Spot Tests in Organic Analysis

Spot Tests in Organic Analysis

7th Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Authors: F. Feigl, V. Anger
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444402097
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597977

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Covering all theoretical and practical aspects of the applications of spot tests to organic analysis, this book includes information on more than 900 tests. It continues to be an indispensable reference to organic and analytical chemists in academia and in industry.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    Chapter 1. Development, Present State and Prospects of Organic Spot Test Analysis

    Chapter 2. Preliminary (Exploratory) Tests

    General Remarks

    1. Non-Chemical Proofs

    2. Burning and Pyrolysis Tests

    3. Examination of Ignition Residues

    Detection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Elements Bound Directly or Indirectly to Carbon

    4. Carbon

    5. Hydrogen

    6. Halogens

    7. Chlorine

    8. Bromine

    9. Iodine

    10. Fluorine

    11. Oxygen

    12. Sulfur

    13. Compounds with Groups Containing Sulfur and Oxygen

    14. Selenium

    15. Nitrogen

    16. Compounds with Groups Containing Nitrogen and Oxygen

    17. Sulfur and Nitrogen (Joint Detection)

    18. Phosphorus

    19. Arsenic

    20. Antimony

    21. Silicon

    22. Mercury

    23. Metals

    24. Tests for Basic or Acidic Behavior

    25. Detection of Occult Acidic Groups

    26. Detection of Occult (Non-Basic) Amino Groups

    27. Detection of Water-Soluble Salts of Organic Bases and Alkali Salts of Organic Acids

    28. Detection of Water-Soluble Salts of Sulfonic and Sulfinic Acids

    29. Detection of Water-Insoluble Bases and Acids

    30. Detection of Compounds which React with Acids

    31. Orientation Tests Based on Redox Reactions

    32. The Le Rosen Test for Aromatic Compounds

    33. Sulfonation Test for Aromatics

    34. Pyrolysis Tests for Aromatic Compounds Containing Oxygen

    35. Ehrlich Diazo Test for Compounds Capable of Coupling

    36. Colmant Chloranil Test

    37. Fuming-Off Test with Concentrated Nitric Acid

    38. Fusion Test with Benzoin

    39. Sinter Test with Mercuric Cyanide

    40. Detection of Compounds which Split Off Water or Ammonia when Heated to 190°

    41. Detection of Compounds which Yield Ammonia when Pyrolyzed

    42. Detection of Compounds which Yield Ammonia when Heated with Caustic Alkali and Devarda Alloy

    43. Detection of Compounds which Split Off Water when Heated to 180°

    44. Detection of Compounds Containing Reactive >CH2 and - NH2 Groups

    45. Solubility Tests

    Chapter 3. Detection of Characteristic Functional Groups in Organic Compounds

    General Remarks

    A. Groups Containing Carbon and Hydrogen

    1. O- and N-Meihyl Compounds (-OCH3 and >NCH3 Groups)

    2. Ethylene Derivatives (-CH2-CH2- Group)

    3. Vinyl Compounds (-CH=CH2 Group)

    4. Propenyl Compounds (-CH=CH-CH3 Group)

    5. Allyl Compounds (>C-CH=C< Group)

    6. Benzal Compounds (C6H5CH= Group)

    B. Organic Halogen Compounds

    7. Primary Halogenoalkyls (-CH2Hal Group)

    8. Polyhalogen Compounds (-CHal3 and -CHHal2 Groups)

    9. Organic Iodine Compounds

    C. Oxygen Compounds (Organic Derivatives of Water)

    10. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Alcohols

    11. Primary and Secondary Alcohols

    12. Secondary Alcohols

    13. Enols

    14. Phenols

    15. Ethers (R-O-R Group)

    16. Ethoxy Compounds (-OC2H5 Group)

    17. Alkyl Phenyl Ethers

    18. Carbonyl Compounds (>CO Group)

    19. Aromatic and α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

    20. Aldehydes (-CHO Group)

    21. Aromatic Aldehydes

    22. Aromatic and α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes

    23. Aliphatic Ketones (-CH2-CO- Group)

    24. Methyl Ketones (CH3-CO- Group)

    25. Acetonyl Compounds (CH3-CO-CH2- Group)

    26. Carboxylic Acids (-COOH Group)

    27. Aliphatic and Aromatic Polycarboxylic Acids and Aralkyl Monocarboxylic Acids

    28. Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COO(R, Ar) Group)

