Spun Yarn Technology

Spun Yarn Technology

1st Edition - March 19, 1987

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  • Author: Eric Oxtoby
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161808

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Description

Spun Yarn Technology provides a comprehensive review of the principles of spun yarn technology. Chapters are devoted to topics on spun yarn technology such as yarn production, properties of yarn, opening and cleaning loose fibers, fiber blending, the process of carding, and roller drafting, doubling, and fiber control. The spinning process, yarn folding, yarn preparation (winding, tensioning, splicing, and steaming and storage), and the kinds of specialty yarn are presented as well. Textile technologists will find the text very useful.

Table of Contents


  • 1 Introduction

    Yarn

    Continuous Filament Production

    Continuous

    Filament Yarn

    Continuous Filament Tow

    Spun Yarn Production

    Drafting

    Doubling

    Spun Yarn Types

    Basic Operations in the Production of Spun Yarns

    Terminology of Spun Yarns

    Yarn Thickness

    Yarn Count

    The Tex System

    General Comparison of Continuous Filament and Spun Yarns

    Fibre Properties

    2 Opening and Cleaning

    Automatic Feeders

    Raw Wool Impurities and Principles of Removal

    Raw Cotton Impurities and Principles of Removal

    Principles of Raw Flax Processing

    Principles of Raw Jute Processing

    Principles of Spun Silk Processing

    3 Blending and Mixing

    Basic Blending Requirements

    Blending Systems

    Blending Tolerances

    Mixing Deficiencies

    Limitations of Blending and Mixing

    4 Carding

    General Carding Objectives

    Card Clothing

    Carding Actions

    Fettling

    Grinding

    Setting

    Carding Faults

    Wool Card Roller Arrangement

    Worsted Carding

    Semi-Worsted Carding

    Woollen Carding

    Cotton Card Arrangement

    Flax Carding

    Jute Carding

    5 Roller Drafting, Doubling, and Fibre Control

    Draft: Calculated and Actual

    Doublings

    Combination of Drafts and Doublings

    The Drafting Zone

    Back and Front Rollers

    Beard Fibres

    Roller Slip

    Ratch

    Floating Fibres

    'Perfect' Sliver Levelness

    Random Fibre Distribution

    'Perfect' Drafting

    Fibre End Distribution

    Drafting Waves

    Drafting Force

    Mechanical Defects

    Reversal of Draft Direction

    Square-Cut Staple Fibres

    Methods of Fibre Control

    Pin

    Direct Pressure

    Twist

    Combined Twist and Direct Pressure

    6 Autolevelling

    Radical Autolevelling

    Conservative Autolevelling

    Open Loop

    Closed Loop

    Combined Loop

    Closed Loop Design

    Deviation

    Reduction Factor

    Gain/Frequency Response

    Phase-Lag/Frequency Response

    Control Loop Characteristics

    Autoleveller Perturbation

    Autoleveller Applications

    Autoleveller Construction

    Measurement

    Delay

    Transmitter

    Variable Speed Unit

    Plattdrawframe Autoleveller

    Wira Autocount

    7 Combing

    Basic Objectives

    Noil Percentage

    Tear

    Combing Cycle

    Machine Comb Types

    Fibre Feed

    Cotton Combing

    Preparatory Processes

    Comb General Features

    Combing Cycle

    Sliver Delivery

    Applications

    Woolcombing

    Preparatory Processes

    Comb General Features

    Combing Cycle

    Worsted Top Finishing

    8 Package Formation and Drawing Prior to Spinning

    False Twist

    Lap or Roll Delivery

    Can Delivery

    Balling Head Delivery

    Roving Twist

