Standard Handbook Oil Spill Environmental Forensics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128038321, 9780128039021

Standard Handbook Oil Spill Environmental Forensics

2nd Edition

Fingerprinting and Source Identification

Authors: Scott Stout Zhendi Wang
eBook ISBN: 9780128039021
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128096598
Paperback ISBN: 9780128038321
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th February 2016
Page Count: 1142
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Description

Standard Handbook Oil Spill Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting and Source Identification, Second Edition, provides users with the latest information on the tools and methods that have become popular over the past ten years.

The book presents practitioners with the latest environmental forensics techniques and best practices for quickly identifying the sources of spills, how to form an effective response, and how to determine liability. This second edition represents a complete overhaul of the existing chapters, and includes 13 new chapters on methods and applications, such as emerging application of PAHi isomers in oil spill forensics, development and application of computerized oil spill identification (COSI), and fingerprinting of oil in biological and passive sampling devices.

Key Features

  • Contains 13 new chapters on methods and applications, including emerging application of PAH isomers in oil drill forensics, the development and application of computerized oil spill identification (COSI), and the fingerprinting of oil in biological and passive sampling devices
  • Presents the latest technology and methods in biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons and its implications for source identification, surface trajectory modeling of marine oil spills, and identification of hydrocarbons in biological samples for source determination
  • Contains new case studies to illustrate key applications, methods, and techniques

Readership

Environmental Engineers, Marine Engineers, Petroleum Engineers and Environmental Scientists