    29. Alkyl Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COOR Group)

    30. Phenyl Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COOAr Group)

    31. Alkyl and Aryl Acetates (CH3-COO- Group)

    32. Anhydrides and Imides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-(O,NH)-CO- Group)

    33. Carboxylic Acid Chlorides (-COCl Group)

    D. Sulfur and Selenium Compounds

    34. Thioketones and Thiols ( >CS and >CSH Groups)

    35. Thiols (-SH Group)

    36. Disulfides (-S-S- Group)

    37. Xanthates (ROCSS-Group)

    38. Aromatic Sulfinic Acids (ArSO2H Group)

    39. Sulfones (>SO2 Group)

    40. Aryl- and Aralkyl Sulfones

    41. Sulfonic Acids (-SO3H Group)

    42. Aliphatic Sulfonic Acids (R-SO3H Group)

    43. Aromatic Sulfonic Acids (Ar-SO3H Group)

    44. Esters and N-Organylamides of Sulfuric Acid

    45. Sulfoxylate Compounds (-CH2-O-SONa Group)

    46. Diselenides (-Se-Se- Group)

    47. Seleninic Acids (-SeO2H Group)

    E. Nitrogen Compounds

    48. Primary, Secondary and Methyl-Bearing Tertiary Alkyl-, Aryl- and Acyl Amines

    49. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

    50. Primary and Secondary Amines

    51. Primary and Secondary Alkylamines

    52. Primary and Secondary Arylamines and Secondary Vinylamines

    53. Salts of Primary Amines

    54. Aromatic Primary Amines

    55. Secondary Amines

    56. Aliphatic Secondary Amines

    57. Tertiary Amines

    58. Ethyl Amines (>NC2H5 Group)

    59. Dialkylarylamines (Ar-NRR Group)

    60. Amides of Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids

    61. Amides and Imides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-NH- Group)

    62. Amides of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids (R-CONH2 Group)

    63. N-Arylamides (RCONHAr Group)

    64. Anilides of Carboxylic Acids ((R,Ar)CONHC6H5 G r o u p )

    65. Anilides of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids (RCONH-C5H6 Group)

    66. Amidines (-C=NH-NH2 Group)

    67. Guanidino Compounds (HN= C-NH-NH2 Group)

    68. Nitriles (Cyanides) (-C≡N Group)

    69. Aliphatic Nitriles (R-C≡N Group)

    70. Compounds with -C≡N and >C=N- Groups

    71. N-Cyano Compounds (>N-CN Group)

    72. Hydrazine Compounds

    73. Alkyl-, Aryl- and Acyl-Hydrazines (>N-NH2 Group)

    74. Mono and Asym-di-Arylhydrazines (AR,R,H)AR>-N-NH2 Group)

    75. Monoarylhydrazines (Ar-NHNH2 Group)

    76. Monoarylhydrazones (>C=NNHAr Group)

    77. Phenylhydrazones

    78. Hydrazides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-NHNH2 Group)

    79. Acylphenylhydrazides (-CO-NH-NH-C6H5 Group)

    80. Aldehyde Hydrazones (-CH=N-NH- Group)

    81. Hydrazo Compounds (-NH-NH- Group)

    82. Azo Compounds (-N=N- Group)

    83. Azoxy Compounds (-N=+N
    84. Arylhydroxylamines (Ar-NHOH Group)

    85. Oximes and Hydroxamic Acids (=NOH Group)

    86. Aliphatic Oximes (R2C=NOH Group)

    87. Hydroxamic Acids (-CO-NHOH Group)

