Stroke

Stroke

Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management

7th Edition - February 6, 2021

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  • Editors: James Grotta, Gregory Albers, Joseph Broderick, Scott Kasner, Eng Lo, Ralph Sacco, Lawrence Wong, Arthur Day
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323694254
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323694247

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Description

Authored by the world’s foremost stroke experts, this classic text brings you fully up to date with current research findings and management approaches for cerebrovascular disease. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, 7th Edition, covers every aspect of this fast-moving field, and is an ideal resource for stroke specialists, general neurologists, and other medical professionals with an interest in stroke. You’ll find expert clinical guidance, comprehensive pathophysiology coverage, data from recent trials, advances in diagnostic tests, full-color CT images, pathology slides, and much more, for a complete picture of today’s stroke medicine.

Table of Contents

  • Instructions for online access
  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Video Contents
  • Foreword to the Seventh Edition
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • AHA Evidence-Based Classifications
  • Section I. Pathophysiology
  • Introduction
  • 1. Cerebral Vascular Biology in Health and Disease
  • Introduction
  • Organization of the Cerebral Circulation
  • Physiologic Regulation of Cerebral Vascular Tone
  • Alterations in Cerebral Vascular Function During Hypertension and Atherosclerosis
  • Conclusion
  • 2. Mechanisms of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
  • Thrombus Formation
  • Fibrinolysis
  • Plasminogen Activators
  • Sequential Combinations of Plasminogen Activators in Exogenous Thrombolysis
  • Regulation of Endogenous Fibrinolysis
  • Clinical Consequences of Therapeutic Plasminogen Activation
  • Limitations to The Clinical use of Fibrinolytic Agents for Ischemic Stroke
  • Plasminogen Activators in Cerebral Tissue
  • Plasminogen Activators in Experimental Cerebral Ischemia
  • Plasminogen Activators and Recanalization in Ischemic Stroke
  • Endovascular Interventions
  • Plasminogen Activators and Cerebral Hemorrhage in Ischemic Stroke
  • Conclusion
  • 3. Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism: Regulation and Pathophysiology in Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Normal Cerebral Energy Metabolism Energy Metabolism and Hemodynamics
  • Cerebral Blood Flow and Other Measurements of Cerebral Perfusion
  • Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Conclusions
  • 4. Histopathology of Brain Tissue Response to Stroke and Injury
  • Four Broad Categories of Cerebral Ischemia
  • Large Vessel Strokes
  • Small Vessel Strokes
  • Tissue Response to Therapy of Cerebral Ischemia
  • Conclusions
  • 5. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Death
  • Introduction
  • Global Ischemia
  • Experimental Models of Global and Focal Ischemia
  • Modalities of Ischemic Cell Death
  • Triggers of Ischemic Cell Death
  • Mechanisms and Regulations of Ischemic Neuronal Death
  • 6. Intracellular Signaling: Mediators and Protective Responses
  • Preconditioning
  • Windows of Preconditioning
  • Induction of Preconditioning
  • Cross-Tolerance
  • Cellular Defense
  • Cellular Maintenance
  • Regeneration and Repair
  • 7. The Neurovascular Unit and Responses to Ischemia
  • Introduction
  • Architecture of the Central Nervous System and the Neurovascular Unit
  • Evidence for the Neurovascular Unit
  • Summary and Implications
  • 8. Mechanisms of Damage After Cerebral Hemorrhage
  • Experimental Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Mechanism of Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption
  • Therapeutic Approaches Targeting ICH Pathogenesis in Animal Research
  • Conclusion
  • 9. White Matter Pathophysiology
  • White Matter Anatomy and Physiology
  • Model Systems for Studying White Matter Ischemia
  • Effects of Ischemia on White Matter
  • Mechanisms of White Matter Injury
  • Autoprotection in White Matter
  • 10. Inflammation and Immune Response
  • Initiation and Local Propagation of the Immune Response After Stroke
  • The Peripheral Immune Response to Stroke
  • The Role of the Immune System in Post-Stroke Brain Repair
  • Immunomodulation and Immune Cell Therapies as a Therapeutic Approach
