Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128009512, 9780128011379

Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior

1st Edition

Handbook of Stress Series Volume 1

Editors: George Fink
eBook ISBN: 9780128011379
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128009512
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th March 2016
Page Count: 502
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Stress: Concepts, Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior: Handbook in Stress Series, Volume 1, examines stress and its management in the workplace and is targeted at scientific and clinical researchers in biomedicine, psychology, and some aspects of the social sciences. The audience is appropriate faculty and graduate and undergraduate students interested in stress and its consequences. The format allows access to specific self-contained stress subsections without the need to purchase the whole nine volume Stress handbook series. This makes the publication much more affordable than the previously published four volume Encyclopedia of Stress (Elsevier 2007) in which stress subsections were arranged alphabetically and therefore required purchase of the whole work. This feature will be of special significance for individual scientists and clinicians, as well as laboratories. In this first volume of the series, the primary focus will be on general stress concepts as well as the areas of cognition, emotion, and behavior.

Key Features

  • Offers chapters with impressive scope, covering topics including the interactions between stress, cognition, emotion and behaviour
  • Features articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field
  • Includes rich illustrations with explanatory figures and tables
  • Includes boxed call out sections that serve to explain key concepts and methods
  • Allows access to specific self-contained stress subsections without the need to purchase the whole nine volume Stress handbook series