    Nitroso Compounds

    88. C-Nitroso Compounds (-NO Group)

    89. Nitrosamines (>N-NO Group)

    90. Aliphatic Nitrosamines

    91. Nitro Compounds (-NO2 Group)

    92. Primary Aliphatic Nitro Compounds (R-CH2-NO2 Group)

    93. Aromatic Nitro Compounds

    94. Aromatic Polynitro Compounds

    95. Nitrates, Nitrites, Nitroamines and Nitrosamines (-ONO2, -ΟΝΟ, >NNO2, and >NNO Groups)

    96. Esters and Amides of Nitric Acid (-ONO2, and >N-NO2, Groups)

    97. Thiocyanates (-SCN Group)

    98. Amides of Thiocarboxylic Acids (-CSNH4, Group)

    99. Dithiocarbamates (-SCS-NC< Group)

    100. Sulfamic Acids (-NHSO2H Group)

    101. Arylsulfohydroxamic Acids

    102. N-Halosulfonamides (-SO2NHHal Group)

    F. Organic Compounds of P, As, Sb, Bi, and Hg

    103. Triphenylphosphine, -Arsine, -Stibine, or -Bismuthine

    104. Arsonic Acids (-AsO(OH)2 Group)

    105. Stibonic Acids (-SbO(OH)2 Group)

    106. Arylmercuric Salts (Ar-HgX Group)

    107. Mercury Diaryls (Ar2Hg Group)

    108. Alkyl Esters of Non-Carboxylie Acids

    109. Methyl Esters of Non-Carboxy Lie Acids

    Chapter 4. Detection of Structures and Certain Types of Organic Compounds

    General Remarks

    1. Vicinal Polyalcohols (>C(OH)-(HO)C< Type)

    2. 7-Dehydrosterols

    3. Phenoxy Compounds (C6H5O- Type)

    4. Polyhydroxybenzenes (C6H6-n(OH)n Type)

    5. m-Dihydroxybenzene Derivatives

    6. m-Dihydroxyaryl Compounds (m-Ar(OH)2 Type)

    7. Vic-Trihydroxyaryls

    8. p-Hydroxy- and p-Alkoxy-Benzene Derivatives

    9. Methylene Ethers of o-Diphenols

    10. 1,2-Dioxo Compounds (-CO-CO- Type)

    11. Aliphatic 1,2-Dioxo Compounds (R-CO-CO-R Type)

    12. Aromatic 1,2-Dioxo Compounds and o-Quinones (Ar-CO-CO-Ar Type)

    13. 1,2-Dioxo Compounds and Quinones

    14. Quinones

    15. o-Quinones

    16. Naphthoquinones

    17. p-Naphthoquinones

    18. Anthraquinones

    19. Carbohydrates

    20. Reducing Sugars

    21. Hexoses

    22. Ketohexoses

    23. o-Hydroxyaryl Carbonyl Compounds

    24. o-Hydroxyarylaldehydes

    25. p-Hydroxyarylaldehydes

    26. p-Hydroxy- and p-Alkoxyaldehydes

    27. Arylvinyl- and p-Hydroxy-(Alkoxy-)Aryl-Aldehydes

    28. Polyhydroxyanthraquinones

    29. Acyloins (Ar-CHOH-CO-Ar Type)

    30. 5-Hydroxyflavonols

    31. 1,2-Dicarboxylic Acids (C-COOH—C-COOH Type)

    32. α-Halogenofatty Acids (-CHHalCOOH Type)

    33. Uronic Acids

    34. Salicylic Acid Derivatives

    35. Phenoxyacetic Acids (Ar-O-CH2-COOH Type)

    36. Phenol- and α-Naphthol-Sulfonic Acids

    37. Naphthalenesulfonic Acids

    38. Anthraquinonesulfonic Acids

    39. N-Alkylanilines

    40. N.N-Dialkylanilines

    41. Diphenylamine and Derivatives

    42. Halogenated Anilines

    43. β-Hydroxyethylamines (>N-CH2-CH2-OH Type)

    44. Amino Acids

    45. Aliphatic Aminocarboxylic and -Sulfonic Acids

    46. Aliphatic Aminocarboxylic Acids

    47. α-Aminocarboxylic Acids (-CH-COOH-NH3 Type)

