Structure and Crystallization of Glasses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080069982, 9781483184333

Structure and Crystallization of Glasses

1st Edition

Authors: Werner Vogel
eBook ISBN: 9781483184333
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 246
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Structure and Crystallization of Glasses details glass structural analysis from an experimental perspective. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover various structural concepts. The text first introduces the basic elements of glass structures, and then proceeds to discussing the development of classical structure theories. The next chapter presents research that deals with structure of prototype and original glasses. Next, the book details the position of the structural conceptions resulting from the studies. Chapter 5 talks about the crystallization behavior of glasses according to the classical studies of G. Tammann and their development. Chapter 6 deals with the effects of the composition of glass on the resulting form of a crystal phase in the course of growth. The seventh chapter discusses the microphases in glass and their relations to crystallization, and the last chapter details the directed crystallization in glass. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the research, development, and application of glass technology, such as materials engineers and inorganic chemists.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. The Development of The Classical Structure Theories

3. Recent Research Into the Structure of Prototype and Original Glasses

3.1. Research Into Prototype Glasses (Beryllium Fluoride Glasses)

3.1.2. The Binary Alkali Beryllium Fluoride Glass Systems

3.1.3. The Binary Alkaline Earth Beryllium Fluoride Glass Systems: Mgf2, Caf2,Srf2-Bef2

3.1.4. The Ternary Alkali Alkaline Earth Beryllium Fluoride Glass Systems Mgf2, Caf2, Srf2, Baf2-Kf-Bef2 Mgf25 Caf 25 Srf2-Naf-Bef2 Mgf2-Lif-Bef2

3.1.5. Analysis of Prototype Glasses

3.1.6. General Conclusions From the Analyses of the Prototype Glasses Regarding Their Structure

3.2. Research Into Original Glasses (Silicate, Borate and Phosphate Glasses)

3.2.1. Electron Microscopical Analysis

3.2.2. The Binary Na2O-Be2O3 Glass System

3.2.3. The Ternary Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 Glass System

3.2.4. The Pyrex-Type Alkali Borosilicate Glasses

3.2.5. The Binary Lead and Thallium Silicate Glasses

3.3. Investigations into the Li2O-SiO2 Glass System, in Particular its Importance in Developing New Structural Concepts

3.3.1. Work Introducing the Development of New Structural Concepts and the Possibility of Influencing Drop-Like Microphases in Glass

3.3.2. The Binary Li2O-SiO2 Glass System

3.4. The Light Diffusion and Color Effect in Glasses with a Microheterogeneous Structure

3.4.1. General

3.4.2. Investigations of Fluorosilicate Glasses

3.4.3. Investigations Into Binary Lead Silicate Glasses

3.4.4. Investigations Into Phosphate-Clouded Borosilicate Glasses

4. The Present Position of the Structural Conceptions Resulting from The Studies to Date

4.1. The Desegregation Process in the Liquid Glass Melt and the Formation of a Microheterogeneous Structure

4.2. The Segregation Process in Solid Glass on Heating and Tempering

4.3. Analogies Between the Segregation Processes in Glasses of the Li2O-SO2 And Lif-Bef2 Systems

4.4. Secondary Segregation Processes in the Two-Phase Glasses

4.5. Dynamically Active Behavior of Fluid Pairs and A Possible Connection with the Segregation Processes in Glass

4.6. Critical Observations Regarding Both Classical Structural Theories

4.6.1. The Network Theory

4.6.2. The Crystallite Theory

5. Crystallization Behavior of Glasses According to the Classical Studies of G. Tammann and Their Later Development

5.2. Tammann's Findings Regarding the Crystallization Behavior of Glasses

5.3. Nucleation and Nuclear Growth

6. The Effects of the Composition of Glass on the Resulting Form of a Crystal Phase in the Course of Growth

6.1. General Relations Between Crystal Growth and the Developing Crystal Form

6.2. Crystallization Phenomena in a Phosphate Optical Glass With Very Different Forms

7. Microphases in Glass and Their Relations to Crystallization

7.1. Observations in Fluorosilicate Glasses

7.2. Observations in Magnesium Phosphate Glasses

8. Directed Crystallization in Glass

8.1. Crystallization as a Basis For New Glass Products

8.1.1. Pyroceram Products

8.1.2. Photosensitive Glasses and Photoceram Products

8.1.3. Pyroceram and Photoceram Products as Well as Relations with the New Considerations Regarding the Structure of Glasses

8.2. Homogeneous Nucleation

8.2.1. Experimental Investigations Into Pyroceram Products as a Contribution to the Problem of Homogeneous Nucleation in Glasses

8.2.2. Structural Processes in Converting Pyroceram Glass Into a Ceramic Product

8.3. Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.3.1. Regarding Crystallization in Glasses With Microheterogeneous Structure Induced by Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.3.2. Experimental Investigation of Crystallization in Lithium Silicate Glasses with a Homogeneous Structure Induced by Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.3.3. Experimental Investigations of Crystallization in Prototype Glasses Induced by Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.4. Epitaxy As A Primary Phenomenon in Crystallization Induced by Heterogeneous Nucleation

8.4.1. Assumptions for Experimental Investigations Into the Problem o Epitaxy with Heterogeneous Nucleation and Crystallization in Glass

8.4.2. Electron-Optical Investigations Into the Problem of Nucleation and Epitaxy in Prototype Glasses

8.4.3. Crystal Lattice Relations Between Heterogeneous Nuclei and in Induced Crystal Phase in the Prototype Glasses Examined

8.5. Directed Surface Crystallization

8.6. General Conceptions Regarding the Strength of Glass and the Possibilities of an Increase in its Strength by Directed Crystallization

8.6.1. The Theoretical Strength of Glass

8.6.2. Causes of the Small Strength of Glass in Practice

8.6.3. Glass Structure and the Strength of Glass

8.6.4. Classical Methods for Increasing Glass Strength

8.6.5. Increasing the Mechanical Strength of the Glass by Controlled Surface Crystallization

References and Sources

Supplement. Electron Microscopical Methods of Investigation in Glass Research

1. Electron Microscopical Methods of Investigation and Preparation Techniques

1.1. Direct Methods of Preparation

1.2. Indirect Single-Stage Methods of Preparation

1.3. Indirect Two-Stage Methods of Preparation (Casting Processes)

1.4. Image Formation, Contrast

1.5. Oblique Shadowing, Pre-Shadowing, Decoration Processes, Etc.

2. Studies on Glass with the Electron Microscope

2.1. Special Methods of Preparation for the Examination of Glass, Especially for Studies of Glass Structure

2.1.1. Selection of the Method of Preparation

2.1.2. Preparation for Direct Transmission Study of Glass

2.1.3. Indirect Methods of Preparation for Glass Analysis

2.2. Special Procedural Technique for the Production of Electron Microscope Specimens for Glass Investigations

2.2.1. Fracture Phenomena and the Structure of the Fracture

2.2.2. Production of Fractures at Atmospheric Pressure and in a High Vacuum

2.2.3. Heat Treatment of Glass Specimens and Other Special Manipulations

2.2.4. Descriptions of the Standard Method and of the Apparatus Used

3. Final Considerations

References and Sources

Index of Authors

Index of Subjects


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About the Author

Werner Vogel

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