Streptococcus Pneumoniae - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124105300, 9780124114531

Streptococcus Pneumoniae

1st Edition

Molecular Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions

Editors: Jeremy Brown Sven Hammerschmidt Carlos Orihuela
eBook ISBN: 9780124114531
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124105300
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th May 2015
Page Count: 482
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Description

Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Molecular Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions provides a comprehensive overview of our existing knowledge on Streptococcus pneumoniae antibiotic resistance, dissemination, and pathogenesis, including immunology.

It presents a state-of-the-art overview of the implications of existing data, along with the areas of research that are important for future insights into the molecular mechanisms of pneumococcal infections and how to combat these infections.

Users will find a timely update on the topic, as the dramatic increase in antibiotic resistance pneumoniae cases and limitations of the currently available pneumoniae vaccines are creating new concerns on these gram-positive bacteria that are endowed with a high virulence potential, and are the most common etiologic agent of respiratory and life-threatening invasive diseases.

Key Features

  • Provides an updated overview of our existing knowledge on Streptococcus pneumoniae antibiotic resistance, dissemination, and pathogenesis, including immunology
  • Helps strengthen interdisciplinary networking and the focus of scientific resources by targeting epidemiology, vaccines, genetics, antibiotic resistance, clonal dissemination, Streptococcus pneumoniae biology, functional genomics, inflammasome, biomarkers, and more
  • Multi-authored by leaders in the field who present a state-of-the-art overview of what the implications are of existing data, and the areas of research that are important for future insights into the molecular mechanisms of pneumococcal infections
  • Supports combinatory networking in order to find new solutions in clinical therapies
  • Reflects the most topical pneumococcal research trends

