Stress Corrosion Cracking

Stress Corrosion Cracking

Theory and Practice

1st Edition - September 22, 2011

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  • Editors: V S Raja, T Shoji
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016466
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093769

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The problem of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which causes sudden failure of metals and other materials subjected to stress in corrosive environment(s), has a significant impact on a number of sectors including the oil and gas industries and nuclear power production. Stress corrosion cracking reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon as well as examining stress corrosion behaviour in specific materials and particular industries.The book is divided into four parts. Part one covers the mechanisms of SCC and hydrogen embrittlement, while the focus of part two is on methods of testing for SCC in metals. Chapters in part three each review the phenomenon with reference to a specific material, with a variety of metals, alloys and composites discussed, including steels, titanium alloys and polymer composites. In part four, the effect of SCC in various industries is examined, with chapters covering subjects such as aerospace engineering, nuclear reactors, utilities and pipelines.With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Stress corrosion cracking is an essential reference for engineers and designers working with metals, alloys and polymers, and will be an invaluable tool for any industries in which metallic components are exposed to tension, corrosive environments at ambient and high temperatures.

Key Features

  • Examines the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) presenting recognising testing methods and materials resistant to SCC
  • Assesses the effect of SCC on particular metals featuring steel, stainless steel, nickel-based alloys, magnesium alloys, copper-based alloys and welds in steels
  • Reviews the monitoring and management of SCC and the affect of SCC in different industries such as petrochemical and aerospace


Any industries in which metallic components are exposed to tension, corrosive environments at ambient and high temperatures.

Table of Contents

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    Part I: Fundamental aspects of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement

    Chapter 1: Mechanistic and fractographic aspects of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Quantitative measures of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    1.3 Basic phenomenology of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    1.4 Metallurgical variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    1.5 Environmental variables affecting stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    1.6 Surface-science observations

    1.7 Proposed mechanisms of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)

    1.8 Determining the viability and applicability of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

    1.9 Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (T-SCC) in model systems

    1.10 Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (I-SCC) in model systems

    1.11 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in some commercial alloys

    1.12 General discussion of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

    1.13 Conclusions

    1.14 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 2: Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) phenomena and mechanisms


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Proposed mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and supporting evidence

    2.3 Relative contributions of various mechanisms for different fracture modes

    2.4 General comments

    2.5 Conclusions

    Part II: Test methods for determining stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities

    Chapter 3: Testing and evaluation methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 General aspects of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing

    3.3 Smooth specimens

    3.4 Pre-cracked specimens – the fracture mechanics approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    3.5 The elastic-plastic fracture mechanics approach to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    3.6 The use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data

    3.7 Standards and procedures for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing

    3.8 Future trends

    Part III: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in specific materials

    Chapter 4: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in low and medium strength carbon steels


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Dissolution-dominated stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    4.3 Hydrogen embrittlement-dominated stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    4.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels


    5.1 Introduction to stainless steels

    5.2 Introduction to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steels

    5.3 Environments causing stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.4 Effect of chemical composition on stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.5 Microstructure and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.6 Nature of the grain boundary and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.7 Residual stress and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.8 Surface finishing and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.9 Other fabrication techniques and stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.10 Controlling stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    5.11 Sources of further information

    5.12 Conclusions

    Chapter 6: Factors affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fundamental mechanistic understanding of stainless steels


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Metallurgical/material factors

    6.3 Environmental factors

    6.4 Mechanical factors

    6.5 Elemental mechanism and synergistic effects for complex stress corrosion cracking (SCC) systems

    6.6 Typical components and materials used in ressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling Water reactors (BWR)

    Chapter 7: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel-based alloys


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The family of nickel alloys

    7.3 Environmental cracking behavior of nickel alloys

    7.4 Resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by application

    7.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 8: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of aluminium alloys


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms

    8.3 Factors affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    8.4 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of weldments