    Flyer Lead Delivery

    Bobbin Lead Delivery

    Drawing Worsted

    Semi-Worsted

    Carded Cotton

    Combed Cotton

    Flax

    Jute

    Spun Silk

    9 The Spinning Process

    Classification of Spinning Machines

    General Features of Conventional Spinning Machines

    Creels

    Roving Traverse

    Top Roller Covering and Pressure

    Underclearers

    Spindle Drives

    Change Speed Devices

    Speed Limitations

    Variable Speeds

    Spindle Pitch

    Lifter Traverse

    Productive Efficiency

    Piecening

    Automatic Doffing

    Economics

    General Features of the Spinning Process

    Yarn Strength

    Twist Variation and Yarn Appearance

    Yarn Thickness, Compressibility and Twist

    Production

    End-Breakages

    Twist Formulae

    Yarn Length Contraction

    Fine Count Limit

    Fly Waste

    10 Fibre Migration and Displacement

    Characterization of Migration

    Factors Influencing Displacement

    Fibre

    Yarn

    Process

    11 Intermittent Spinning Machines

    Mule Spinning

    The Woollen Mule Cycle of Operations

    Delivery

    Drafting

    Twisting

    Backing-Off

    Winding-On

    Centrifugal Spinning

    12 Conventional Frame Spinning Machines

    Flyer Spinning

    Ring Spinning

    Spindle Arrangement

    Winding-On Revolutions

    Twist Variation

    Calculated Twist

    Yarn Tension

    Balloon Theory

    Balloon Collapse

    Control Rings

    Moving Lappets

    Rings and Travellers

    Factors Influencing Spinning Conditions

    Ring Diameter

    Balloon Height

    Spindle Speed

    Traveller Mass

    Spindle Attachments

    Condenser Yarn Spinning

    Automatic Underwinding

    Cap Spinning

    13 Open-End Spinning

    Principles

    Advantages

    Basic Methods

    Vortex

    Axial

    Discontinuous

    Friction

    Rotor

    Rotor Spinning

    Fibre Assembly

    Twist Insertion and Yarn Withdrawal

    Rotor Machine Features

    Opening Methods

    Fibre Transfer

    Bridging Fibres

    Wrapper Fibres

    Rotor Design

    Bearings and Drives

    Technical Aspects

    Twist and Draft Calculations

    Theoretical and Calculated Twist

    Cross-Sectional Number of Fibres

    Change of Draft and Twist

    Yarn Structure

    Cleanliness of Fibre Feed

    Sliver Preparation

    Spinning Tension and Fine Count Limit

    Power Consumption

    Rotor Speed

    Rotor Diameter

    Spinning Twist and End-Breakages

    General Features of Rotor Machines

    Economic Aspects

    Open-End Yarn Uses

    14 Repco Self-Twist Spinning

    Principle of Self-Twist Spinning

    Self-Twist (ST) Yarn

    Twisted Self-Twist (STT) Yarn

    Self-Twist Spinning Machine

    Creel

    Drafting Zone

    Twist Insertion

    Fly Waste Removal

    Yarn Convergence Guides and Yarn Phasing

    Yarn Delivery

    General Features

    Advantages and Limitations of ST Spinning

    Self-Twist Yarn Definitions

    Cycle Length

    Self-Twist Per Half-Cycle

    Average Self-Twist

    Self-Twist Factor

    Yarn Count

    Twisted Self-Twist (STT) Yarn

    Pairing Twist

    Pairing Twist Factor

    Pairing Twist/Self-Twist Relationship

    Added Twist Factor

    Pairing Twist/Added Twist Relationship

    Self-Twist Yarn Requirements

    Recommended Processing Sequence

    Self-Twist Knitting Yarns

    High Bulk Acrylics

    Regular Yarns

    Developments of Self-Twist Techniques

    Selfil

    Wrapped Core Yarns

    15 Spinning Developments

    Twistless Yarns

    Twistless Spinning

    TNO Systems

    Pavena System

    Semi-Molten Polymer-Core Yarns (Bobtex ICS)