Readership

students, scientists and practitioners in micro and molecular biology, cell biology and immunology, any scientist working with or again Streptococcus pneumoniae, clinicians such as medical doctors on pulmonary diseases, infection biologists, public health scientists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section A: Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology and Vaccines
    • Chapter 1. Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae
      • Etiological Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Infections
      • Some Basic Concepts in Molecular Epidemiology
      • Serotyping and Molecular Typing of S. pneumoniae
      • Clones of S. pneumoniae
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Antibiotic Resistance of Pneumococci
      • Introduction
      • Risk Factors for Resistance
      • Clinical Relevance of Resistance
      • Detection of Resistance
      • Mechanisms of Resistance
      • Role of Clones in Resistance
      • Vaccines and Resistance
      • Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Pneumococcal Vaccination and Consequences
      • Effect of the Vaccine on Pneumococcal Carriage
      • Effect of the Vaccine on the Disease
      • Impact on Antimicrobial Resistance
      • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination for Older Adults
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Vaccine Potential of Pneumococcal Proteins
      • Introduction
      • Next-Generation Pneumococcal Vaccine Candidates and Strategies
      • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • References
  • Section B: Genetics and Functional Genomics of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Chapter 5. Genomics, Genetic Variation, and Regions of Differences
      • Streptococcus pneumoniae Comparative Genomics
      • Variation and Virulence
      • S. pneumoniae and Close Relatives
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Regulatory Strategies of the Pneumococcus
      • Two-Component Regulators
      • Stand-Alone Regulators
      • Metal-Dependent Regulation
      • Oxidative Stress Regulons
      • Regulatory RNAs
      • Interspecies Signaling and Regulation
      • Roles of Regulators in Distinct Host Pathogenesis Models
      • Challenges of Cross Talk and Diversity
      • Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Pneumococcal Genetic Transformation During Colonization and Biofilm Formation
      • Introduction
      • Mechanisms of Pneumococcal Transformation
      • Competence and Biofilm Formation
      • Competence and Nasopharyngeal Colonization
      • Transformation: The Driving Force of Pneumococcal Evolution
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section C: Streptococcus pneumoniae Biology
    • Chapter 8. The Pneumococcal Cell Wall
      • Introduction
      • Composition of Pneumococcal PG
      • Synthesis and Hydrolysis of PG
      • Growth and Cell Division
      • Chemical Composition of Pneumococcal TAs
      • Biosynthesis of Pneumococcal TAs
      • Interactions of Pneumococcal Cell-Wall Components with Host Factors
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Capsule Structure, Synthesis, and Regulation
      • Introduction
      • S. pneumoniae CPS Serotypes
      • The Capsule Gene Locus
      • Biosynthesis of CPS
      • Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Streptococcus pneumoniae Lipoproteins and ABC Transporters
      • Introduction
      • General Features of ABC Transporter Protein and Lipoprotein Organization
      • Genetic Organization of ABC Transporters
      • Functions of S. pneumoniae Import ABC Transporters
      • Functions of S. pneumoniae Export ABC Transporters
      • Regulation of ABC Transporters
      • Redundancy of S. pneumoniae ABC Transporter Function
      • Role in Virulence
      • Conclusions and Unanswered Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Structure and Function of Choline-Binding Proteins
      • Introduction: The Pneumococcal Surface Protein Families
      • The CBP Family in Pneumococci and Their Relatives
      • Structural Basis of Choline Recognition by CBPs
      • Three-Dimensional Structures of CBPs and Their Implications in Pathogenesis and Virulence
      • Functional Characterization of Other CBPs
      • CBPs in Bacteriophages
      • Conclusions and Perspectives
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Non-Adhesive Surface Proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae
      • Introduction
      • Identification of Surface Proteins
      • Types of Surface Proteins
      • Roles of Surface Proteins
      • Proteomic Detection of Surface Proteins
      • Concluding Remarks
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Biofilm Formation Under In Vitro Conditions
      • Pneumococcal Biofilm Models
      • QS and Biofilm
      • Biofilm Specific Gene and Protein Expression
      • The Pneumococcal Biofilm Matrix
      • Resistance to and in Biofilms
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Pneumolysin
      • History
      • Structure and Function of Pneumolysin
      • Role of Pneumolysin in Pathogenesis
      • Inflammation and Innate Immune Recognition of Pneumolysin
      • Consequences of the Effects of Pneumolysin on Inflammation
      • Pneumolysin and Complement
      • Pneumolysin and T Cell Immunity
      • Pneumolysin and the Equilibrium Between Pathogen and Host
      • The Role of Pneumolysin in Pneumococcal Carriage
      • The Use of Pneumolysin as a Vaccine
      • Concluding Remarks
      • References
  • Section D: Pneumococcal Interactions with the Host
    • Chapter 15. Nasopharyngeal Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae
      • Introduction
      • Natural Barriers to Pneumococcal Colonization
      • Dynamics of Pneumococcal Colonization
      • The Role of Viruses in Pneumococcal Colonization
      • Viral Infections and Pneumococcal Transmission
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Pneumococcal Biofilms and Bacterial Persistence During Otitis Media Infections
      • The Biofilm Concept
      • Pneumococcal Biofilms
      • Biofilm Formation by Otopathogens
      • Evidence for Bacterial Biofilms in OM
      • Introduction to OM
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Pneumococcal Pili and Adhesins
      • Introduction
      • Classification and Distribution of Pneumococcal Surface-Exposed Proteins
      • Molecular Architecture and Assembly of Pneumococcal Pili as Unique Cell Wall–Anchored Covalent Polymers
      • Impact of Pneumococcal Adhesins on Carriage and Invasive Disease
      • Conclusions and Perspectives
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Exploitation of Host Signal Transduction Pathways Induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae
      • Introduction
      • Direct Interaction Between Adhesive Molecules and Eukaryotic Cell-Surface Receptors
      • Recruitment of ECM-Proteins for Indirect Bacterial–Host Cell Contact
      • Ply: A Multifunctional Effector of Eukaryotic Signaling
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Mechanisms of Predisposition to Pneumonia: Infants, the Elderly, and Viral Infections
      • Introduction
      • Disease in Children
      • Advanced Age and Enhanced Susceptibility to S. pneumoniae
      • Impact of Viral Infections
      • Overview
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Mechanisms Causing the Inflammatory Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae
      • Introduction
      • Nasopharynx: Carriage, Inflammation, and Clearance
      • Pneumococcal Pneumonia: The Perfect Paradigm of Inflammation and Resolution
      • Sepsis: Chaotic Inflammation and a Threat to the Host
      • Meningitis: Avoiding Death in a Desperate Situation
      • Translational Significance of Compartmental Differences in Immune Response
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Streptococcus pneumoniae Interactions with Macrophages and Mechanisms of Immune Evasion
      • Introduction
      • S. pneumoniae Interactions with Physical and Mucosal Soluble Immune Mediators
      • S. pneumoniae Interactions with the Macrophage
      • S. pneumoniae Interactions with Complement
      • S. pneumoniae Interactions with Antibody
      • S. pneumoniae Interactions with Neutrophils
      • The Inflammatory Response and the Acute Phase Response
      • General Aspects of S. pneumoniae Interactions with Immune Mediators
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Cell-Mediated Immunity to the Pneumococcus
      • Classical Cell-Mediated Immunity to Bacteria
      • Immunodeficiency and Pneumococcal Disease
      • Evidence for Cell-Mediated Immunity to Pneumococcus in Mice
      • Evidence for Cell-Mediated Immunity to Pneumococcus in Humans
      • Novel Pneumococcal Vaccines and Cell-Mediated Immunity to Pneumococcus
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Pneumococcal Invasion: Development of Bacteremia and Meningitis
      • Upper Respiratory Tract Colonization
      • Progression from Pneumonia to Bacteremia
      • Bloodstream Survival
      • Bacteremia and Sepsis
      • Central Nervous System Invasion
      • CNS Inflammatory Response
      • Neuronal Injury
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
482
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124114531
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124105300

