Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081009062, 9780081009123

Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

1st Edition

Editors: Pascal Yvon
eBook ISBN: 9780081009123
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009062
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 23rd September 2016
Page Count: 684
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Description

Operating at a high level of fuel efficiency, safety, proliferation-resistance, sustainability and cost, generation IV nuclear reactors promise enhanced features to an energy resource which is already seen as an outstanding source of reliable base load power. The performance and reliability of materials when subjected to the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors are essential areas of study, as key considerations for the successful development of generation IV reactors are suitable structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors explores the current state-of-the art in these areas.

Part One reviews the materials, requirements and challenges in generation IV systems. Part Two presents the core materials with chapters on irradiation resistant austenitic steels, ODS/FM steels and refractory metals amongst others. Part Three looks at out-of-core materials.

Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors is an essential reference text for professional scientists, engineers and postgraduate researchers involved in the development of generation IV nuclear reactors.

Key Features

  • Introduces the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors and implications for structural materials
  • Contains chapters on the key core and out-of-core materials, from steels to advanced micro-laminates
  • Written by an expert in that particular area

Readership

Professional scientists and engineers involved in the development of generation IV nuclear reactors as well as postgraduate researchers in academia working on generation IV nuclear reactors.

Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  • Introduction
  • 1. Introduction to Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 1.1. Introduction: the need for new nuclear systems
    • 1.2. Generation IV requirements and technical challenges
    • 1.3. Generation IV systems fulfilling these requirements
    • 1.4. Conclusion
  • 2. Corrosion phenomena induced by liquid metals in Generation IV reactors
    • 2.1. Introduction to the liquid metals selected for Generation IV reactors
    • 2.2. Thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the liquid metals
    • 2.3. The impact of structural material corrosion on reactor operation
    • 2.4. Parameters affecting corrosion in the liquid metal and experimental procedures
    • 2.5. Corrosion under reactor conditions: mass transfer, experimental data, and modeling
    • 2.6. Impact of corrosion on mechanical strength of the structural material
    • 2.7. Corrosion mitigation
    • 2.8. Conclusions
  • 3. Corrosion phenomena induced by gases in Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 3.1. Corrosion of IHX alloys in impure helium of a VHTR system
    • 3.2. Corrosion phenomena in supercritical CO2
    • 3.3. Concluding remarks
  • 4. Corrosion phenomena induced by supercritical water in Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. What is supercritical water?
    • 4.3. Test methodologies
    • 4.4. General corrosion in SCW
    • 4.5. Environmentally assisted cracking
    • 4.6. Summary
  • 5. Corrosion phenomena induced by molten salts in Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 5.1. Introduction: molten salts in Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 5.2. Requirements and molten salt mixtures available
    • 5.3. Corrosion processes in molten salts
    • 5.4. Salt chemistry control
    • 5.5. Materials and corrosion data for different reactor systems and components
    • 5.6. Conclusion
  • 6. Mechanical behavior of structural materials for Generation IV reactors
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Mechanical properties of F-M steels
    • 6.3. Analysis of the macroscopic behavior of martensitic steels for low loads
    • 6.4. Microstructural changes during the strain of martensitic steels at low loads
    • 6.5. Elements of a martensitic steel softening model
    • 6.6. Damage and fracture in fatigue and creep
    • 6.7. Recent progresses concerning long-term creep and fatigue behavior of austenitic stainless steels
    • 6.8. Conclusions and recommended further work
  • 7. Irradiation effects in Generation IV nuclear reactor materials
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Radiation damage process
    • 7.3. Advances in characterization of defects in irradiated materials
    • 7.4. Mesoscale modeling of radiation damage
    • 7.5. Summary
  • 8. Irradiation-resistant austenitic steels as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Austenitic steels and Generation IV systems
    • 8.3. Out-of-pile characteristics of reference austenitic steels
    • 8.4. In-pile and postirradiation mechanical properties of reference austenitic steels
    • 8.5. Swelling and irradiation creep properties of reference austenitic steels
    • 8.6. Development of advanced austenitic materials designed to increase the in-pile duration of core structures of Generation IV systems