    48. Proteins

    49. Aniline- and Phenolsulfonic Acids

    50. Aniline Derivatives Containing Strongly Acidic Groups in the Paraposition

    51. Anilinearsonic and Anilinestibonic Acids

    52. o- and Peri- Hydroxyarylamines

    53. Aromatic Tertiary N-Ring Bases

    54. Aromatic Heterocyclic Ring Bases

    55. Pyrrole Derivatives

    56. Indole Derivatives

    57. Carbazole Derivatives

    58. Pyridine Derivatives

    59. Pyridine-Aldehydes

    60. α-Carboxylic Acids of Aromatic Heterocyclic Bases

    61. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Derivatives

    62. Urea and Derivatives (OC
    63. Thiourea and Derivatives (SC
    64. Quinonechloroimines

    65. Aliphatic 1,2-Dioximes (R-C=HON-C=NOH-R Type)

    66. o-Nitrosophenols

    67. P-Nitrosophenols

    68. o-Nitrosonaphthol Derivatives

    69. p-Nitrosoarylamines

    70. m-Dinitro Compounds

    71. Benzaldehydesulfonic Acids

    72. Aminophenols

    73. Phenylhydrazinesulfonic Acids

    74. Nitro- and Aminobenzaldehydes

    Chapter 5. Identification of Individual Organic Compounds

    General Remarks

    1. Acetylene

    2. Naphthalene

    3. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

    4. Anthracene

    5. Phenanthrene

    6. Chloroform and Bromoform

    7. Bromoform

    8. Carbon Tetrachloride

    9. Methanol

    10. Ethanol

    11. Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexanone

    12. Glycerol

    13. Inositol

    14. p-Cresol

    15. α-Naphthol

    16. β-Naphthol

    17. Pyrocatechol

    18. Resorcinol

    19. Orcinol

    20. Naphthoresorcinol

    21. Hydroquinone

    22. Pyrogallol

    23. Hydroxyhydroquinone

    24. Phloroglucinol

    25. Pentachlorophenol

    26. Salicyl Alcohol (Saligenin)

    27. Carbon Monoxide

    28. Formaldehyde

    29. Acetaldehyde

    30. Chloral and Bromal

    31. Citral

    32. Glyoxal

    33. o-Phthalaldehyde

    34. Furfural

    35. Acetone

    36. Diacetyl

    37. Acetylacetone

    38. P-Benzoquinone

    39. Chloranil

    40. Phenanthraquinone

    41. Rhodizonic Acid

    42. Formic Acid

    43. Acetic Acid

    44. Cinnamic Acid

    45. Oxalic Acid

    46. Esters of Oxalic Acid

    47. Malonic Acid

    48. Succinic Acid

    49. Monochloroacetic Acid

    50. Dichloroacetic Acid

    51. Trichloroacetic Acid

    52. Glycolic Acid

    53. Lactic Acid

    54. Glyceric Acid

    55. Malic Acid

    56. Tartaric Acid

    57. Mucic Acid

    58. Citric Acid

    59. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

    60. Salicylic Acid

    61. Phenoxyacetic Acid

    62. Coumarin

    63. Glyoxalic Acid (Glyoxylic Acid)

    64. Pyruvic Acid

    65. Acetoacetic Ester

    66. Phosgene

    67. Benzoyl Peroxide

    68. Carbon Disulfide

    69. Thio-Michler's Ketone

    70. Thiophene

    71. Dixanthogen

    72. Benzenesulfonic Acid

    73. α-Naphthalenesulfonic Acid

    74. Sulfosalicylic Acid

    75. l,2-Naphthoquinone-4-Sulfonic Acid

    76. Phenylsulfuric Acid

    77. Ethylenediamine and Propylenediamine

    78. Hexamethylenetetramine (Urotropine, Hexamine)

    79. Aminoacetic Acid (Glycine)

    80. α-Aminopropionic Acid (α-Alanine)

    81. Hippuric Acid

    82. Tyrosine

    83. Tryptophan

    84. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    85. Taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid)

    86. Benzylamine

    87. α-Naphthylamine

    88. o-Phenylenediamine

    89. p-Phenylenediamine

    90. p-Aminodimethylaniline

    91. Tetrabase (4,4'-Tetramethyldiaminodiphenylmethane)

    92. Benzidine Sulfate

    93. o-Aminophenol

    94. m-Aminophenol

    95. p-Aminophenol

    96. Ν,Ν-Diphenylanthranilic Acid

    97. Piperidine

    98. Piperazine

    99. Carbazole

    100. Thiodiphenylamine (Phenothiazine)

    101. Pyridine

    102. Pyridine-2-Aldehyde

    103. 3-Pyridinesulfonic Acid

    104. Quinoline

    105. Isoquinoline

    106. 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    107. 8-Hydroxyquinolinesulfonic Acids

    108. Urea

    109. Guanidine

    110. Biguanide

    111. Melamine

    112. Formamide

    113. Ν,Ν-Dimethylformamide

    114. Formanilide

    115. Benzamide

    116. Oxamide

    117. Oxanilide and Oxanilic Acid

    118. Succinimide

    119. N-Bromo(Chloro-)Succinimide

    120. Isatin

    121. Barbituric Acid

    122. Barbituric and Thiobarbituric Acid

    123. Alloxan

    124. Parabanic Acid (Oxalyiurea)

    125. Hydantoin and Allantoin

    126. Hydrocyanic Acid (Prussic Acid)

    127. Dicyanogen

    128. Cyanogen Halides

    129. Cyanoacctic Acid

    130. Cyanamide

    131. Dicyanodiamide (Cyanoguanidine)

    132. Benzonitrile (Phenyl Cyanide)

    133. Phenylhydrazine

    134. Hydrazobenzene

    135. Oxalic Acid Hydrazides

    136. p-Nitrosophenol

    137. α-Nitroso-β-Naphthol

    138. p-Nitrosodimethyl(Ethyl)aniline

    139. Nitromethane

    140. Nitroethane

    141. m-Nitrophenol

    142. p-Nitrobenzaldehyde

    143. m-Nitroaniline

    144. p-Nitroaniline

    145. Thiocyano-2,4-Dinitrobenzene

    146. Phenylisothiocyanate (Phenyl Mustard Oil)

    147. N-Phenylsulfamic Acid

    148. Triphenylphosphate

    Chapter 6. Application of Spot Tests in the Differentiation of Isomers and Homologous Compounds. Determination of Constitutions