  • From Bench to Bedside
  • Conclusions
  • 11. Mechanisms of Plasticity Remodeling and Recovery
  • Introduction
  • Endogenous Brain Remodeling After Stroke
  • Exogenous Therapies for Stroke
  • Conclusion
  • 12. Genetics and Vascular Biology of Brain Vascular Malformations
  • Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Genetic Studies of Non-familial Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Cerebral Cavernous Malformations
  • 13. Gliovascular Mechanisms and White Matter Injury in Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
  • Introduction
  • Conclusions and Future Opportunities
  • Section II. Epidemiology and Risk Factors
  • Introduction
  • 14. Global Burden of Stroke
  • Introduction
  • Interpretations of GBD Stroke Trends
  • 15. Stroke Disparities
  • Introduction
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Stroke
  • Geographic Disparities in Stroke
  • Socioeconomic Status and Stroke
  • Conclusions
  • 16. Risk Factors and Prevention
  • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
  • Mortality
  • Cost
  • Incidence of Stroke
  • Frequency of Stroke by Type
  • Risk Factors for Stroke
  • Preventing a First Stroke
  • 17. Prognosis After Stroke
  • Introduction
  • Mortality After Ischemic Stroke
  • Reccurence After Ischemic Stroke
  • 18. Vascular Dementia and Cognitive Impairment
  • Historical Evolution of the Concept of Vascular Dementia
  • Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Dementia
  • Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Following Stroke
  • Overlap of Vascular and Neurodegenerative Pathologies
  • Epidemiology
  • Neuropsychological Assessments of Vascular Cognitive Impairment
  • Imaging Correlates of Vascular Cognitive Impairment (fig. 18.2)
  • Neuropathologic Aspects
  • Prevention of Vascular Cognitive Impairment
  • Treatment of Persons With Clinical Vascular Dementia
  • Control of Vascular Risk Factors
  • Pharmacologic Treatment of Cognitive Impairment
  • Summary
  • 19. Genetic Basis of Stroke Occurrence, Prevention, and Outcome
  • Introduction
  • Evidence for Heritability of Stroke and its Subtypes
  • Disorders Associated with Ischemic or Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Section III. Clinical Manifestations
  • Introduction
  • 20. Classification of Ischemic Stroke
  • History
  • Challenges in the Diagnosis of Etiologic Subtypes
  • Probabilistic Approach to Etiologic Stroke Classification
  • Phenotypic Versus Causative Classification
  • Unstable Causative Etiology
  • Large Artery Atherosclerosis
  • Embolism Attributed to Cardiac Sources
  • Small Artery Occlusion
  • Uncommon Causes of Stroke
  • Stroke of Undetermined Etiology
  • 21. Clinical Scales to Assess Patients With Stroke
  • Desired Qualities of Stroke Scales
  • Scales Used by Emergency Medical Services
  • Scales to Differentiate Hemorrhagic Stroke From Ischemic Stroke
  • Differentiation of Ischemic Stroke Syndromes
  • Scales to Quantify the Severity of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Scales to Quantify the Severity of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Scales to Quantify the Severity of Ischemic Stroke
  • Systems to Forecast the Risk of Stroke Among Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack
  • Risk Stratification Assessment of Transient Ischemic Attack
  • Scales Used to Assess Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
  • Systems to Differentiate the Cause of Ischemic Stroke (Stroke Subtype)
  • Scales and Measures to Assess Responses to Rehabilitation Interventions
  • Scales to Rate Outcomes (Disability) After Stroke
  • Scales to Rate Outcomes (Global or Handicap) After Stroke
  • Scales to Assess the Quality of Life After Stroke
  • 22. Carotid Artery Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Carotid Anatomy and Lesion Development
  • Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis
  • Evaluation of Extracranial Carotid Stenosis
  • Intracranial Carotid Artery Disease
  • Carotid Disease Other Than Atherosclerosis
  • Pathophysiology of Carotid Artery Ischemia
  • Clinical Syndromes From Carotid Artery Disease
  • Transient Ischemic Attacks
  • Stroke Risk in Patients With Carotid Disease
  • 23. Anterior Cerebral Artery Disease
  • Anatomy
  • Symptoms and Signs
  • 24. Middle Cerebral Artery Disease
  • Descriptive Terms
  • Histology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Syndromes of Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction
