Stress and Distress in Response to Psychosocial Stimuli

Stress and Distress in Response to Psychosocial Stimuli

Laboratory and Real-Life Studies on Sympatho-Adrenomedullary and Related Reactions

1st Edition - January 1, 1972

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  • Editor: Lennart Levi
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483139722

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Stress and Distress in Response to Psychosocial Stimuli is a book based on a study spanning over four years about the different psychosocial stimuli and the body's different reactions towards them, especially stress and disease. The book includes a short introduction to psychosocial stimuli and its physiological mechanisms, psychophysiological reactions; psychosomatic research; and psychosocially mediated disease and its hypotheses. Also covered are the study's methodological considerations; sympathoadrenomedullary responses to pleasant and unpleasant pyschosocial stimuli; sympathoadrenomedullary activity; the effects of work conditions; the emotional reactions during visual stimulation; stressor-induced changes to plasma lipids; and the psychological and physiological reactions and psychomotor performance during prolonged and complex stressor exposure. The text is recommended for psychologists and medical doctors, especially those who wish to study further about psychosocial stimuli and what it can do to the human body.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1 Introduction: Psychosocial Stimuli, Psychophysiological Reactions, and Disease

    1.1 Objectives of this Chapter

    1.2 Definitions

    1.3 A Theoretical Model for Psychosocially Mediated Disease, and Some Hypotheses

    1.4 Type of Evidence to Be Reviewed

    1.5 Psychosocial Stimuli and Physiological Mechanisms

    1.5.1 Some General Considerations

    1.5.2 Sympathoadrenomedullary Activity

    1.5.3 Adrenocortical Activity

    1.5.4 Thyroid Activity

    1.5.5 Psychosocial Stimuli: Influence on Human Physiology

    1.6 Interacting Variables, Precursors, and Disease

    1.7 Psychosomatic Research

    1.7.1 Some General Considerations

    1.7.2 The Stimuli

    1.7.3 Interacting Variables

    1.7.4 Reactions

    1.7.5 What to Measure, and Why

    1.8 General Objectives of the Studies to Be Presented

    1.9 Acknowledgments

    1.10 References

    2 Methodological Considerations in Psychoendocrine Research

    2.1 Objectives of this Review

    2.2 Control Conditions Acting as Extraneous Stimuli

    2.3 Stimulus Duration, and Timing of Measurements

    2.4 Bodily Posture and Physical Activity

    2.5 Dietary Stimuli

    2.6 Drugs, Tobacco, Alcohol, Caff Eine-Containing Beverages

    2.7 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Biological Rhythms; Environmental Temperature

    2.8 The Initial "Neuroendocrine Tone"

    2.9 Diseases Possibly Affecting Catecholamine Levels and Responses

    2.10 Age

    2.11 Direct and Indirect Effects of Sensory Stimuli

    2.12 Biochemical Individuality

    2.13 Renal Function, Bladder Emptying, Catecholamine Breakdown or Hydrolysis

    2.14 Urinary and Plasma Catecholamines as Indices of Sympathoadrenomedullary Function

    2.15 Biased Selection of Subjects

    2.16 Attitude and Motivation: The Experimental Subject and the Experimenter

    2.17 Defenses, Coping Behavior, Cognitive Factors

    2.18 Data from Questionnaires and Observations

    2.19 Optimal Design of Psychophysiological Studies

    2.19.1 Some General Considerations

    2.19.2 Some Ethical Considerations

    2.19.3 Choice of Subjects

    2.19.4 Procedure during Control Periods and Prior to the Experiment Proper

    2.19.5 Some Precautions Relating to the Experiment

    2.20 General Design of and Methods Used in the Present Studies

    2.20.1 Some General Considerations

    2.20.2 Experimental and Control Conditions

    2.20.3 Ethical Aspects

    2.20.4 Selection of Subjects

    2.20.5 Selection of Stimuli

    2.20.6 Selection of Variables

    2.20.7 Methods of Measurement

    2.21 Acknowledgments

    2.22 References

    3 Sympathoadrenomedullary Responses to "Pleasant" and "Unpleasant" Psychosocial Stimuli

    3.1 The Problem

    3.2 Choice of Methodology

    3.3 Choice of Film Stimuli

    3.4 Material and Methods

    3.5 Results

    3.5.1 Psychological Variables

    3.5.2 Physiological Variables

    3.6 Discussion

    3.6.1 Comparison between Subjective Reactions to Different Films

    3.6.2 Quality of Emotional Reaction and Changes in Sympathoadrenomedullary and Renal Function

    3.6.3 Quantity of Emotional Reaction and Changes in Sympathoadrenomedullary and Renal Function

    3.6.4 Psychosocial Stimuli and Physiological Responses

    3.7 Summary

    3.8 Acknowledgments

    3.9 References

    4 Sympathoadrenomedullary Activity, Diuresis and Emotional Reactions during Visual Sexual Stimulation in Females and Males