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Author biographies
  • 1: Spill site characterization in environmental forensic investigations
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Environmental site characterization and reconnaissance
    • 1.3. Site entry and safety issues during the emergency response phase
    • 1.4. Determination of geographic boundary and definition of different zones within the affected area: 1. terrestrial spills
    • 1.5. Determination of geographic boundary and definition of different zones within the affected area: 2. marine/coastal waterborne oil spills
    • 1.6. Collation of physical, ecological, and environmental data
    • 1.7. Sampling plan and design: 1. spills with a known source
    • 1.8. Sampling plan and design: 2. “mystery” spills
    • 1.9. Data management
    • 1.10. Conclusions
  • 2: Sampling procedures for securing evidence for waterborne oil spill identifications
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. General remarks and requirements for sampling
    • 2.3. Sample custody
    • 2.4. Sampling organization
    • 2.5. Oil sampling in marine environments
    • 2.6. Sampling onboard vessels/suspected sources
    • 2.7. Summary
  • 3: Chemical fingerprinting methods and factors affecting petroleum fingerprints in the environment
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Methods for chemical fingerprinting petroleum
    • 3.3. Factors affecting the chemical fingerprints of petroleum
    • 3.4. Summary
  • 4: Petroleum biomarker fingerprinting for oil spill characterization and source identification
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Oil chemistry
    • 4.3. Chemistry of petroleum biomaker compounds
    • 4.4. Analytical methodologies for petroleum biomarker fingerprinting
    • 4.5. Fingerprinting petroleum biomarkers
    • 4.6. Effects of weathering on biomarker fingerprinting
    • 4.7. Conclusions
  • 5: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homolog and isomer fingerprinting
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Hydrocarbon source signatures
    • 5.3. Methods
    • 5.4. Dominant hydrocarbon signatures
    • 5.5. Saturated hydrocarbon signatures
    • 5.6. Aromatic hydrocarbon signatures
    • 5.7. Conclusions
  • 6: Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles as source diagnostics of petroleum pollutants in the marine environment
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Sulfur compounds in crude oil and petroleum products
    • 6.3. Influence of refinery processes on PASH patterns
    • 6.4. PASH stability in the marine environment
    • 6.5. Petroleum PASH analysis techniques
    • 6.6. Petroleum PASH markers in environmental forensic investigations
    • 6.7. Conclusions
  • 7: Forensic studies of naphthenic acids fraction compounds in oil sands environmental samples and crude oil
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Applications of mass spectrometric techniques in forensic investigations
    • 7.3. Ultra–high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry
    • 7.4. Gas chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
    • 7.5. Two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry
    • 7.6. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS)
    • 7.7. Other analytical tools for oil sand environmental samples and crude oil forensics
    • 7.8. Forensic study of NAFCs
    • 7.9. Conclusions
  • 8: Applications of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in studying the source, transport, and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC)
    • 8.3. Data processing
    • 8.4. GC–MS, GC × GC–FID, and GC × GC–TOF–MS method comparisons
    • 8.5. GC × GC biomarker analysis
    • 8.6. GC × GC insight to physical and chemical oil weathering
    • 8.7. GC × GC for discovery
    • 8.8. Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 9: Oil fingerprinting analysis using gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC–QTOF)
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Principle of GC–QTOF
    • 9.3. GC–QTOF in oil fingerprinting analysis
    • 9.4. Forensic oil identification: a case study
    • 9.5. Summary
    • Acknowledgment
  • 10: Application of isotopic compositions in fugitive petroleum product identification and correlation
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Isotopic compositions and their measurement
    • 10.3. Bulk isotope ratios
    • 10.4. Compound-specific isotope analysis
    • 10.5. Other isotopes
    • 10.6. Conclusions
  • 11: Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline and distillate fuels
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Chemical fingerprinting of gasoline and distillates
    • 11.3. Sampling and handling considerations
    • 11.4. Weathering of gasoline and distillates
    • 11.5. Conclusions
  • 12: Forensic fingerprinting of biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction to biodiesel and biodiesel/petroleum oil blends
    • 12.2. Introduction of biodiesel analysis techniques
    • 12.3. Fingerprint analysis of biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil
    • 12.4. Case study of forensic identification of biodiesel and its blends
    • 12.5. Weathering of biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil
    • 12.6. Summary
  • 13: Chemical character of marine heavy fuel oils and lubricants
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Heavy fuel oils
    • 13.3. Lubricants
    • 13.4. Conclusions
  • 14: CEN methodology for oil spill identification
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Intercalibrations
    • 14.3. Objective and scope of the CEN methodology
    • 14.4. Strategy for identifying the source of an oil spill
    • 14.5. Visual characterization and preparation/cleanup of oil samples
    • 14.6. Decision chart for identifying the source of spilled oil
    • 14.7. Level 1 – GC/FID screening
    • 14.8. Level 2 – GC/MS fingerprinting
    • 14.9. Final evaluation and conclusions
    • 14.10. The CEN methodology in practice: A case study
    • 14.11. Summary
    • Acknowledgment
  • 15: Development and application of online computerized oil spill identification – COSIWeb
    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. History
    • 15.3. Methodology
    • 15.4. Database function
    • 15.5. General findings
    • 15.6. Administration of COSIWeb
  • 16: A multivariate approach to oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting and spill source identification
    • Abstract
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Sample preparation and chemical analysis
    • 16.3. Data preprocessing
    • 16.4. Multivariate statistical data analysis
    • 16.5. Data evaluation
    • 16.6. Conclusions and perspectives
    • Acknowledgments
  • 17: Advantages of quantitative chemical fingerprinting in oil spill identification and allocation of mixed hydrocarbon contaminants
    • Abstract
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Qualitative fingerprinting methods
    • 17.3. Quantitative fingerprinting methods
    • 17.4. Unraveling mixed-source oils using quantitative fingerprinting data
    • 17.5. Summary
  • 18: Statistical analysis of oil spill chemical composition data
    • Abstract
    • 18.1. Background
    • 18.2. Different chemical compounds for different investigations
    • 18.3. Biomarkers
    • 18.4. Univariate and bivariate approaches
    • 18.5. Multivariate approaches
    • 18.6. Summary
  • 19: Biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons and its implications for source identification
    • Abstract
    • 19.1. Introduction
    • 19.2. Biochemistry of petroleum biodegradation
    • 19.3. Subsurface biodegradation of petroleum
    • 19.4. Factors limiting biodegradation
    • 19.5. Microbial ecology of petroleum biodegradation
    • 19.6. Conclusions: implications of biodegradation on identification
  • 20: Photochemical effects on oil spill fingerprinting
    • Abstract
    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. Photochemical processes in the marine environment
    • 20.3. Laboratory and field simulation tests
    • 20.4. Photo-oxidation of oil hydrocarbons at sea
    • 20.5. Effects of photo-oxidation on oil spill fingerprinting
    • 20.6. Summary
  • 21: Oil spill remote sensing: a forensics approach
    • Abstract
    • 21.1. Introduction
    • 21.2. Visible indications of oil
    • 21.3. Optical sensors
    • 21.4. Laser fluorosensors
    • 21.5. Microwave sensors
    • 21.6. Determination of slick thickness
    • 21.7. Satellite remote sensing
    • 21.8. Future trends
    • Recommendations
  • 22: Water column sampling for forensics
    • Abstract
    • 22.1. Why sample water?
    • 22.2. Why is sampling oiled water uniquely so difficult?
    • 22.3. Analytes of interest
    • 22.4. Phase-partitioned components
    • 22.5. Sampling depths of interest
    • 22.6. Inherent sampling inaccuracies
    • 22.7. Field quality control samples
    • 22.8. Laboratory analysis
    • 22.9. Forensic classification of water samples
    • 22.10. Assessing oil phase patterns
    • 22.11. Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • 23: Forensic trajectory modeling of marine oil spills
    • Abstract
    • 23.1. Introduction
    • 23.2. Forecasting and hindcasting oil spill movement
    • 23.3. Oil spill transport
    • 23.4. Evolution of an oil spill
    • 23.5. Oil observations and the trajectory hindcast
    • 23.6. Conclusions and challenges
    • Acknowledgments
  • 24: Identification of hydrocarbons in biological samples for source determination
    • Abstract
    • 24.1. Introduction
    • 24.2. Determination of the route of hydrocarbon accumulation by biota
    • 24.3. Biochemical indicators of PAH exposure in biota
    • 24.4. Modes of toxic action of accumulated hydrocarbons
    • 24.5. Case study: The Exxon Valdez oil spill
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1142
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128039021
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128096598
Paperback ISBN:
9780128038321