  • Clinical Syndromes From Infarction of Either Hemisphere
  • Syndromes Referable to Language-Dominant (Usually Left) Hemisphere Infarction
  • Syndromes of Infarction in the Hemisphere Nondominant for Speech and Language
  • 25. Posterior Cerebral Artery Disease
  • Anatomy
  • Pathology and Stroke Mechanisms
  • Prevalence and Frequency of Involved Structures
  • Clinical-Topographic Correlation
  • Prognosis
  • 26. Vertebrobasilar Disease
  • Anatomy
  • Pathology and Stroke Mechanisms
  • Small Artery (Penetrating Artery) Disease
  • Cardiac Embolism
  • Vascular Topographic Syndromes
  • Pontine Infarcts
  • Clinical-Topographic Correlation
  • Midbrain Infarction
  • Cerebellar Infarcts
  • Top of the Basilar Artery Syndrome
  • 27. Lacunar Syndromes, Lacunar Infarcts, and Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease
  • Historical Aspects
  • The Spectrum Of Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease
  • Definitions
  • Pathoanatomy
  • Risk Factors
  • Imaging Studies
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Prognosis
  • 28. Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Introduction
  • Organization of Care
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Conclusions
  • 29. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Historical Aspects
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Radiographic and Diagnostic Testing
  • Searching for the Aneurysm
  • Management
  • Summary of Management of Patients With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Harmonization of Clinical Variables
  • Outcomes
  • 30. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Anomalies
  • Introduction
  • Anomalies of the Arterial Wall
  • Anomalies of the Capillary Junction
  • Anomalies of Cerebral Veins
  • 31. Stroke and Other Vascular Syndromes of the Spinal Cord
  • Introduction
  • Historical Aspects
  • Anatomy: Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord
  • Physiology of Spinal Cord Blood Flow
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Presentation of Spinal Cord Infarction
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Section IV. Specific Conditions and Stroke
  • Introduction
  • 32. Cardiac Diseases
  • Clinical Features of Cardioembolic Transient Ischemic Attack or Stroke
  • Diagnostic Studies
  • Approach to Management
  • Specific Cardiac Conditions Causing Cerebral Embolism
  • 33. Atherosclerotic Disease of the Proximal Aorta
  • Frequency of Aortic Plaques in the General Population
  • Plaque Morphology and Stroke Risk
  • Natural History of Aortic Plaques
  • Aortic Plaques in Stroke Patients of Different Race-Ethnicity
  • Factors Associated With Aortic Plaques in Stroke Patients
  • Aortic Plaques and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Proximal Aortic Plaques and Atrial Fibrillation
  • Proximal Aortic Plaques and Carotid Artery Disease
  • Proximal Aortic Plaques and Coronary Artery Disease
  • Proximal Aortic Plaques and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
  • Atherosclerosis of Aortic Arch Branch Vessels and Ischemic Stroke Risk
  • Proximal Aortic Plaques and Ischemic Stroke—Future Directions
  • Summary
  • 34. Stroke Related to Surgery and Other Procedures
  • Introduction
  • Perioperative Risk Assessment
  • Carotid Assessment Prior to Cardiac and Other Surgery
  • Periprocedural Antithrombotic Management in Patients With Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Acute Stroke Therapy
  • Conclusion
  • 35. Arterial Dissection, Fibromuscular Dysplasia, and Carotid Webs
  • Arterial Dissections
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia
  • Carotid Webs
  • 36. Inflammatory and Infectious Vasculopathies
  • Vasculitides of the Central Nervous System
  • Infectious Diseases and Stroke
  • 37. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes
  • Introduction
  • History, Evolution, and Associated Conditions
  • Demographics and Clinical Features
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Brain Imaging
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Etiology and Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Outcome and Prognosis
  • 38. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome
  • Definition and Clinical Features
  • Historical Recognition of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome
  • Epidemiology and Associated Clinical Conditions
  • Clinical Features, Exam and Laboratory Findings
  • Imaging Findings
  • Pathophysiology
  • Treatment
  • Sequelae
  • 39. Stroke and Substance Abuse