Graduate and medical libraries, clinicians, physician scientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, immunologists, neuroendocrinologists, molecular biologists, neuropharmacologists, geneticists, social workers, health workers, researchers, faculty and graduate and undergraduate students in biomedicine, psychology and social sciences, including stress and its management in the workplace.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1: General Concepts
    • Chapter 1: Stress, Definitions, Mechanisms, and Effects Outlined: Lessons from Anxiety
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Stress Definitions
      • Fear Versus Anxiety….What Are the Differences?
      • Biological Response to Stress
      • Conclusions and Relevance for Stress and Anxiety Management
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 2: The Alarm Phase and the General Adaptation Syndrome: Two Aspects of Selye’s Inconsistent Legacy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Criticisms of the GAS
      • Bridging the Chasm Between Cannon and Selye
      • Learning About Stress
      • Evidence for Stressor-Specific Neuroendocrine Signatures
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Corticosteroid Receptor Balance Hypothesis: Implications for Stress-Adaptation
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • MR, GR, and Cellular Homeostasis
      • Processing of Stressful Information
      • Testing the Balance Hypothesis
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 4: The Fight-or-Flight Response: A Cornerstone of Stress Research
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Concept of Homeostasis
      • The Fight-or-Flight Response
      • Fight-or-Flight Taken to an Extreme
      • Theories of Emotions
      • The Legacy of Walter B. Cannon
    • Chapter 5: Central Role of the Brain in Stress and Adaptation: Allostasis, Biological Embedding, and Cumulative Change
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Homeostasis, Allostasis and Allostatic Load and Overload
      • Plasticity and Vulnerability of the Brain
      • Translation to the Human Brain
      • Sex Differences in Stress Responsiveness and What This Means for the Rest of the Brain
      • Lessons from Gene Expression
      • Lessons from Epigenetic Influences
      • The Life Course and the Epigenetics of Individual Differences
      • Interventions
    • Chapter 6: Behavior: Overview
      • Abstract
      • Behavioral Responses to Stress
      • Interactions Between Behavioral and Physiological Components of the Stress Response
      • Behavioral Sources of Stress
    • Chapter 7: Conservation of Resources Theory Applied to Major Stress
      • Abstract
      • The Interdependence of Resources
      • The Origins of Traumatic Stress
      • Principles of COR Theory
      • Corollaries of COR Theory
      • Practical Implications
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8: Control and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Behavioral Control and Physiological Stress Responses
      • Perceived Control
      • Cognitive Control and Coping
      • Self-Control
      • Control and Well-Being
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: Effort-Reward Imbalance Model
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Theory and Measurement
      • Selected Empirical Evidence
      • Implications for Prevention and Future Research Directions
    • Chapter 10: Environmental Factors
      • Abstract
      • Historical Background
      • The Impact of Environmental Factors on Stress
      • Differential Exposure and Vulnerability to Environmental Stressors
    • Chapter 11: Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Stress Response System
      • Abstract
      • Utility of the Stress Response System
      • Phylogeny of the Stress Response
      • How Does the SRS Help?
      • Adaptive Regulation of Stress Responsiveness
      • Mismatch Between Ancestral and Modern Environments
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 12: Life Events Scale
      • Abstract
      • The Importance of Assessing Life Events and Stress Exposure
      • Major Life Events
      • Stress Appraisal
      • Chronic Stressors
      • Daily Hassles
      • Future Directions in Research Involving Life Events Scales
    • Chapter 13: Psychological Stressors: Overview
      • Abstract
      • Historical and General Considerations
      • Conceptual Developments
      • Methodological Considerations and Recent Developments
    • Chapter 14: Remodeling of Neural Networks by Stress
      • Abstract
      • Early Ideas About the Stress Response
      • Activation of Brain Systems
      • Structural Plasticity of the Mature Brain
      • Remodeling of Brain Cells by Stress
      • Stress Suppresses Neurogenesis in the Adult Dentate Gyrus
      • Plasticity of Glial Cells
      • Plastic Changes of Brain Cells are Reflected by Alterations in Gene Expression
      • Structural Changes are Reversible
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Epigenetics, Stress, and Their Potential Impact on Brain Network Function
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • The Epigenetics Revolution in Biology
      • The HPA Axis and Measures of the Central Nervous System
      • Epigenetic Mediation of Stress-Related Processes
      • Pathways I: Stress, Epigenetics and Synaptic Plasticity
      • Pathways II: Toward Brain Network Function
  • 2: Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior
    • Chapter 16: Cognition and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Environmental, Biological, and Cognitive Components of Stress
      • Cognition and Stress: Cognitive Origins of Stress
      • Stress and Cognition: Cognitive Consequences of Stress
    • Chapter 17: Stress, Memory, and Memory Impairment
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Memory
      • Stress and Memory Encoding
      • Stress and Memory Consolidation
      • Stress and Memory Retrieval
      • Reconsolidation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 18: Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory
      • Abstract
      • Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory in Humans
      • Effects of Stress on Learning and Memory in Animals
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 19: Trauma and Memory
      • Abstract
      • Characteristics of Traumatic Memory
      • Sensory-Perceptual Representation
      • Autobiographic Contextual Memory
      • Neurobiological Basis of Memory and Trauma
    • Chapter 20: Stress, Trauma, and Memory in PTSD
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Overview of the Neurobiology of Stress
      • Impacts of Extreme Stress on Brain Circuitry
      • Implications for Memory in PTSD
      • Enhanced Recall of Trauma-Related Information
      • Dissociation
      • Impaired New Learning
