Stability and Control - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781483197302, 9781483222332

Stability and Control

2nd Edition

Flight Testing

Editors: Courtland D. Perkins
eBook ISBN: 9781483222332
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1959
Page Count: 510
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Flight Testing, Volume II: Stability and Control focuses on the development of adequate flight test techniques for the appraisal of stability and control characteristics and flying qualities of airplanes.

This book discusses the flying quality requirements, longitudinal motions, and flight determination of stick-fixed neutral points. The determination of aerodynamic parameters from steady maneuvering, desirable control characteristics in steady flight, and various forms of lateral control surfaces are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the measurement of maximum lift coefficient, emergency anti-spin devices, and concept of the altitude-Mach number flight envelope.

This volume is recommended for design, development or research engineers, test pilots, and instrumentation personnel interested in airplane stability and control.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Introduction

1:1 Historical

1:2 Flying Quality Requirements

1:3 Dynamic Longitudinal Stability

1:4 Static Longitudinal Stability (Straight Flight)

1:5 Static Longitudinal Stability (Curved Flight Path)

1:6 Control Power

1:7 Longitudinal Trim Changes and Trimming Devices

1:8 Dynamic Lateral Stability

1:9 Static Directional and Lateral Stability

1:10 Rudder Control Power

1:11 Rudder Pedal Forces

1:12 Lateral Control Power

1:13 Lateral Control Forces

1:14 Directional and Lateral Trimming Devices

1:15 Stalling Characteristics

1:16 Spinning Characteristics

1:17 High Speed Requirements

1:18 Flight Research

Chapter 2 Airplane Motions



2:1 Introduction

2:2 Equations of Motion

2:3 Longitudinal Motions

2:4 Lateral Motions


Chapter 3 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control



3:1 Introduction

3:2 Neutral Points and Maneuver Points

3:3 The Flight Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Points

3:4 The Flight Determination of Stick-Free Neutral Points

3:5 Effective Weight Moment Testing

3:6 Nose Wheel Lift-Off

3:7 Landing Hold-Off

3:8 Change in Trim with Power and Flap Settings


Chapter 4 Flight Testing Aircraft for Longitudinal Maneuvering Characteristics



4:1 Introduction

4:2 Flying Qualities Requirements

4:3 Prediction of Stick-Fixed Maneuvering Characteristics

4:4 Prediction of Stick-Free Maneuvering Characteristics

4:5 Instrumentation

4:6 Flight Test Techniques

4:7 Data Reduction Methods and Typical Flight Test Data

4:8 Determination of Aerodynamic Parameters from Steady Maneuvering Flight Data


Chapter 5 Lateral and Directional Control and the Measurement of Aerodynamic Coefficients in Steady Asymmetric Flight and in Flight on Asymmetric Power



5:1 Introduction

5:2 Desirable Control Characteristics in Steady Flight

5:3 Relations Between Control Position and Sideslip Stability and Aerodynamic Coefficients of the Aircraft

5:4 Flight Tests for Determination of the Control Position and Sideslip Stability Parameters and Control Effectiveness Coefficients

5:5 Calculation of Stability Derivatives from Results of Flight Tests

5:6 Lateral and Directional Control in Flight on Asymmetric Power

5:7 Flight Tests on Asym netric Power

5:8 Summary



I. Relation Between Control Position Stability and Dynamic Stability

II. Definition of Aircraft Configurations


Chapter 6 Flight Techniques Used to Determine Adequacy of Lateral Control



6:1 Introduction

6:2 Specific Requirements Applicable to Lateral Control

6:3 Design Parameters Affecting Compliance with Requirements

6:4 Various Forms of Lateral Control Surfaces

6:5 Instrumentation for Lateral Control Testing

6:6 Flight Test Procedure for Lateral Control Testing

6:7 Data Reduction and Typical Data


Chapter 7 Stalling and the Measurement of Maximum Lift


7:1 Introduction

7:2 Maximum Lift

7:3 The Lift-Incidence Curve and Stalling Behavior

7:4 Drag

7:5 Pitching Moment

7:6 Investigation of Stalling Behavior

7:7 Measurement of Maximum Lift Coefficient

7:8 High Lift Devices and Stalling Behavior

Chapter 8 Spinning

Part I General Principles of Spinning



8:1 Introduction

8:2 Equilibrium in the Spin

8:3 The Methods of Recovery from the Spin and Control Effectiveness

8:4 The Oscillatory Spin

8:5 The Inverted Spin

8:6 Anti-Spin Parachutes

Part II Spin Flight Tests

8:7 Historical Background

8:8 Model Spin Tests and Full Scale Correlation

8:9 Design Considerations

8:10 Spinning of Unconventional Aircraft

8:11 Emergency Anti-Spin Devices

8:12 Spin Chute Cockpit Controls

8:13 Checks of Spin Chute Installation

8:14 Instrumentation

8:15 Choice of Pilot

8:16 The Flight Spin Tests

8:17 Reduction of Data

8:18 Presentation of Data in Graphical Form

8:19 General Form of the Test Report

Chapter 9 High Speed Stability and Control Problems


9:1 Introduction

9:2 General Remarks on High Speed Stability and Control Flight Testing

9:3 Concept of the Altitude-Mach Number Flight Envelope

9:4 Concept of the Load Factor-Mach Number Flight Envelope

9:5 Testing Procedures for Some Special High Speed Stability and Control Problems

9:6 Testing Problems Associated with Irreversible Flight-Control Systems

9:7 Testing Problems Associated with Automatic Flight-Control Systems at High Speeds

9:8 Conclusions


Chapter 10 Dynamic Response Techniques

10:1 Introduction

10:2 Symbols and Notation

10:3 Historical Sketch of Dynamic Stability Testing

10:4 Methods of Performing Dynamic Response Measurements

10:5 Equations of Motion

10:6 Fundamental Limitations on Derivative Extraction

10:7 Analysis Techniques

10:8 Conversion of Transient Response to Frequency Response Form

10:9 Nonstationary Flow Effects

10:10 Aeroelastic Effects

10:11 Examples of Results Obtained from Flight Tests


Chapter 11 Measurement and Interpretation of Flight Test Data for Dynamic Stability and Control


11:1 Introduction

11:2 The Conduct of Flight Tests

11:3 General Instrument Requirements

11:4 Instrument Characteristics

11:5 Interpretation of Data


Chapter 12 Routine Handling Tests for Helicopters

12:1 Introduction

12:2 Preflight Tests

12:3 Starting, Run-Up, Taxying

12:4 Assessment of Controls in Flight

12:5 Assessment of Stability

12:6 Night Flying and Instrument Flying

12:7 Center of Gravity Range and Other Envelope Conditions

12:8 Standards of Acceptance

Chapter 13 Study of the Handling Characteristics of Helicopters by Harmonic Methods


13:1 Statement of the Problem

13:2 Theoretical Study of the Transfer Function of a Helicopter in Hovering

13:3 Experimental Determination of Helicopter Response Characteristics

13:4 Introduction of a Human Pilot

13:5 Study of the Closed-Cycle Helicopter + Pilot

13:6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14 A Survey of Flight Flutter Testing Techniques


14:1 Introduction

14:2 Definition and Scope of Flight Flutter Testing

14:3 General Techniques of Flight Flutter Testing

14:4 Methods of Excitation

14:5 Measuring and Recording Methods

14:6 Conclusions



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© Pergamon 1959
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Courtland D. Perkins

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