    • 8.7. Conclusion
    • Glossary
  • 9. Irradiation-resistant ferritic and martensitic steels as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Use of ferritic-martensitic steels in fast reactors and future Generation IV reactors
    • 9.3. Irradiation effects in ferritic-martensitic steels
    • 9.4. Advanced ferritic-martensitic steels with improved thermal creep resistance
    • 9.5. Summary
    • Abbreviations
  • 10. Oxide dispersion-strengthened/ferrite-martensite steels as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Nanosized oxide particle control
    • 10.3. Development of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels in Japan
    • 10.4. Development of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels in France
    • 10.5. Development of other oxide dispersion-strengthened steels
    • 10.6. Joining
    • 10.7. Environmental compatibility
    • 10.8. Irradiation
    • 10.9. Conclusion
  • 11. Refractory metals as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 11.1. Refractory metals for nuclear application
    • 11.2. V and its alloys
    • 11.3. Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and their alloys
    • 11.4. Summary
  • 12. SiCf/SiC composites as core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Potential use in Generation IV systems
    • 12.3. Fabrication and role of each constituent of the SiCf/SiC composite and matrix filling technologies
    • 12.4. Behavior of the SiCf/SiC composite in operating conditions
    • 12.5. Codes and standards
    • 12.6. Summary
  • 13. Carbon/carbon materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Potential use in Generation IV systems
    • 13.3. Fabrication and role of each constituent of C/C composites and matrix filling technologies
    • 13.4. Behavior of C/C in operating conditions
    • 13.5. Standards and codes
    • 13.6. Conclusions
  • 14. Graphite as a core material for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Nuclear graphite grades, their manufacture, microstructure, and properties
    • 14.3. Nuclear graphite irradiation-induced dimensional and property changes
    • 14.4. Component structural integrity
    • 14.5. Thermal oxidation in fault conditions
    • 14.6. Dealing with irradiated graphite waste
    • 14.7. Advances in the treatment of graphite and carbowastes
    • 14.8. Molten salt reactors—graphite
    • 14.9. Discussion and conclusions
  • 15. Absorber materials for Generation IV reactors
    • 15.1. Introduction: neutron absorbers for Generation IV reactors
    • 15.2. Scaling the neutron absorbers
    • 15.3. Behavior under irradiation of neutron absorber materials
    • 15.4. Conclusion: for a better definition of the needs
    • Abbreviations
  • 16. Advanced irradiation-resistant materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Identification of potential advanced irradiation-resistant materials
    • 16.3. Basic properties
    • 16.4. Fabrication and joining
    • 16.5. Experimental feedback and possible applications
    • 16.6. Future trends and conclusions
  • 17. Conventional austenitic steels as out-of-core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. General overview of austenitic steels in Generation IV frame
    • 17.3. Choice of austenitic steel grades for future French SFR out-of-core components
    • 17.4. Basic physical, thermal, and mechanical properties
    • 17.5. Fabrication and joining
    • 17.6. Long-term mechanical behavior in operating conditions
    • 17.7. Corrosion and oxidation behavior
    • 17.8. Low-dose irradiation
    • 17.9. Codes and standards
    • 17.10. New alloy development
    • 17.11. Conclusions
    • Glossary
  • 18. Conventional ferritic and martensitic steels as out-of-core materials for Generation IV nuclear reactors
    • 18.1. Introduction—attractive characteristics for Generation IV nuclear plants
    • 18.2. Pedigree of materials
    • 18.3. Application and challenges
    • 18.4. Evaluation technologies
    • 18.5. Fabrication technologies
    • 18.6. Code qualification
    • 18.7. Summary
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
684
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780081009123
Hardcover ISBN:
9780081009062

About the Editor

Pascal Yvon

Pascal Yvon graduated in 1984 from Ecole Centrale Paris (France). He subsequently obtained a Master in Materials Science in 1986 and a PhD in Applied Physics from the California Institute of Technology (USA) for his work on pressure induced crystal to amorphous transformation in the Al-Ge system. After working as a research assistant at the Center for Material Science at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), he worked at the Institute for Advanced Materials in Petten (The Netherlands), before joining CEA in 1996, where he was in charge of studies on the behavior under irradiation of zirconium alloys. Then he held several management positions in the Department of Materials for Nuclear applications, before becoming in 2006 program manager for high temperature reactors, hydrogen production and non-electric applications. Since 2009, Pascal YVON has been the head of the Department of Materials for Nuclear applications of the Nuclear Energy Division of CEA.

Affiliations and Expertise

CEA (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives), France