      • Neuropsychological Correlates of PTSD
      • Psychological Theories of PTSD
      • Centrality of Memory to Psychological Theories of PTSD
      • Psychological Treatment of PTSD
      • Summary
    • Chapter 21: Adolescent Cognitive Control: Brain Network Dynamics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Early Research Implicating the Frontal Lobes
      • Brain Networks of Cognitive Control
      • Large-Scale Network Dynamics
      • Future Directions and Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 22: The Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Correlates of Deficient Biological Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Deficient Stress Reactivity
      • Motivational Dysfunction
      • Cognitive Ability, Tests of Respiratory Function, and Deficient Stress Reactivity
      • Deficient Stress Reactions and Neural Hypoactivation
      • Deficient Stress Reactivity and Other Behavioral Manifestations of Poor Motivational Regulation
      • The Origins of Deficient Stress Reactivity
      • The Reactivity Hypothesis Revisited: Inverted-U or Orthogonal Processes
      • Biological Disengagement: A Wider Phenomenon
      • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
    • Chapter 23: When the Work Is Not Enough: The Sinister Stress of Boredom
      • Abstract
    • Chapter 24: Anxiety Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Panic Disorder
      • Agoraphobia
      • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
      • Specific Phobia
      • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      • Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder
      • Treatment
      • Pharmacotherapy
      • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 25: The Post-Traumatic Syndromes
      • Abstract
      • The Evolution of the Construct
      • Contentious Issues
      • Who Gets PTSD?
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 26: Distress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Assessment of Distress
      • Influences on Distress
      • Individual Differences in Vulnerability to Distress
      • Psychological Concomitants of Distress
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 27: Depersonalization: Systematic Assessment
      • Abstract
      • Definition and Characteristics
      • Etiology
      • Assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders—Revised
      • Case Study
      • Conclusions
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 28: Emotional Inhibition
      • Abstract
      • Emotion and Inhibition
      • Domains of Emotional Inhibition
      • Pathways from Emotional Inhibition to Health Disorders and Illness Behaviors
      • Rituals and Therapeutic Interventions
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 29: Chronic Stress, Regulation of Emotion, and Functional Activity of the Brain
      • Abstract
      • Stress
      • Emotion Regulation
      • Functional Activity and Emotion Regulation
      • Chronic Stress and Emotion Regulation
      • Emotion Regulation, PTSD, and Brain Functioning
      • General Conclusion
    • Chapter 30: Neuroimaging and Emotion
      • Abstract
      • Emotion
      • Definition of Emotion
      • Emotion Perception and Attention
      • Decision-Making
      • Memory and Learning
      • Interoception and Subjective Feeling States
      • Social Interaction
      • Emotion Regulation
      • Emotion Dysregulation
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 31: Rumination, Stress, and Emotion
      • Abstract
    • Chapter 32: Psychology of Suicide
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Relationship Between Stress and Suicide
      • The Situation
      • Stress-Diathesis Models of Suicide
      • Physiological Correlates of Stress and Suicide
      • Preventing Suicide
    • Chapter 33: Sociology of Suicide
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Durkheim's Theory
      • Fatalistic Suicide
      • Henry and Short's Theory
      • Naroll's Theory
      • Culture Conflict
      • Measuring Regional Stress
      • Multivariate Studies of Regional Suicide Rates
      • Nonfatal Suicide Behavior
    • Chapter 34: Cortisol Awakening Response
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Biological Origins of the CAR
      • Measurement of the CAR
      • Factors Affecting the CAR
      • Significance for Stress and Health Research
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 35: Anger
      • Abstract
      • Anger and Stress
      • The Experience and Expression of Anger
      • Anger Physiology
      • Anger Dyscontrol: Physical and Psychological Health Problems
      • Anger Treatment
    • Chapter 36: Aggressive Behavior and Social Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Sociobiology of Feral Rodents
      • Experimental Laboratory Models of Aggression
      • Aggressive Behavior: Different Forms in Both Animals and Humans
      • Aggressive Behavior and Stress
      • Acute Social Stress Models
      • Chronic Social Stress Models
      • Individual Differences in Aggressiveness and Coping with Social Stress
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 37: The Amygdala and Fear
      • Abstract
      • Amygdala Anatomy
      • The Amygdala and Fear Conditioning in Animals
      • The Amygdala and Fear in Humans: Evidence from Lesion Studies
      • The Amygdala and Fear in Humans: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies
      • The Amygdala and Psychopathology
    • Chapter 38: Aging and Psychological Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Regulation of Stress-Response (Allostasis) and Age-Related Disease (Allostatic Load; AL)
      • Primary and Secondary Markers of AL and Stress Response
      • Tertiary Markers of AL and Stress-Response and Central Role of the Brain
    • Chapter 39: Childbirth and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Childbirth and Stress
      • Theoretical Models of Childbirth and Trauma
      • Impact of Traumatic Childbirth
      • Costs of Traumatic Childbirth and Clinical Implications
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 40: Stress Generation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definitional and Methodological Considerations
      • Evidence for Stress Generation
      • Predictors of Stress Generation
      • Moderators of Stress Generation
      • Summary and Directions for Future Research
    • Chapter 41: Caregivers and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Stress Process Model as a Guide
      • Health Effects of Care-Related Stress
      • Intervention for Caregivers
      • Institutional Care
      • Summary
    • Chapter 42: Fatigue and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Clinical Diagnostic Perspective
      • Fatigue as an Adaptive Response to Stress
      • Psychophysiological and Biological Perspective