  • Opioids
  • Amphetamine and Related Agents
  • Cocaine
  • Phencyclidine
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
  • Marijuana
  • Barbiturates
  • Inhalants
  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • 40. Moyamoya Disease
  • Guideline for Diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathology
  • Etiology and Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Symptoms and Signs
  • Laboratory Findings
  • Clinical Examination
  • Disease Progression and Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion and Future Directions
  • 41. Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy
  • History
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Neuroimaging
  • Pathology
  • Genetics
  • Diagnosis
  • Conclusion
  • 42. Hematologic Disorders and Stroke
  • Introduction
  • Pathogenesis of Thrombosis
  • Screening of Patients With Stroke for Coagulopathies
  • 43. Migraine and Stroke
  • Clinical Features
  • Classification
  • Epidemiology
  • Neuroimaging
  • Headache of Vascular Disease
  • Migraine That Mimics Stroke
  • Mechanisms
  • Migraine and Patent Foramen Ovale
  • Stroke Prevention in Patients With Migraine
  • Treatment of Migraine Attacks in Patients at Risk For Stroke or in Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack or Stroke
  • 44. Cryptogenic Stroke
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology and Diagnosis
  • Natural History of Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke
  • Management Implications of Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke
  • Clinical and Research Issues for Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke
  • 45. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Venous Anatomy
  • Pathophysiology
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Aspects
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Section V. Diagnostic Studies
  • Introduction
  • 46. Ultrasonography
  • Introduction
  • Applied Principles of Ultrasound Physics
  • Transcranial Doppler
  • 47. Computed Tomography-Based Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Noncontrast Computed Tomography
  • Computed Tomography Angiography
  • Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging
  • Posterior Circulation Computed Tomography Imaging
  • Noncontrast Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography Angiography in Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • 48. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrovascular Diseases
  • General Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Clinical Applications of MRI in Patients With Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Transient Ischemic Attacks
  • Diffusion-Weighted MRI
  • Magnetic Resonance Perfusion
  • Implications of MRI for Transient Ischemic Attack Definition and Clinical Guidelines
  • 49. Cerebral Angiography
  • Technique
  • Risks
  • Angiographic Cerebral Vasculature: Normal Anatomy
  • Indications
  • 50. OMICs in Stroke: Insight Into Stroke Through Epigenomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Lipidomics, and Metabolomics
  • Introduction
  • Epigenomics
  • Transcriptomics
  • Proteomics
  • Metabolomics
  • Lipidomics
  • Conclusions
  • Therapy
  • Part A. Medical Therapy
  • Introduction
  • 51. Stroke Systems of Care and Impact on Acute Stroke Treatment
  • Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy—Demographics
  • Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy—How to Get the Right Patient to the Right Hospital?
  • 52. Prehospital and Emergency Department Care of the Patient With Acute Stroke
  • Introduction
  • The Course of Events for the Acute Stroke Patient
  • Recognition of Stroke Symptoms by the Patient or Family Members
  • First Contact With Medical Care
  • Dispatch of Prehospital Providers
  • Summary/Conclusion
  • 53. Intravenous Thrombolysis
  • Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
  • Preclinical Studies of Thrombolysis for Acute Stroke
  • Clinical Studies of Thrombolysis for Acute Stroke
  • Guidelines for Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Stroke—Then and Now
  • Combination Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • 54. Antithrombotic Therapy for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Rationale
  • Pharmacology
  • Safety of Emergency Antithrombotic Treatment for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Efficacy of Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Conclusions
