Stability and Control

Stability and Control

Flight Testing

2nd Edition - January 1, 1959

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  • Editor: Courtland D. Perkins
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222332

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Flight Testing, Volume II: Stability and Control focuses on the development of adequate flight test techniques for the appraisal of stability and control characteristics and flying qualities of airplanes. This book discusses the flying quality requirements, longitudinal motions, and flight determination of stick-fixed neutral points. The determination of aerodynamic parameters from steady maneuvering, desirable control characteristics in steady flight, and various forms of lateral control surfaces are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the measurement of maximum lift coefficient, emergency anti-spin devices, and concept of the altitude-Mach number flight envelope. This volume is recommended for design, development or research engineers, test pilots, and instrumentation personnel interested in airplane stability and control.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1:1 Historical

    1:2 Flying Quality Requirements

    1:3 Dynamic Longitudinal Stability

    1:4 Static Longitudinal Stability (Straight Flight)

    1:5 Static Longitudinal Stability (Curved Flight Path)

    1:6 Control Power

    1:7 Longitudinal Trim Changes and Trimming Devices

    1:8 Dynamic Lateral Stability

    1:9 Static Directional and Lateral Stability

    1:10 Rudder Control Power

    1:11 Rudder Pedal Forces

    1:12 Lateral Control Power

    1:13 Lateral Control Forces

    1:14 Directional and Lateral Trimming Devices

    1:15 Stalling Characteristics

    1:16 Spinning Characteristics

    1:17 High Speed Requirements

    1:18 Flight Research

    Chapter 2 Airplane Motions



    2:1 Introduction

    2:2 Equations of Motion

    2:3 Longitudinal Motions

    2:4 Lateral Motions


    Chapter 3 Static Longitudinal Stability and Control



    3:1 Introduction

    3:2 Neutral Points and Maneuver Points

    3:3 The Flight Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Points

    3:4 The Flight Determination of Stick-Free Neutral Points

    3:5 Effective Weight Moment Testing

    3:6 Nose Wheel Lift-Off

    3:7 Landing Hold-Off

    3:8 Change in Trim with Power and Flap Settings


    Chapter 4 Flight Testing Aircraft for Longitudinal Maneuvering Characteristics



    4:1 Introduction

    4:2 Flying Qualities Requirements

    4:3 Prediction of Stick-Fixed Maneuvering Characteristics

    4:4 Prediction of Stick-Free Maneuvering Characteristics

    4:5 Instrumentation

    4:6 Flight Test Techniques

    4:7 Data Reduction Methods and Typical Flight Test Data

    4:8 Determination of Aerodynamic Parameters from Steady Maneuvering Flight Data


    Chapter 5 Lateral and Directional Control and the Measurement of Aerodynamic Coefficients in Steady Asymmetric Flight and in Flight on Asymmetric Power



    5:1 Introduction

    5:2 Desirable Control Characteristics in Steady Flight

    5:3 Relations Between Control Position and Sideslip Stability and Aerodynamic Coefficients of the Aircraft

    5:4 Flight Tests for Determination of the Control Position and Sideslip Stability Parameters and Control Effectiveness Coefficients