About the Author

Scott Stout

Dr. Stout has more than 20 years of petroleum and coal industry experience. He specializes in chemical compositions of fuel-derived sources of contamination in terrestrial and marine environments, which includes crude oil, coal, gasoline and other substances. His research has been used for decision making by the United States Departments of Justice and Defense, and by the forest products, utility, railroad, wood treatment, maritime shipping, port operations, and oil and gas industries. Dr. Stout has authored or co-authored nearly 120 scientific papers and edited a textbook on the environmental forensics aspects of maritime oil spills.

Affiliations and Expertise

NewFields Environmental Forensics Practice LLC, Rockland, MA

Zhendi Wang

Dr. Zhendi Wang is a senior research scientist and Head of Oil Spill Research of Environment Canada, working in the oil and toxic chemical spill research field. His specialties and research interests include: development of oil spill fingerprinting and tracing technology, environmental forensics of oil spill; oil properties, fate and behavior of oil and other hazardous organics in the environment; oil burn emission and products study; oil bioremediation; identification and characterization of oil hydrocarbons; and, spill treatment studies; applications of modern analytical techniques (such as GC, GC/MS, HPLC, LC/MS, SFE and SFC, and IC) to oil spill studies and other environmental science and technology.

Dr. Wang has continually and extensively led and been involved in various scientific projects, technology transfer, and national and international cooperative researches with the total funding over 3 million dollars. He has authored over 270 academic publications including 72 peer-reviewed articles and 4 invited reviews in the most respected journals in the environmental science and chemistry, and 8 books and book chapters. The productivity, excellence and achievements of Dr. Wang have established him as a national and international “leading authority on the topic”. He has won a number of national and international scientific honours and awards. Wang is also a member of America Chemical Society (ACS), the Canadian Society for Chemistry (CSC), and the International Society of Environmental Forensics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Scientist and Head of Oil Spill Research, Emergencies, Science and Technology Division, Environment Canada