  • Current Status of Antithrombotic Therapy
  • Future of Antithrombotic Therapy
  • 55. General Stroke Management and Stroke Units
  • Introduction
  • Stroke Unit Care
  • General Stroke Management
  • Reassess the Patient Medically and Neurologically
  • Ascertain Definite Stroke Diagnosis and Rule Out Stroke Mimics
  • Establish Stroke Etiology
  • Achieve and Maintain Vital Functions Within or Close to Physiologic Ranges (Homeostasis)
  • Prevent, Diagnose, and Treat Complications
  • Detect Risk Factors and Start Preventive Measures for Avoiding Recurrences
  • Start Early Rehabilitation
  • Be Active in Stroke Research and Education
  • When Hope is Lost, Remember Organ Donation
  • Conclusions
  • 56. Critical Care of the Patient With Acute Stroke
  • General Principles in The Care of The Critically Ill Stroke Patient
  • Specific Treatment of Various Stroke Syndromes
  • Temperature Management
  • Conclusion
  • 57. Pharmacologic Modification of Acute Cerebral Ischemia
  • Background: Preclinical and Clinical Cytoprotection
  • Clinical Cytoprotective Therapy Trials
  • Conclusion
  • 58. Treatment of “Other” Stroke Etiologies
  • Vascular Disorders
  • Hematologic Disorders
  • Miscellaneous Disorders
  • 59. Medical Therapy of Intracerebral and Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  • Emergency Department Management
  • The Importance of Intensive Medical Therapies
  • Prevention of Hematoma Expansion
  • Management of Cerebral Edema, Hydrocephalus, and Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  • Selection of Patients for Surgery
  • Special Considerations in Anticoagulant-Related Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • Restarting Antithrombotic Medications After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Predictors of Outcome and Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Treatments
  • Conclusions
  • 60. Rehabilitation and Recovery of the Patient With Stroke
  • Mechanisms for Gains
  • Assessing Impairment, Disability, Activity, and Quality of Life
  • Rehabilitation-Related Medical Complications
  • Overview of Practices
  • Motor Rehabilitation
  • Upper Extremity and Self-Care Skills
  • Conclusions
  • 61. Interventions to Improve Recovery After Stroke
  • Biology of Stroke Recovery Suggests Therapeutics Targets
  • Repair-Based Therapies are Distinct From Acute Therapies
  • Drugs
  • Biologic Agents
  • Activity-Based Therapies
  • Principles of Repair-Based Clinical Trials After Stroke
  • 62. Enhancing Stroke Recovery With Cellular Therapies
  • What are Cell Therapies?
  • Mechanisms, Rationale, and Temporal Windows
  • Different Cell Types and Their Categorization
  • Delivery Routes
  • Steps Guidelines for Translation From Bench to Clinical
  • Spectrum of Different Cell Types
  • Extracellular Vesicles
  • Clinical Trials
  • Future Directions
  • 63. Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention of Stroke
  • Understanding Platelet Physiology in the Planning of Antiplatelet Therapy
  • Platelet Function in Patients At Risk of Occlusive Stroke
  • Antiplatelet Drugs in Stroke Prevention
  • Combinations of Antiplatelet Agents
  • Other Antiplatelet Agents
  • Antiplatelet and Cerebral Microbleeds
  • Conclusions
  • 64. Secondary Prevention of Cardioembolic Stroke
  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Summary
  • 65. Design of Stroke-Related Clinical Trials
  • When Can a Stroke-Related Trial be Conducted?
  • Types of Prevention Trials
  • Therapeutic Trials
  • The Phases of Clinical Trials
  • Outcome Measures
  • Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Phase 3
  • Randomization
  • Recruitment
  • Adherence to Treatment and Trial Follow-Up
  • Data Analyses
  • Missing Data
  • Adaptive Designs
  • Sample Size
  • Study-Level and Patient-Level Meta-Analyses
  • Protocol, Manual of Procedures, and Statistical Analysis Plan
  • Regulations and Guidelines
  • Part B. Interventional Therapy
  • Introduction
  • Introduction
  • 66. Endovascular Therapy of Extracranial and Intracranial Occlusive Disease
  • Carotid Artery Stenosis
  • Extracranial Vertebral Artery Stenosis
  • Intracranial Atherosclerosis
  • 67. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Introduction
  • Mechanical Thrombectomy
  • Anterior Circulation
  • Late Time Window
  • Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations
  • Posterior Circulation
  • Time to Angiographic Reperfusion and Clinical Outcome After Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Organization of Systems of Care for Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Future Directions
