Stress Corrosion Cracking - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696733, 9780857093769

Stress Corrosion Cracking

1st Edition

Theory and Practice

Editors: V S Raja Tetsuo Shoji
eBook ISBN: 9780857093769
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696733
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016466
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 22nd September 2011
Page Count: 816
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

List of reviewers

Foreword

Preface

Part I: Fundamental aspects of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement

Chapter 1: Mechanistic and fractographic aspects of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Quantitative measures of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

1.3 Basic phenomenology of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

1.4 Metallurgical variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

1.5 Environmental variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

1.6 Surface-science observations

1.7 Proposed mechanisms of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

1.8 Determining the viability and applicability of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

1.9 Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (T-SCC) in model systems

1.10 Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (I-SCC) in model systems

1.11 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in some commercial alloys

1.12 General discussion of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

1.13 Conclusions

1.14 Acknowledgements

Chapter 2: Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) phenomena and mechanisms

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Proposed mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and supporting evidence

2.3 Relative contributions of various mechanisms for different fracture modes

2.4 General comments

2.5 Conclusions

Part II: Test methods for determining stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities

Chapter 3: Testing and evaluation methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 General aspects of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing

3.3 Smooth specimens

3.4 Pre-cracked specimens – the fracture mechanics approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

3.5 The elastic-plastic fracture mechanics approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

3.6 The use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data

3.7 Standards and procedures for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing

3.8 Future trends

Part III: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in specific materials

Chapter 4: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in low and medium strength carbon steels

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Dissolution-dominated stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

4.3 Hydrogen embrittlement-dominated stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

4.4 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction to stainless steels

5.2 Introduction to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steels

5.3 Environments causing stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.4 Effect of chemical composition on stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.5 Microstructure and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.6 Nature of the grain boundary and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.7 Residual stress and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.8 Surface finishing and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.9 Other fabrication techniques and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.10 Controlling stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

5.11 Sources of further information

5.12 Conclusions

Chapter 6: Factors affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fundamental mechanistic understanding of stainless steels

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Metallurgical/material factors

6.3 Environmental factors

6.4 Mechanical factors

6.5 Elemental mechanism and synergistic effects for complex stress corrosion cracking (SCC) systems

6.6 Typical components and materials used in ressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling Water reactors (BWR)

Chapter 7: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel-based alloys

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The family of nickel alloys

7.3 Environmental cracking behavior of nickel alloys

7.4 Resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by application

7.5 Conclusions

Chapter 8: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of aluminium alloys

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

8.3 Factors affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

8.4 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of weldments

8.5 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of aluminium composites

8.6 Conclusions

Chapter 9: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of magnesium alloys

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Alloy influences

9.3 Influence of loading

9.4 Environmental influences

9.5 Mechanisms

9.6 Recommendations to avoid stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

9.7 Conclusions

9.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen-assisted cracking in titanium alloys

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys

10.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of titanium alloys

10.4 Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloys

10.5 Conclusions

10.6 Acknowledgements

Chapter 11: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper and copper-based alloys

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Stress corrosion crackin (SCC) mechanisms

11.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper and copper-based alloys

11.4 Role of secondary phase particles

11.5 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mitigation strategies

11.6 Conclusions

Chapter 12: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless and ferritic steel weldments

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Effect of welding defects on weld metal corrosion

12.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel weld metal

12.4 Welding issues in ferritic steels

12.5 Conclusions

Chapter 13: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in polymer composites

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of short fiber reinforced polymer injection moldings

13.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in synthetic sea water

13.4 Fatigue crack propagation mechanism of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in synthetic sea water

13.5 Aging crack propagation mechanisms of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites

13.6 Aging of biodegradable composites based on natural fiber and polylactic acid (PLA)

Part IV: Environmentally assisted cracking problems in various industries

Chapter 14: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boilers and cooling water systems

Abstract:

14.1 Overview of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in water systems

14.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boiler water systems

14.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in cooling water systems

14.4 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) monitoring strategies

Chapter 15: Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in oil and gas production

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Overview of oil and gas production

15.3 Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms common to oil and gas production

15.4 Materials for casing, tubing and other well components

15.5 Corrosivity of sour high pressure/high temperature (HPHT) reservoirs

15.6 Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) performance of typical alloys for tubing and casing

15.7 Qualification of materials for oil- and gas-field applications

15.8 The future of materials selection for oil and gas production

Chapter 16: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aerospace vehicles

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Structures, materials and environments

16.3 Material-environment compatibility guidelines

16.4 Selected case histories (aircraft)

16.5 Preventative and remedial measures

16.6 Conclusions

Chapter 17: Prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power systems

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Life prediction approaches

17.3 Parametric dependencies and their prediction

17.4 Prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) components

17.5 Conclusions

17.6 Future trends

17.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 18: Failures of structures and components by metal-induced embrittlement

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Mechanisms and rate-controlling processes for liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) and solid-metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE)

18.3 Evidence for liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) and solid-metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE)

18.4 Failure of an aluminium-alloy inlet nozzle in a natural gas plant [22]

18.5 Failure of a brass valve in an aircraft-engine oil-cooler [31]

18.6 Failure of a screw in a helicopter fuel-control unit [36]

18.7 Collapse of a grain-storage silo [37]

18.8 Failure of planetary gears from centrifugal gearboxes [39]

18.9 Beneficial uses of liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in failure analysis

Chapter 19: Stress corrosion cracking in pipelines

Abstract:

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipelines

19.3 Factors contributing to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipelines

19.4 CANMET studies of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

19.5 Prevention of stress corrosion cracking (SCC)failures

19.6 Conclusions

Index


Description

The problem of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which causes sudden failure of metals and other materials subjected to stress in corrosive environment(s), has a significant impact on a number of sectors including the oil and gas industries and nuclear power production. Stress corrosion cracking reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon as well as examining stress corrosion behaviour in specific materials and particular industries.

The book is divided into four parts. Part one covers the mechanisms of SCC and hydrogen embrittlement, while the focus of part two is on methods of testing for SCC in metals. Chapters in part three each review the phenomenon with reference to a specific material, with a variety of metals, alloys and composites discussed, including steels, titanium alloys and polymer composites. In part four, the effect of SCC in various industries is examined, with chapters covering subjects such as aerospace engineering, nuclear reactors, utilities and pipelines.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Stress corrosion cracking is an essential reference for engineers and designers working with metals, alloys and polymers, and will be an invaluable tool for any industries in which metallic components are exposed to tension, corrosive environments at ambient and high temperatures.

Key Features

  • Examines the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) presenting recognising testing methods and materials resistant to SCC
  • Assesses the effect of SCC on particular metals featuring steel, stainless steel, nickel-based alloys, magnesium alloys, copper-based alloys and welds in steels
  • Reviews the monitoring and management of SCC and the affect of SCC in different industries such as petrochemical and aerospace

Readership

Any industries in which metallic components are exposed to tension, corrosive environments at ambient and high temperatures.


Details

No. of pages:
816
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857093769
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845696733
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016466

About the Editors

V S Raja Editor

V. S. Raja is Professor at the Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.

Affiliations and Expertise

Indian Institute of Technology, India

Tetsuo Shoji Editor

Tetsuo Shoji is Professor at the Fracture and Reliability Research Institute at Tohoku University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tohoku University, Japan