Steroid–Cell Interactions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408705394, 9781483165103

Steroid–Cell Interactions

1st Edition

Authors: R. J. B. King W. I. P. Mainwaring
eBook ISBN: 9781483165103
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 458
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Description

Steroid–Cell Interactions describes the processes involved in the intracellular binding of steroids (and related compounds) in mammalian cells. Serum binding proteins and steroid-immunoglobulin interaction are also discussed, along with the relationship of these binding processes to the biological action of the steroid. This book consists of 10 chapters and begins by presenting an elementary account of the factors contributing to the interaction between a steroid hormone and another molecule. The discussion then turns to the three types of methods used to study the interaction between steroids and tissue receptors: cell fractionation, autoradiography, and the separation of specifically and non-specifically bound steroids. The next chapter deals with the metabolism of steroid hormones in relation to their binding and mechanism of action, focusing on testosterone and progesterone. The reader is also introduced to the intracellular binding of androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and estrogens and to how binding is related to biological activity. The final chapter reviews the clinical and immunological data relevant to steroid-protein binding. This text will be of interest to students and practitioners of biology, biochemistry, and physiology.

Table of Contents


Introduction

1 Physico-Chemical Considerations of Steroid-Receptor Interactions

Steroid Structure

Reactant Groups

Conformation

Protein Structure

Quaternary Structure

Secondary and Tertiary Structure

Primary Structure

Nucleic Acids

Chemical Bonds

Covalent Bond

Ionic Bond

Hydrogen Bond

Van der Waals' Forces

Hydrophobic Bond

General Comments

Equilibrium Constant and Free Energy

Measurement of Binding Constants

Reaction Kinetics

2 Methods Used to Study Steroid-Tissue Receptor Interaction

Cell Fractionation

Cell Type

Mechanical Methods

Cell Culture

The Use of Tumors

Autoradiography

Distinction between High and Low Affinity

Binding Sites

3 The Importance of the Metabolism of Steroid Hormones Relative to Their Binding and Mechanism of Action

The Absence of the Metabolism of Steroid Hormones During Their Uptake and Retention in Many Target Cells

The Metabolism of Testosterone in Androgen-Dependent Tissues

The Metabolism of Progesterone in Certain Target Tissues

4 Androgens and Particularly, A Metabolite of Testosterone, 5α-Dihydrotestosterone

Blood

Blood Cells

Plasma

The Distribution of NADPH-Dependent 5α-Reductase and Receptors for 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Androgen-Sensitive Tissues and Cells

The Uptake of Testosterone into Androgen-Sensitive and Androgen-Dependent Tissues

The Specific, High Affinity Binding of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in the Rat Ventral Prostate Gland

The Nuclear Binding of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone

Cytoplasmic Binding of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone

Development of Reconstituted Systems for the Transfer of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone into Nuclei or Chromatin, In Vitro

Binding of Other Steroids in the Prostate Gland

Binding of Testosterone Metabolites to Prostate Microsomes

Summary

Binding of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Accessory Sexual Glands Other than Rat Ventral Prostate Gland

Experimental Animals

Human Prostate Gland

Searches for Receptors in Other Androgen-Sensitive Systems

Liver

Muscle

Mouse Kidney

Experimental Tumors

Testis

Binding of Androgens in Other Tissues and Cells

Female Accessory Sexual Glands

Brain

Pseudomonas testosteroni and Other Bacteria

General Summary

5 Glucocorticoids

Blood

Blood Cells

Plasma

Specific Glucocorticoid Receptor Proteins

Liver

Uptake of Glucocorticoids into Rat Liver

The Identification of Glucocorticoid-Protein Complexes in the Cytoplasm of Rat Liver

Investigations on Steroid-Protein Complexes in Rat Liver

Nuclei

Summary

HTC Cells

Uptake of Dexamethasone into HTC Cells

Nuclear Binding of Glucocorticoids

Binding of Glucocorticoids in the Cytoplasm

Interrelationship between the Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors

Summary

HeLa Cells

The Binding of Glucocorticoids in Intact HeLa Cells

The Subcellular Distribution of Glucocorticoid Binding Sites

Summary

Lymphocytes

The Uptake of Glucocorticoids into Lymphocytes

Nuclear Receptor for Glucocorticoids

Cytoplasmic Binding of Glucocorticoids

The Probable Conversion of the Cytoplasmic Receptor into the Nuclear Receptor

The Generality of the High Affinity Glucocorticoid-Binding

Process in Lymphocytes

Summary

Lymphoid Tumors

P1798 Tumors

Lymphomas

Summary

Fibroblasts

The Uptake of Glucocorticoids into Fibroblasts

Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Binding Component

The Receptor Content of Glucocorticoid-Resistant L929 Cells

Summary

Other Tissues

Mammary Gland

Brain

General Summary

6 Mineralocorticoids

Blood

Blood Cells

Plasma

The Search for Specific Aldosterone-Bindinq Proteins

Rat Kidney

The Nuclear Binding of Aldosterone

The Cytoplasmic Binding of Aldosterone

The Interrelationship between the Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors

The Binding of Other Steroid Hormones in Rat Kidney

Summary

Toad Bladder

The Specificity and Characteristics of the Binding of Aldosterone

Attempts at the Isolation of the Receptors

Summary

Other Tissues

General Summary

7 Estrogens

Blood

Formed Elements

Plasma

Entry of Estrogen into Cells

Intracellular Distribution

Uterus

Cytoplasmic Binding

Entry into the Nucleus

Nucleus

Loss of Estradiol from the Cell

Uterine Cell Type

Overall Picture of Estrogen Movement in the Cell

Vagina

Pituitary Gland

Brain

Autoradiography

Biochemical Studies

Neonatal Androgenization

Ovary

Kidney

Prostate and Seminal Vesicle

Oviduct

Mammary Gland

Tumors

DMBA-Induced Rat Mammary Adenocarcinomas

Other Rat Mammary Tumors

Mouse Mammary Tumors

Human Mammary Tumors

Tumors of the Female Reproductive Tract

Adrenal Tumors

Hamster Kidney Tumors

Other Tissues

8 Progesterone

Blood

Formed Elements

Plasma

Oviduct

Entry into the Cell

Intracellular Distribution

Cytoplasmic Binding

Nuclear Binding

Uterus

Entry into the Cell

Compounds Present within the Cell

Intracellular Distribution

Rat

Guinea Pig

Rabbit

Human

Specificity

Other Tissues

Brain and Pituitary Gland

Mammary Gland

Corpus Luteum

Decidua

9 Relationship of Binding to Biological Activity

Introduction

Evidence that the Steroid-Receptor Interaction is Related to the Biological Activity of the Steroid

Estrogens

Progestins

Androgens

Glucocorticoids

Mineralocorticoids

Physiological Aspects of Steroid-Receptor Interaction

Introduction

Uterus

Oviduct

Brain and Anterior Pituitary Gland

Tumors

Na+-K+ Transport

Mammary Gland

Accessory Sex Glands in the Male

The Molecular Aspects of Steroid-Receptor Interaction

Introduction

The Relative Importance of the Components of the Steroid-Receptor Complex

A Comparison of Steroid Receptors with the Regulatory

Proteins in Microorganisms

Current Concepts of the Structure and Function of Chromatin

The Interaction of Steroid-Binding Proteins with Chromatin

The Specificity of Hormonal Responses

The Molecular Events Stimulated by Receptor-Nucleus

Interaction

The Possible Role of Cyclic AMP in Steroid Hormone Action

Effects of Hormones Achieved without a Necessary

Dependence on Nuclear Processes and High Affinity Binding

10 Clinical and Immunological Aspects of Steroid-Binding

Terminology

Plasma Proteins

Tissue Proteins

Steroid Antibodies

Appendix 1 Chemical and Trivial Names of Steroids

Appendix 2 Structure of Synthetic Compounds

Appendix 3 An Up-to-Date Summary of Current Literature

Details

No. of pages:
458
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483165103

About the Author

R. J. B. King

W. I. P. Mainwaring

Ratings and Reviews