About the Editor

Jeremy Brown

Jeremy Brown

Jeremy Brown is a clinician scientist who is Professor of Respiratory Infection at University College London. He has 16 years experience in investigating the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, particularly the development of pneumonia. His main research interests are innate and adaptive immune responses to S. pneumoniae, new vaccine development, the role of ABC transporters during infection, and characterising the phenotypic consequences of genetic differences between S. pneumoniae strains. As well as leading his research group he works as a respiratory physician caring for patients with lung infections at University College London Hospitals. He is an editorial board member for Infection and Immunity, Pneumonia and the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Neurologist, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK

Sven Hammerschmidt

Sven Hammerschmidt

Sven Hammerschmidt is Professor and Head of the Department of Genetics of Microorganisms at the University of Greifswald in Germany. He is a microbiologist and molecular biologist, graduated 1996 from Medical Microbiology at the Medical School Hannover and University of Hannover in Germany followed by a postdoc time from 1996 to 2003 at the Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany. This time was associated with two short-term stays as a visiting scientist at the Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. In 2003 he was appointed as head of a young investigator group at the Center for Infection Research, University of Würzburg, Germany and In 2007 Sven Hammerschmidt was appointed as an associate professor for Cellular Microbiology at the Max von Pettenkofer-Institute for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Munich, Germany. In 2008 he moved to the University of Greifswald and became full-professor for General and Molecular Genetics. In 1998 he received the Robert Koch prize for post-docs and in 2008 the Becton Dickenson Research Award of the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM). His research interests are focused on deciphering the molecular and cellular mechanisms of Gram-positive human pathogens with special emphasis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. His studies identified several novel adhesive molecules, pneumococci-induced host signalling pathways, innate immune evasion mechanisms, and explored the link between physiology and pneumococcal virulence. He serves as associate editor of Molecular Oral Microbiology (since 2010), and is member of the editorial board of Microbes and Infection (since 2009), Frontiers in Immunology (since 2011), and the ASM journal Infection and Immunity (since 2012). He also serves as an ad hoc reviewer or consultant for several journals and government agencies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Genetics of Microorganisms, Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität, Greifswald, Germany

Carlos Orihuela

Carlos Orihuela

Dr. Orihuela is an Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He earned his B.S. from Baylor University in 1996, Ph.D. in 2001 from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. This was followed by postdoctoral training in Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital through 2005. Dr. Orihuela's primary research involves the host-pathogen interactions that lead to the development of invasive pneumococcal disease. His work has shown that Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence gene expression is anatomical-site specific, that the pneumococcus and other respiratory tract pathogens use a common portal to cross the blood brain barrier during meningitis, that systemic low-grade inflammation enhances susceptibility to pneumonia, and that during colonization pneumococci within the nasopharynx are within immunoquiescent biofilms. Most recently, Dr. Orihuela’s research is focused on the cardiotoxic events that occur during invasive pneumococcal disease. Dr. Orihuela is a member of numerous review committees including those for the National Institute of Health. He is Associate Editor of the journal PLoS Pathogens and serves as an ad hoc reviewer for multiple journals. At San Antonio, Dr. Orihuela was the recipient of a Presidential Distinguished Research Scholar Award in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX USA

Reviews

"The authors are experts and have provided a roadmap for future pathways for investigation, something that other authors should do...this book is most appropriate for basic science researchers. Score: 94 - 4 Stars" --Doody's