  • Conclusion
  • 68. Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Historical Overview
  • Evidence for Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Aneurysms
  • Evidence for Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms
  • Techniques of Endovascular Aneurysm Treatment
  • Preprocedural Management: Unruptured Aneurysms
  • Preprocedural Management: Ruptured Aneurysms
  • Intraprocedural Management
  • Postprocedural Management
  • Summary
  • 69. Interventional Therapy of Brain and Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Introduction
  • Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations
  • 70. Dural Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Pathophysiology and Lesion Evolution
  • Part C. Surgical Therapy
  • Introduction
  • 71. Surgery of Anterior and Posterior Aneurysms
  • Anterior Circulation
  • Internal Carotid Artery
  • Posterior Circulation
  • 72. Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Introduction
  • 73. Management of Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  • Introduction
  • 74. Surgical Management of Cranial and Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Introduction
  • Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Abbreviations
  • Disclosures and Financial Support
  • 75. Surgical Management of Cavernous Malformations and Venous Anomalies
  • Natural History
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Genetic Considerations
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • NonOperative Management
  • Neurosurgical Considerations
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Stereotactic Laser Ablation
  • Venous Anomalies
  • Conclusions
  • 76. Indications for Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients With Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment Options
  • Medical Treatment
  • Carotid Revascularization
  • Conclusions
  • 77. Extracranial–Intracranial Bypass for Cerebral Ischemia
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Flow Augmentation
  • Flow Replacement
  • Surgical Technique
  • Conclusion
  • 78. Decompressive Craniectomy for Infarction and Intracranial Hemorrhages
  • Introduction
  • Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction
  • Cerebellar Space-Occupying Infarctions
  • Cerebellar Hemorrhage
  • Other Intracranial Hemorrhage
  • Conclusions for Clinical Practice
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1176
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: February 6, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323694254
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323694247

About the Editors

James Grotta

Professor of Neurology, Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston; Director, Stroke Program, Memorial Hermann - Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Stroke Program, Memorial Hermann - Texas Medical Center; Professor of Neurology; Chairman, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Gregory Albers

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Stanford Stroke Center; Coyote Foundation Professor of Neurology and Neurological Sciences

Joseph Broderick

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of the Greater Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky Stroke Team; Professor and Chairman, University of Cincinnati, Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, Cincinnati, OH

Scott Kasner

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Neurology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Eng Lo

Eng H. Lo. Ph.D. (Editor)

Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Dr. Lo is currently Head of the Neuroprotection Research Laboratories at Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor of Neuroscience in Harvard Medical School. For over 25 years, Dr. Lo has contributed to research delineating mechanisms of injury and repair in the central nervous system.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA

Ralph Sacco

Affiliations and Expertise

Olemberg Chair of Neurology and Professor of Neurology, Epidemiology and Public Health, Human Genetics, and Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL

Lawrence Wong

Affiliations and Expertise

Mok Hing Yiu Professor of Medicine, Chief of Neurology, Departments of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, PR China

Arthur Day

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