforts</li><li>2.3. Nervous System</li><li>2.4. Endocrine System</li><li>2.5. Reproductive System</li><li>2.6. Immune System</li><li>2.7. Muscle, Liver, Adipose, and Gastrointestinal Tissues</li><li>2.8. Cardiovascular System</li><li>2.9. Hurdles and Future Developments</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 3. Avian Proteomics<ul><li>3.1. Introduction</li><li>3.2. Protein Identification and Analysis</li><li>3.3. Quantitative Proteomics</li><li>3.4. Structural Proteomics</li><li>3.5. Application of Proteomics in Avian Research</li><li>3.6. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 4. Mitochondrial Physiology<ul><li>4.1. Mitochondria: An Introduction</li><li>4.2. Mitochondrial Inefficiencies</li><li>4.3. Matching Energy Production to Energy Need</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part II. Sensory Biology and Nervous System Theme<ul><li>Chapter 5. The Avian Somatosensory System: A Comparative View<ul><li>5.1. Introduction</li><li>5.2. Body Somatosensory Primary Afferent Projections in Different Species</li><li>5.3. Ascending Projections of the Dorsal Column Nuclei</li><li>5.4. Telencephalic Projections of Thalamic Nuclei Receiving Somatosensory Input</li><li>5.5. Somatosensory Primary Afferent Projections from the Beak and Tongue to the Trigeminal Column</li><li>5.6. Nucleus Basorostralis</li><li>5.7. The Meeting of the Spinal and Trigeminal Systems</li><li>5.8. The Somatosensorimotor System in Birds</li><li>5.9. Somatosensory Projections to the Cerebellum</li><li>5.10. Magnetoreception and the Trigeminal System</li><li>5.11. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 6. Avian Hearing<ul><li>6.1. Introduction: What Do Birds Hear?</li><li>6.2. Outer and Middle Ear</li><li>6.3. Basilar Papilla (Cochlea)</li><li>6.4. The Auditory Brain</li><li>6.5. Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 7. The Chemical Senses in Birds<ul><li>7.1. Chemical Senses</li><li>7.2. Chemesthesis</li><li>7.3. Olfaction</li><li>7.4. Gustation</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 8. Magnetoreception in Birds and Its Use for Long-Distance Migration<ul><li>8.1. Introduction</li><li>8.2. Magnetic Fields</li><li>8.3. The Earth&#x2019;s Magnetic Field</li><li>8.4. Changing Magnetic Fields for Experimental Purposes</li><li>8.5. Birds Use Information from the Earth&#x2019;s Magnetic Field for orientation and navigation</li><li>8.6. The Magnetic Compass of Birds</li><li>8.7. Do Birds Possess a Magnetic Map?</li><li>8.8. Interactions with Other Cues</li><li>8.9. How Do Birds Sense the Earth&#x2019;s Magnetic Field?</li><li>8.10. The Induction Hypothesis</li><li>8.11. The Iron-Mineral-Based Hypothesis</li><li>8.12. The Light-Dependent Hypothesis</li><li>8.13. Irreproducible Results and the Urgent Need for Independent Replication</li><li>8.14. Where Do We Go from Here?</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 9. The Avian Subpallium and Autonomic Nervous System<ul><li>9.1. Introduction</li><li>9.2. Components of the Subpallium</li><li>9.3. Components of the Autonomic Nervous System</li><li>9.4. Functional Neural Pathways Involving the Subpallium and ANS</li><li>9.5. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part III. Organ Systems Theme<ul><li>Chapter 10. Blood<ul><li>10.1. Introduction</li><li>10.2. Plasma</li><li>10.3. Erythrocytes</li><li>10.4. Blood Gases</li><li>10.5. Leukocytes</li><li>10.6. Thrombocytes</li><li>10.7. Clotting</li><li>10.8. Avian Blood Models</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 11. The Cardiovascular System<ul><li>11.1. Introduction</li><li>11.2. Heart</li><li>11.3. General Circulatory Hemodynamics</li><li>11.4. The Vascular Tree</li><li>11.5. Control of the Cardiovascular System</li><li>11.6. Environmental Cardiovascular Physiology</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 12. Osmoregulatory Systems of Birds<ul><li>12.1. Introduction</li><li>12.2. The Avian Kidney</li><li>12.3. The Avian Lower Gastrointestinal Tract</li><li>12.4. The Avian Salt Gland</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 13. Respiration<ul><li>13.1. Overview</li><li>13.2. Anatomy of the Avian Respiratory System</li><li>13.3. Ventilation and Respiratory Mechanics</li><li>13.4. Pulmonary Circulation</li><li>13.5. Gas Transport by Blood</li><li>13.6. Pulmonary Gas Exchange</li><li>13.7. Tissue Gas Exchange</li><li>13.8. Control of Breathing</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 14. Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Physiology<ul><li>14.1. Anatomy of the Digestive Tract</li><li>14.2. Anatomy of the Accessory Organs</li><li>14.3. Motility</li><li>14.4. Neural and Hormonal Control of Motility</li><li>14.5. Secretions and Digestion</li><li>14.6. Absorption</li><li>14.7. Age-Related Effects on Gastrointestinal Function</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 15. Poultry Bone Development and Bone Disorders<ul><li>15.1. Introduction</li><li>15.2. Bone Development</li><li>15.3. Bone Disorders</li><li>15.4. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 16. Skeletal Muscle<ul><li>16.1. Introduction</li><li>16.2. Diversity of Avian Skeletal Muscle</li><li>16.3. Embryonic Origins of Skeletal Muscle</li><li>16.4. Postnatal or Posthatch Skeletal Muscle Development</li><li>16.5. Skeletal Muscle Growth</li><li>16.6. Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types</li><li>16.7. Muscle Structure and Contraction</li><li>16.8. Muscle Development: Function of Myogenic Regulatory Factors</li><li>16.9. Satellite Cell and Myoblast Heterogeneity</li><li>16.10. Maternal Inheritance and Growth Selection on Breast Muscle Morphology</li><li>16.11. Effect of Selection for Increased Growth Rate on Muscle Damage</li><li>16.12. Extracellular Matrix Regulation of Muscle Development and Growth</li><li>16.13. Regulation of Muscle Growth Properties by Cell-Membrane Associated Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules</li><li>16.14. Regulation of the Myogenic Regulatory Factors by the Extracellular Matrix</li><li>16.15. Novel Genes Involved in Avian Myogenesis</li><li>16.16. Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 17. The Avian Immune System<ul><li>17.1. Introduction</li><li>17.2. The Organs and Cells of the Avian Immune Response</li><li>17.3. Regulation of the Immune Response</li><li>17.4. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part IV. Metabolism Theme<ul><li>Chapter 18. Carbohydrate Metabolism<ul><li>18.1. Overview of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Birds</li><li>18.2. Circulating Concentrations of Carbohydrates</li><li>18.3. Glucose Utilization</li><li>18.4. Glucose Transport</li><li>18.5. Intermediary Metabolism</li><li>18.6. Gluconeogenesis</li><li>18.7. Glycogen</li><li>18.8. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption</li><li>18.9. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 19. Adipose Tissue and Lipid Metabolism<ul><li>19.1. Introduction</li><li>19.2. Development of Adipose Tissue</li><li>19.3. Adipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation</li><li>19.4. Distribution of Body Fat</li><li>19.5. Lipid Metabolism</li><li>19.6. Functions of Adipose Tissue</li><li>19.7. Factors Affecting Fat Metabolism and Deposition</li><li>19.8. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 20. Protein Metabolism<ul><li>20.1. Introduction</li><li>20.2. Digestion of Proteins</li><li>20.3. Protein Synthesis and Degradation</li><li>20.4. Amino Acids and Metabolism</li><li>20.5. Extranutritional Effects of Amino Acids</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 21. Food Intake Regulation<ul><li>21.1. Introduction</li><li>21.2. Peripheral Regulation of Food Intake</li><li>21.3. CNS Control of Food Intake</li><li>21.4. Classical Neurotransmitters</li><li>21.5. Peptides</li><li>21.6. Selection for Body Weight Alters Food Intake Control Mechanisms</li><li>21.7. Differences between Birds and Mammals</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part V. Endocrine Theme<ul><li>Chapter 22. Avian Endocrine System<ul><li>22.1. Introduction</li><li>22.2. Avian Phylogeny</li><li>22.3. Peptides and Other Chemical Messengers Controlling Physiology</li><li>22.4. Chemical Messengers Found in Birds but Not Mammals</li><li>22.5. Hormones Produced by Nontraditional Endocrine Organs</li><li>22.6. Unique Aspects of Birds</li><li>22.7. The Enigma of Leptin</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 23. Pituitary Gland<ul><li>23.1. Introduction</li><li>23.2. Anatomy of the Hypothalamic&#x2013;Hypophyseal Complex</li><li>23.3. Gonadotropins</li><li>23.4. Thyrotropin</li><li>23.5. Growth Hormone</li><li>23.6. Prolactin</li><li>23.7. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone</li><li>23.8. Other Anterior Pituitary Peptides</li><li>23.9. Functioning of the Pars Tuberalis</li><li>23.10. Neurohypophysis</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 24. Thyroids<ul><li>24.1. Anatomy, Embryology, and Histology of Thyroid Glands</li><li>24.2. Thyroid Hormones</li><li>24.3. Hypothalamic&#x2013;Pituitary&#x2013;Thyroid Axis</li><li>24.4. Effects of Thyroid Hormones</li><li>24.5. Thyroid Interactions with Other Hormones</li><li>24.6. Environmental Influences on Thyroid Function</li><li>24.7. Conclusions and Summary</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 25. The Role of Hormones in the Regulation of Bone Turnover and Eggshell Calcification<ul><li>25.1. Introduction</li><li>25.2. Evolutionary Aspects of Egglay and Medullary Bone</li><li>25.3. Chemistry and Secretion of Calcium-Regulating Hormones</li><li>25.4. Actions of Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D on Target Organs</li><li>25.5. Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptides</li><li>25.6. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Amylin</li><li>25.7. Prostaglandins and Other Factors</li><li>25.8. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 26. Adrenals<ul><li>26.1. Anatomy</li><li>26.2. Adrenocortical Hormones</li><li>26.3. Physiology of Adrenocortical Hormones</li><li>26.4. Adrenal Chromaffin Tissue Hormones</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 27. Endocrine Pancreas<ul><li>27.1. Introduction</li><li>27.2. Pancreas Embryogenesis and Development</li><li>27.3. Insulin and Glucagon Peptides</li><li>27.4. Insulin and Glucagon Release</li><li>27.5. Glucagon and Insulin Receptors</li><li>27.6. General Effects of Glucagon and Insulin</li><li>27.7. Experimental or Genetical Models</li><li>27.8. Summary and Conclusion</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part VI. Reproductive Theme<ul><li>Chapter 28. Reproduction in the Female<ul><li>28.1. Introduction</li><li>28.2. Development and Function of the Female Reproductive System</li><li>28.3. Ovarian Hormones</li><li>28.4. Endocrine and Physiologic Factors Affecting Ovulation and Oviposition</li><li>28.5. Reproductive Seasonality, Breeding, and Ovulation&#x2013;Oviposition Cycles</li><li>28.6. Composition and Formation of the Yolk, Albumen, Organic Matrix, and Shell</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 29. Reproduction in Male Birds<ul><li>29.1. Introduction</li><li>29.2. Reproductive Tract Anatomy</li><li>29.3. Ontogeny of the Reproductive Tract</li><li>29.4. Development and Growth of the Testis</li><li>29.5. Hormonal Control of Testicular Function</li><li>29.6. Spermatogenesis and Extragonadal Sperm Maturation</li><li>29.7. Seasonal Gonadal Recrudescence and Regression</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 30. Reproductive Behavior<ul><li>30.1. Introduction</li><li>30.2. Regulation of Reproductive Behavior</li><li>30.3. Environmental Factors</li><li>30.4. Social Factors</li><li>30.5. Age and Experience</li><li>30.6. Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Reproductive Behavior</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 31. Brooding<ul><li>31.1. Introduction</li><li>31.2. Brooding (Broodiness)</li><li>31.3. Rearing Behavior</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 32. The Physiology of the Avian Embryo<ul><li>32.1. Introduction</li><li>32.2. The Freshly Laid Egg</li><li>32.3. Incubation</li><li>32.4. Development of Physiological Systems</li><li>32.5. Artificial Incubation</li><li>32.6. Conclusions and Future Directions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part VII. Cross Cutting Themes<ul><li>Chapter 33. Stress in Birds<ul><li>33.1. Introduction</li><li>33.2. Understanding Stress: From Energy to Glucocorticoids</li><li>33.3. Adrenocortical Response to Environmental Change</li><li>33.4. Phenotypic Plasticity and Selection on the Stress Response</li><li>33.5. Field Methods to Study Adrenocortical Function</li><li>33.6. Glosary of Terms and Abbreviations</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 34. Circadian Rhythms<ul><li>34.1. Environmental Cycles</li><li>34.2. Circadian Rhythms</li><li>34.3. Photoreceptors</li><li>34.4. Pacemakers</li><li>34.5. Sites of Melatonin Action</li><li>34.6. Avian Circadian Organization</li><li>34.7. Molecular Biology</li><li>34.8. Conclusion and Perspective</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 35. Circannual Cycles and Photoperiodism<ul><li>35.1. Annual Cycles</li><li>35.2. Annual Cycles of Birds</li><li>35.3. Circannual Rhythms</li><li>35.4. Photoperiodism</li><li>35.5. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Photoperiodic Time Measurement</li><li>35.6. Molecular Mechanisms of Photoperiodism</li><li>35.7. Comparison to Other Vertebrate Taxa</li><li>35.8. Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 36. Annual Schedules<ul><li>36.1. Introduction</li><li>36.2. Background: Patterns of Environmental Variation and Avian Annual Schedules</li><li>36.3. Effects of and Mechanisms of Response to Photoperiod and Other Environmental Cues</li><li>36.4. Adaptive Variation in Cue Processing Mechanisms as it Relates to Life in Different Environments</li><li>36.5. Integrated Coordination of Stages and Carryover Effects</li><li>36.6. Variation in Scheduling Mechanisms and Responses to Human-Induced Rapid Environmental Change</li><li>36.7. Effects of Seasonality on Immune Function</li><li>36.8. Seasonal Modulation of Immune Function</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 37. Regulation of Body Temperature: Strategies and Mechanisms<ul><li>37.1. Introduction</li><li>37.2. The Evolution of Endothermy</li><li>37.3. Different Strategies to Maintain Endothermy</li><li>37.4. Regulatory Mechanism of Endothermy</li><li>37.5. Physiological Processes That Enable Endothermy</li><li>37.6. The Development of Endothermy during Embryogenesis</li><li>37.7. The Cost of Maintaining Body Temperature in Poultry Compared with That in Other Bird Species</li><li>37.8. Summary and Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 38. Avian Molting<ul><li>38.1. Introduction</li><li>38.2. Anatomical and Ecological Considerations</li><li>38.3. Environmental and Physiological Control</li><li>38.4. Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 39. Flight<ul><li>39.1. Introduction</li><li>39.2. Scaling</li><li>39.3. Energetics of Bird Flight</li><li>39.4. The Flight Muscles of Birds</li><li>39.5. Development of Locomotor Muscles and Preparation for Flight</li><li>39.6. Metabolic Substrate Transport</li><li>39.7. The Cardiovascular System</li><li>39.8. The Respiratory System</li><li>39.9. Migration and Long-Distance Flight Performance</li><li>39.10. Flight at High Altitude</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 40. Physiological Challenges of Migration<ul><li>40.1. General Concepts</li><li>40.2. Evolution of Migration</li><li>40.3. Cost of Migration</li></ul></li><li>Chapter 41. Actions of Toxicants and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Birds<ul><li>41.1. Introduction</li><li>41.2. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Utilities and Hazards?</li><li>41.3. Life-Cycle of EDCs in the Environment</li><li>41.4. Classes of EDC<span class="smallcaps">S</i></li><li>41.5. Conclusions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


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© Academic Press 2015
20th August 2014
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Colin Scanes

Colin G. Scanes was formerly editor of the journal Poultry Science and has held senior faculty and/or administrative positions at the University of Leeds, Rutgers – the State University of New Jersey, Iowa State University, Mississippi State University and University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Dr. Scanes was also the editor for the latest (sixth) edition of Sturkie’s Avian Physiology for Elsevier/Academic Press. He has extensive experience in teaching undergraduates and research with more than 600 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wisconsin, Biosciences / Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Milwaukee, USA


"…represents a benchmark for those who are interested in avian physiology...a first place to start when researchers in comparative physiology, animal physiology, and ornithology approach the literature." --Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

"...a very comprehensive book that should be in the library of anyone interested in avian comparative physiology, veterinary medicine, and related fields." --JAVMA

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