Statistical Methods in Laboratory Medicine

Statistical Methods in Laboratory Medicine

1st Edition - September 16, 1991

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  • Author: P. W. Strike
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161921

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Description

Statistical Methods in Laboratory Medicine focuses on the application of statistics in laboratory medicine. The book first ponders on quantitative and random variables, exploratory data analysis (EDA), probability, and probability distributions. Discussions focus on negative binomial distribution, non-random distributions, binomial distribution, fitting the binomial model to sample data, conditional probability and statistical independence, rules of probability, and Bayes' theorem. The text then examines inference, regression, and measurement and control. Topics cover analytical goals for assay precision, estimating the error variance components, indirect structural assays, functional assays, bivariate regression model, and least-squares estimates of the functional relation parameters. The manuscript takes a look at assay method comparison studies, multivariate analysis, forecasting and control, and test interpretation. Concerns include time series structure and terminology, polynomial regression, assessing the performance of the classification rule, quantitative screening tests, sample correlation coefficient, and computer assisted diagnosis. The book is a dependable reference for medical experts and statisticians interested in the employment of statistics in laboratory medicine.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1 Introduction

    2 Getting the Picture

    2.1 Quantitative Variables

    2.3 Random Variables

    2.4 Measures

    2.5 Collecting the Right Data

    2.6 Looking at Sample Data

    2.7 The Histogram

    2.8 Central Tendency

    2.9 Scatter

    2.10 Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)

    References

    Software

    3 Probability

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 A State of Nature

    3.3 A State of Mind

    3.4 Axioms of Probability: Terminology

    3.5 Axioms of Probability

    3.6 Conditional Probability and Statistical Independence

    3.7 Rules of Probability

    3.8 Bayes’ Theorem

    3.9 Odds and Ends

    References

    4 Probability Distributions I: Discrete Variables

    4.1 Getting the Picture

    4.2 The Binomial Distribution

    4.3 Fitting the Binomial Model to Sample Data

    4.4 The Poisson Distribution

    4.5 Non-Random Distributions

    4.6 The Negative Binomial Distribution

    4.7 Final Thoughts

    References

    5 Probability Distributions II: Continuous Variables

    5.1 The Normal Distribution

    5.2 Probability Density

    5.3 Fitting the Normal Distribution Function

    5.4 Testing the Normal Model Assumption

    5.5 Transformations of Non-Normal Data

    5.6 Other Distributions

    References

    6 Inference I

    6.1 Populations and Samples

    6.2 Survey and Experiment

    6.3 Sample Selection: Surveys

    6.4 Sampling for Experiment

    6.5 From Numbers to Knowledge

    6.6 Hypothesis Testing

    6.7 Sample Size: Inference on a Single Population Mean

    6.8 Comparing Two Independent Samples

    6.9 Paired Comparisons

    6.10 Non-Parametric Tests

    6.11 More than Two Samples

    References

    7 Regression I: Straight-Line Relationships

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The Nature of Relationships

    7.3 Functional Relationships

    7.4 Least-Squares Estimates Of The Functional Relation Parameters

    7.5 From Arithmetic to Inference

    7.6 Inference on the Linear Regression Model

    7.7 The Calibration Problem

    7.8 Weighted Regression

    7.9 The Bivariate Regression Model

    7.10 Through the Looking Glass

    7.11 Rank Correlation

    7.12 Looking Ahead

    References

    8 Measurement and Control

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Accuracy

    8.3 Functional Assays

    8.4 Structural Assays

    8.5 Indirect Structural Assays

    8.6 The Origins of Inaccuracy

    8.7 Analytical Goals for Assay Accuracy

    8.8 Precision

    8.9 Estimating the Error Variance Components

    8.10 Analytical Goals for Assay Precision

    8.11 Control

    8.12 Cumulative Sum Charts (CUSUMS)

    8.13 Patient-Based Imprecision Studies

    8.14 Patients' Daily Means

    8.15 Qualitative Test Control

    8.16 A Parting Thought

    References

    9 Assay Method Comparison Studies

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 The Statistical Problem

    9.3 A Little History

    9.4 Calculations

    9.5 Cautions

    9.6 The Sample Correlation Coefficient

    9.7 Final Thoughts

    References

    10 Test Interpretation

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 A Quest for the Fabulous Norm

    10.3 The 95% Reference Paradox

    10.4 Multi Variate Reference Ranges

    10.5 Screening

    10.6 Qualitative Screening Tests

    10.7 Quantitative Screening Tests

    10.8 Assessing the Individual Patient

    10.9 Kernel Density Estimation

    10.10 Computer Assisted Diagnosis

    References

    11 Multivariate Analysis

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Linear Discriminant Function

    11.3 Multivariate Normal Discrimination

    11.4 Assessing the Performance of the Classification Rule

    11.5 Assessing the Individual Patient

    11.6 Quadratic Discrimination and Beyond

    11.7 Variable Selection

    11.8 Regression Revisited

    11.9 Polynomial Regression

    11.10 Is there a Pattern?

    References

    12 Forecasting And Control

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Time Series Structure and Terminology

    12.3 Recursive Estimation

    12.4 The Ewma Discount Coefficient W

    12.5 Monitoring a Forecasting System

    12.6 Following a Trend

    12.7 Holt's Local Linear Trend Model

    12.8 The Kaiman Filter

    12.9 Following a Trend

    Appendix 12.A GW-BASIC Program-Tracker

    References

    13 Inference II: Analysis of 2X2 Tables

    13.1 Sampling Models for 2X2 Tables

    13.2 The 2X2 Chi-Square Test

    13.3 Fisher's Exact Probability Test

    13.4 Estimation I: Comparing Proportions

    13.5 Estimation I: The Odds-Ratio

    13.6 Paired Comparisons

    13.7 Combining 2X2 Tables

    13.8 Multidimensional Problems

    13.9 Regression with Counted Proportions

    Note 13.A Derivation of a 2X2 X2 Statistic

    A Note on Notation

    References

    Appendix A Statistical Tables A.1 to A.8

    Table A.1 2000 Random Digits

    Table A.2 Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve

    Table A.3 Coefficients and Critical Values: Shapiro-Wilk Test

    Table A.4 Percentiles of the t Distribution (Two-Sided)

    Table A.5 Upper 100α Percentile Points of the Χ2 Distribution

    Table A.6 Percentile Points of the F-Distribution (5%)

    Table A.7 Critical Values of the Linear Correlation Coefficient

    Table A.8 Random Numbers from a Specified Normal Distribution

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 552
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
  • Published: September 16, 1991
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161921

About the Author

P. W. Strike

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