    8.5 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of aluminium composites

    8.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of magnesium alloys


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Alloy influences

    9.3 Influence of loading

    9.4 Environmental influences

    9.5 Mechanisms

    9.6 Recommendations to avoid stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    9.7 Conclusions

    9.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 10: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen-assisted cracking in titanium alloys


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Corrosion resistance of titanium alloys

    10.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of titanium alloys

    10.4 Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloys

    10.5 Conclusions

    10.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 11: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper and copper-based alloys


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Stress corrosion crackin (SCC) mechanisms

    11.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper and copper-based alloys

    11.4 Role of secondary phase particles

    11.5 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mitigation strategies

    11.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 12: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless and ferritic steel weldments


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Effect of welding defects on weld metal corrosion

    12.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel weld metal

    12.4 Welding issues in ferritic steels

    12.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 13: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in polymer composites


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of short fiber reinforced polymer injection moldings

    13.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in synthetic sea water

    13.4 Fatigue crack propagation mechanism of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in synthetic sea water

    13.5 Aging crack propagation mechanisms of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites

    13.6 Aging of biodegradable composites based on natural fiber and polylactic acid (PLA)

    Part IV: Environmentally assisted cracking problems in various industries

    Chapter 14: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boilers and cooling water systems


    14.1 Overview of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in water systems

    14.2 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boiler water systems

    14.3 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in cooling water systems

    14.4 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) monitoring strategies

    Chapter 15: Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in oil and gas production


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Overview of oil and gas production

    15.3 Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms common to oil and gas production

    15.4 Materials for casing, tubing and other well components

    15.5 Corrosivity of sour high pressure/high temperature (HPHT) reservoirs

    15.6 Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) performance of typical alloys for tubing and casing

    15.7 Qualification of materials for oil- and gas-field applications

    15.8 The future of materials selection for oil and gas production

    Chapter 16: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aerospace vehicles


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Structures, materials and environments

    16.3 Material-environment compatibility guidelines

    16.4 Selected case histories (aircraft)

    16.5 Preventative and remedial measures

    16.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 17: Prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power systems


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Life prediction approaches

    17.3 Parametric dependencies and their prediction

    17.4 Prediction of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) components

    17.5 Conclusions

    17.6 Future trends

    17.7 Sources of further information

    Chapter 18: Failures of structures and components by metal-induced embrittlement


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Mechanisms and rate-controlling processes for liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) and solid-metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE)

    18.3 Evidence for liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) and solid-metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE)

    18.4 Failure of an aluminium-alloy inlet nozzle in a natural gas plant [22]

    18.5 Failure of a brass valve in an aircraft-engine oil-cooler [31]

    18.6 Failure of a screw in a helicopter fuel-control unit [36]

    18.7 Collapse of a grain-storage silo [37]

    18.8 Failure of planetary gears from centrifugal gearboxes [39]

    18.9 Beneficial uses of liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in failure analysis

    Chapter 19: Stress corrosion cracking in pipelines


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipelines

    19.3 Factors contributing to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipelines

    19.4 CANMET studies of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC)

    19.5 Prevention of stress corrosion cracking (SCC)failures

    19.6 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 816
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: September 22, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016466
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093769

About the Editors

V S Raja

Prof. V.S Raja received his doctorate from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore in 1987, then joined the faculty at the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay, where he is now the Institute Chair Professor in the Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science. His research focuses broadly on the field of corrosion. He worked as a guest researcher at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, as a Visiting Professor at the University of Nevada in the United States, and as a Guest Scientist at GKSS in Germany and Tohoku University in Japan. He is currently working on numerous corrosion-related challenges in Canada, France, Australia, Belgium, and the Netherlands. He is a member of the CSIR and DRDO laboratories' Research Councils, and he sat on the NACE international research committee from 2009 to 2013. He has garnered multiple national accolades and is a NACE fellow as a result of his efforts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Indian Institute of Technology, India

T Shoji

Tetsuo Shoji is Professor at the Fracture and Reliability Research Institute at Tohoku University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tohoku University, Japan

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