    5:5 Calculation of Stability Derivatives from Results of Flight Tests

    5:6 Lateral and Directional Control in Flight on Asymmetric Power

    5:7 Flight Tests on Asym netric Power

    5:8 Summary



    I. Relation Between Control Position Stability and Dynamic Stability

    II. Definition of Aircraft Configurations


    Chapter 6 Flight Techniques Used to Determine Adequacy of Lateral Control



    6:1 Introduction

    6:2 Specific Requirements Applicable to Lateral Control

    6:3 Design Parameters Affecting Compliance with Requirements

    6:4 Various Forms of Lateral Control Surfaces

    6:5 Instrumentation for Lateral Control Testing

    6:6 Flight Test Procedure for Lateral Control Testing

    6:7 Data Reduction and Typical Data


    Chapter 7 Stalling and the Measurement of Maximum Lift


    7:1 Introduction

    7:2 Maximum Lift

    7:3 The Lift-Incidence Curve and Stalling Behavior

    7:4 Drag

    7:5 Pitching Moment

    7:6 Investigation of Stalling Behavior

    7:7 Measurement of Maximum Lift Coefficient

    7:8 High Lift Devices and Stalling Behavior

    Chapter 8 Spinning

    Part I General Principles of Spinning



    8:1 Introduction

    8:2 Equilibrium in the Spin

    8:3 The Methods of Recovery from the Spin and Control Effectiveness

    8:4 The Oscillatory Spin

    8:5 The Inverted Spin

    8:6 Anti-Spin Parachutes

    Part II Spin Flight Tests

    8:7 Historical Background

    8:8 Model Spin Tests and Full Scale Correlation

    8:9 Design Considerations

    8:10 Spinning of Unconventional Aircraft

    8:11 Emergency Anti-Spin Devices

    8:12 Spin Chute Cockpit Controls

    8:13 Checks of Spin Chute Installation

    8:14 Instrumentation

    8:15 Choice of Pilot

    8:16 The Flight Spin Tests

    8:17 Reduction of Data

    8:18 Presentation of Data in Graphical Form

    8:19 General Form of the Test Report

    Chapter 9 High Speed Stability and Control Problems


    9:1 Introduction

    9:2 General Remarks on High Speed Stability and Control Flight Testing

    9:3 Concept of the Altitude-Mach Number Flight Envelope

    9:4 Concept of the Load Factor-Mach Number Flight Envelope

    9:5 Testing Procedures for Some Special High Speed Stability and Control Problems

    9:6 Testing Problems Associated with Irreversible Flight-Control Systems

    9:7 Testing Problems Associated with Automatic Flight-Control Systems at High Speeds

    9:8 Conclusions


    Chapter 10 Dynamic Response Techniques

    10:1 Introduction

    10:2 Symbols and Notation

    10:3 Historical Sketch of Dynamic Stability Testing

    10:4 Methods of Performing Dynamic Response Measurements

    10:5 Equations of Motion

    10:6 Fundamental Limitations on Derivative Extraction

    10:7 Analysis Techniques

    10:8 Conversion of Transient Response to Frequency Response Form

    10:9 Nonstationary Flow Effects

    10:10 Aeroelastic Effects

    10:11 Examples of Results Obtained from Flight Tests


    Chapter 11 Measurement and Interpretation of Flight Test Data for Dynamic Stability and Control


    11:1 Introduction

    11:2 The Conduct of Flight Tests

    11:3 General Instrument Requirements

    11:4 Instrument Characteristics

    11:5 Interpretation of Data


    Chapter 12 Routine Handling Tests for Helicopters

    12:1 Introduction

    12:2 Preflight Tests

    12:3 Starting, Run-Up, Taxying

    12:4 Assessment of Controls in Flight

    12:5 Assessment of Stability

    12:6 Night Flying and Instrument Flying

    12:7 Center of Gravity Range and Other Envelope Conditions

    12:8 Standards of Acceptance

    Chapter 13 Study of the Handling Characteristics of Helicopters by Harmonic Methods


    13:1 Statement of the Problem

    13:2 Theoretical Study of the Transfer Function of a Helicopter in Hovering

    13:3 Experimental Determination of Helicopter Response Characteristics

    13:4 Introduction of a Human Pilot

    13:5 Study of the Closed-Cycle Helicopter + Pilot

    13:6 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 14 A Survey of Flight Flutter Testing Techniques


    14:1 Introduction

    14:2 Definition and Scope of Flight Flutter Testing

    14:3 General Techniques of Flight Flutter Testing

    14:4 Methods of Excitation

    14:5 Measuring and Recording Methods

    14:6 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 510
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1959
  • Published: January 1, 1959
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222332

About the Editor

Courtland D. Perkins

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