      • External Demands in the Work Environment
      • Biobehavioral and Psychosomatic Perspective
      • Conclusions
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 43: Burnout
      • Abstract
      • Definition and Assessment
      • Psychosocial Factors
      • A Mediation Model of Burnout
      • Implications for Interventions
    • Chapter 44: Coping Process
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Stress and Coping
      • Ways of Coping
      • Tripartite Model of Coping
      • Coping Effectiveness
      • A Contextual Model of Coping
      • Summary
    • Chapter 45: Combat Stress
      • Abstract
      • The Unique Context of Combat Stress
      • Combat Stress Reactions and Clinical Intervention
      • Reintegration: Homecoming after Combat
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 46: Survivor Guilt
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • History of the Concept of Survivor Guilt
      • Different Types of Survivor Guilt
      • Posttraumatic Manifestations of Survivor Guilt
      • Purpose of Survivor Guilt
      • Treatment of Survivor Guilt
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 47: Refugees: Stress in Trauma
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Refugee Trauma
      • Postmigration
      • Psychiatric Disorders Among Refugees
      • The Course of Trauma Syndrome Among Refugees
      • Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease
      • Evaluation of the Refugee Patient
      • Treatment
      • Medicine
      • Future Research Approaches
    • Chapter 48: Stress in Emergency Personnel
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Critical Incidents and Emergency Personnel
      • Critical Incident Stress
      • Crisis Intervention
      • Principles of Crisis Intervention
      • Goals of Crisis Intervention
      • Critical Incident Stress Management
      • Strategic CISM Services
      • Strategic CISM Planning Formula
      • CISM Techniques
      • The Status of CISM
      • Positive Effects of CISM
      • The Future of CISM
    • Chapter 49: Stress in Policing
      • Abstract
      • Scope of the Stress Problem in Policing
      • Sources of Stress in Policing
      • Impact of Stress on Police Officers
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 50: Peacekeeping
      • Abstract
      • Types of Peacekeeping Missions
      • Unique Stressors of Peacekeeping
      • Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Peacekeeping
      • Conclusions and Recommendations
    • Chapter 51: Optimism, Pessimism, and Stress
      • Abstract
      • Dispositional Optimism
      • Optimism and Stress
      • Goal Engagement
      • Coping
      • Self-Regulation
      • Mental Well-being
      • Physical Well-being
      • How to Improve Optimism
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 52: Chronic Pain and Perceived Stress
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • The Experience of Pain
      • Theories of Pain and the Relationship to Stress
      • Pain-Related Neurobiological and Biological Findings
      • Future Directions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 53: Industrialized Societies
      • Abstract
      • Process of Industrialization and Epidemiological Transition
      • Stressful Social Environments and Health
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 54: Indigenous Societies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Stress in Unacculturated Indigenous Societies
      • Stress and Acculturation in Indigenous Societies
      • Stress and Migration
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 55: Diet and Stress: Interactions with Emotions and Behavior
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Animal Research into Stress and Eating Behavior
      • Human Research into Stress and Food Intake
      • Mechanisms Relating Stress to Eating
      • Summary
    • Chapter 56: Stretched Thin: Stress, In-Role, and Extra-Role Behavior of Educators
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Extra-Role Behavior
      • Extra-Role Behavior in Educational Settings
      • Managing Extra-Role Behavior and Stress
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 57: Stress and Coping in the Menopause
      • Abstract
      • Psychological Stress
      • Stress and the Menopause
      • Coping and Menopause
      • Implications for Menopause Management
    • Chapter 58: Psychosomatic Medicine
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • History and Current Developments
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 59: Religion, Stress, and Superheroes
      • Abstract
      • Religion as a Concept
      • Religion as Cure for Stress
      • Religion as a Cause of Stress
      • Religion as a Correlate of Stress
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 60: Dental Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Psychological Couplings of the Oral Region
      • Dental Fear, Phobic Reactions, and Panic Disorder
      • Psychosomatic Manifestations in Dentistry
      • General Principles of Prevention
      • Management of Dental Fear
      • Management of Psychosomatic Manifestations
      • Conclusion
  • Index


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About the Editor

George Fink

George Fink

George Fink is a neuroendocrinologist and neuropharmacologist. He is Professorial Research Fellow at the Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne University at which he is also an Honorary Professor. He is renowned for his research in reproductive neuroendocrinology, the neuroendocrine control of stress, positive and negative hormonal feedback control in neuroendocrine loops, and the effect of sex hormones on central neurotransmission. He was founding editor of the Encyclopedia of Stress (2000) and several other volumes on stress.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professorial Research Fellow and Hon Professor, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia


Highly Commended in Health and Social Care in the 2017 BMA Medical Book Awards


There are many books on Stress, but [this] covers a much wider variety of interesting topics than most - I'm enjoying reading it. Excellent choice of themes and authors. Good and tight editing. The Key Point boxes are very helpful. Of all the stresses that are described in the book - clearly one will never be a source of stress for [the reader] - Boredom!

-- Professor David Copolov, OAM, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FRANZCP, MPM, DPM, AO, Pro Vice-Chancellor, Major Campuses and Student Engagement, and Professor of Psychiatry, Monash University, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne and Professorial Fellow, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health


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