    Axial Fibre Slippage Yarns

    Jet Spinning

    Bobtex Abs Spin-Folding

    Wrap-Spun Yarns

    The Axifugal System

    Front Folding

    Felted Yarns

    16 Yarn Folding

    Folded Yarns

    Cabled Yarns

    Folding Objectives

    S on Z Yarns

    Coating

    Colour Twists

    Knitting

    Balanced Twist

    Maximum Strength Cotton Yarns

    Z On Z Yarns

    Dual Up/Down Folding

    Folding Routine

    Folding Machinery

    Conventional Ring

    Fancy Yarns

    Two-Stage Hamel

    Two-For-One

    17 Yarn Preparation

    Parallel-Sided Cheese

    Angle of Wind

    Wind and Traverse Ratio

    Traverse Displacement

    Precision Winders

    Constant Spindle Speed

    Constant Surface Speed

    Combination Speeds

    Drum Winders

    Grooved Drum

    Finger Traverse

    Cone Winding

    Cone Taper

    Yarn Tensioning

    Package Stability and Density

    Yarn Clearing

    Mechanical Clearers

    Electronic Clearers

    Photoelectric

    Capacitance

    Knots

    Splicing

    Yarn Conditioning

    Yarn Waxing

    Free Running

    Power Driven

    Emulsion

    Molten Wax

    Yarn Length Measurement

    Automatic Winding

    Multi-Knotter Machines

    Traversing Knotter Machines

    Carousel Machines

    Yarn Steaming and Storage

    Yarn Mercerizing and the Prograde Process

    Yarn Singeing

    Yarn Sizing

    Yarn Polishing

    Yarn Reeling

    Lea Reeling

    Cross Reeling

    Change Reeling Machines

    Double Reeling Machines

    Bundling

    Yarn Balling

    Hank-to-Cone Winding

    Pineapple Cones

    18 Static Electrification and Atmospheric Control

    Static

    Formation

    Dissipation

    Gaseous Discharge

    Fibre Conduction

    Anti-Static Conduction

    Dissipation for the Consumer

    Atmospheric Control

    Side Effects

    Recommended Processing Conditions

    Travelling Cleaners

    19 Yarn Properties

    Irregularity

    Drafting Waves

    Variance-Length Curves

    Index of Irregularity

    Correlograms

    Periodicity

    Long-Term Count Variation

    Tensile Properties

    Individual Thread Tests

    Hank Tests

    Constant Tension Winding Tests

    Ballistic Tests

    Yarn Breakage

    Fibre Blends

    Tenacity and Strength Realization

    Yarn Initial Modulus

    Twist

    Hairiness

    Thickness and Compressibility

    Pilling

    Bending Rigidity

    ST and STT Yarns

    Selfil Yarns

    Twistless Yarns

    Bobtex ICS Yarn

    Open-End Yarns

    Sewing Threads

    20 Yarn Faults

    Neps

    Slubs

    Spewing

    Piecenings

    Married Ends

    Soft (or Slack) Twist

    Hard Twist

    Mixed Lots

    21 Speciality Yarns

    Fancy Yarns

    Condenser-Spun

    Drawn-and-Spun

    Spiral

    Diamond

    Multifold

    Gimp

    Mock Chenille

    Cloud

    Knop

    Loop

    Snarl

    Spiral

    Stripe

    Slub

    Eccentric

    Folded Chenille

    Core Yarns

    Coloured Yarns

    Solid Shades

    Mixture Shades

    Gill Mixing

    Re-Combing

    Mixing in Drawing

    Vigoureux (Melange) Printing

    Imitation Vigoureux

    Speciality Coloured Yarns

    Twist Shades

    Single

    Marl

    Marl

    Half Marl

    Double Marl

    Single Mottle

    22 Tow-To-Sliver Conversion and

    Bulked Acrylic Yarn

    Production

    Comparison of Methods

    Cutting Converters

    Crush Cutting

    Double-Cuts

    Fused Fibres

    Fish

    Food

    Stretch-Breaking Converters

    Heater Temperature

    Stretch Ratio

    Bulked Acrylic Yarns

    General Principles

    Blend Proportions

    Pre-Relaxation

    Yarn Shrinkage

    Acrylic Yarn Counts

    Appendix: Processing Sequences

    Woollen

    Worsted

    Semi-Worsted

    Cotton

    Flax

    Jute

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 260
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1987
  • Published: March 19, 1987
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161808

About the Author

Eric Oxtoby

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