    4.1 The Problem

    4.2 Choice of Methodology

    4.3 Material and Methods

    4.4 Results

    4.4.1 Psychological Variables

    4.4.2 Physiological Variables

    4.5 Discussion

    4.5.1 Sexual Arousal and Urinary Excretion of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline: Some Qualitative Aspects

    4.5.2 Relationship between Sexual Arousal and Sympathoadrenomedullary Activity

    4.5.3 Sex Differences in the Reactions to Visual Sexual Stimulation

    4.5.4 Sexual Arousal and Renal Function

    4.5.5 Non-sexual Psychological Reactions

    4.6 Summary

    4.7 Acknowledgments

    4.8 References

    5 Stressor-induced Changes in Plasma Lipids and Urinary Excretion of Catecholamines, and Their Modification by Nicotinic Acid

    5.1 The Problem

    5.2 Choice of Methodology

    5.3 Material and Methods

    5.4 Results

    5.4.1 The Pre-experimental Period: Changes in Plasma Triglycerides and Cholesterol

    5.4.2 The Experiment Proper

    5.5 Discussion

    5.5.1 Some General Considerations

    5.5.2 Distress, Sympathoadrenomedullary Activity, Lipid Metabolism, and Nicotinic Acid

    5.5.3 Plasma Triglycerides and the Mobilization of Free Fatty Acids: Some Quantitative Aspects

    5.5.4 Distress, Urinary Catecholamines, and Nicotinic Acid

    5.5.5 Cardiovascular Reactions

    5.5.6 Clinical Aspects

    5.6 Summary

    5.7 Acknowledgments

    5.8 References

    6 Conditions of Work and Sympathoadrenomedullary Activity: Experimental Manipulations in a Real Life Setting

    6.1 The Problem: Payment by Results as an Example of Psychosocial Stimuli in Everyday Life

    6.1.1 Some General Considerations on Payment by Results

    6.1.2 Incidence of Payment by Results

    6.1.3 Payment by Results: Influence on Productivity

    6.1.4 Payment by Results: Psychological and Physiological Effects

    6.2 Choice of Methodology

    6.3 Material and Methods

    6.4 Results

    6.4.1 Differences in Reactions during Salary and Piece-Wages

    6.4.2 Differences in Reactions during Morning and Afternoon Hours

    6.4.3 Differences between Reactions during Morning and Afternoon Hours under Salaried and Piece-Work Conditions

    6.4.4 Differences in Reactions during First and Second Pair of Days

    6.4.5 Differences between Reactions during the Two Remuneration Models on First and Second Presentation

    6.5 Discussion

    6.5.1 Differences between Salary and Piece-Wages

    6.5.2 Differences between Morning and Afternoon Hours

    6.5.3 Differences between Morning and Afternoon Hours during Salaried Versus Piece-Work Conditions

    6.5.4 Differences between First and Second Pair of Days

    6.5.5 Differences between the Two Remuneration Models, First and Second Presentation

    6.6 Summary

    6.7 Acknowledgments

    6.8 References

    7 Psychological and Physiological Reactions to and Psychomotor Performance during Prolonged and Complex Stressor Exposure

    7.1 The Problem

    7.2 Choice of Methodology

    7.3 Material, Methods and Procedures

    7.3.1 The Subjects

    7.3.2 The Procedures

    7.4 Results

    7.4.1 Behavior and Performance

    7.4.2 Physiological Reactions

    7.5 Discussion

    7.5.1 Self-ratings, Observed Behavior and Performance

    7.5.2 Physiological Reactions

    7.5.3 Circadian Rhythms

    7.5.4 Psychophysiological Relationships

    7.5.5 Miscellaneous Physiological Variables

    7.6 Summary

    7.7 Acknowledgments

    7.8 References

    8 General Discussion

    8.1 Objectives of this Chapter

    8.2 Psychophysiological Reactions to Psychosocial Stimuli

    8.2.1 Psychological Response to Psychosocial Stimuli

    8.2.2 Psychosocial Stimuli, Physiological Mechanisms, and Disease

    8.3 The "Stress (Selye)" Concept

    8.4 The Physiological Significance of Changes in Free Urinary Catecholamines

    8.5 Catecholamine Excretion as a Predictor of Subjective Reactions

    8.6 Some Implications for Evaluation of Laboratory Data in Clinical Practice

    8.7 Some Clinical and Research Implications

    8.8 References

    9 Summaries

    9.1 Summary

    9.2 Zusammenfassung

    9.3 Resumé

    9.4 Ȝɑκʌюченuе

    10 Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 172
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1972
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483139722

About the Editor

Lennart Levi

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