    General Remarks

    1. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

    2. Phthalic-Terephthalic Acid. Maleic-Fumaric Acid

    3. Naphthols, Aminophenols and Nitroanilines

    4. Thiocyanates and Isothiocyanates

    5. Eugenol-Isoeugenol. Safrole-Isosafrole

    6. Vanillins

    7. Differentiation of Dihydroxybenzenes

    8. ω-Bromoacetophenone and p-Bromoacetophenone

    9. Naphthoquinones

    10. Isomeric Monohalogenofatty Acids

    11. Phenylsulfuric Acid and Phenolsulfonic Acid

    12. Naphthylamines

    13. α- and β-Naphthylaminesulfonic Acids

    14. Benzylamine, Monomethylaniline and (ο-, m-, p-)Toluidine

    15. Phenylenediamines

    16. α- and β-Alanine

    17. Aminobenzoic Acids

    18. Metanilic and Sulfanilic Acid

    19. Η-Acid and K-Acid

    20. Thiouric Acids

    21. Methylindoles

    22. Quinoline and Isoquinoline

    23. Pyridinemonocarboxylic Acids

    24. Hydrobenzamide and Amarine

    25. Phenylthiocyanate and Phenylisothiocyanate

    26. Phenylacetamide and N-Phenylacetamide

    27. Sulfadiazine and Sulfapyrazine

    28. p-Aminoazobenzene and Diazoaminobenzene

    29. Benzamidine and Benzalhydrazone

    30. Phenylhydrazine-4-Sulfonic Acid and Phenylhydrazine-N-Sulfonic Acid

    31. Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea

    32. Nitrosodiphenylamines

    33. Dinitrobenzenes

    34. Chloronitrobenzenes

    35. Nitrophenols

    36. Nitrobenzaldehydes

    37. Isomeric Methyl Derivatives of Salicylaldoxime and Constitution of Copper Salicylaldoxime

    38. Homologous Aliphatic Aldehydes

    39. Homologous Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids

    40. Differentiation of Aniline and Benzylamine

    41. Cyanamide and Dicyanodiamide

    42. Symmetric and Asymmetric Diphenylurea

    43. Phenyl- and sym-Diphenylthiourea

    44. p-Phenylenediamine and Benzidine

    45. Mono- and di-Alkylanilines

    46. Constitution of the Reaction Product from Thiosemicarbazide and Nitrous Acid

    47. Constitution of 6-Nitroquinoline

    48. Constitution of Taurine and Sulfanilic Acid

    49. Constitution of Dithiooxalic Acid

    50. Constitution of Melamine

    51. Constitution of Thiourea

    52. Reversibility of the Benzoin Condensation

    53. Identification of an Aminophenol Structure in a New Rearrangement Product

    54. Differentiation Between ar-Tetralols and Recognition of a New Rearrangement

    Chapter 7. Application of Spot Reactions in the Testing of Materials, Examination of Purity, Characterization of Pharmaceutical Products, etc.

    General Remarks

    1. Detection of Mineral Constituents in Papers (Differentiation of Filter Papers)

    2. Detection of Organic Materials in Dusts, Soils, etc.

    3. Detection of Sulfide Sulfur in Animal Charcoal and Dyes

    4. Detection of Free Sulfur in Solid Organic Products

    5. Detection of Traces of Sulfur in Organic Liquids

    6. Detection of Carbon Disulfide in Benzene and Carbon Tetrachloride

    7. Detection of Thiophene and Thiophene Derivatives in Benzene and Toluene

    8. Detection of Ammonium Thiocyanate in Thiourea

    9. Detection of Ethanol in Motor Fuels, Benzene, Chloroform, etc.

    10. Detection of Low-Boiling Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    11. Differentiation of Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride

    12. Detection of Solvents and Products with a Glycolic Structure

    13. Detection of Lead Tetraethyl or Lead Tetraphenyl in Motor Fuels

    14. Detection of Peroxides in Organic Liquids

    15. Detection of Organic Stabilizers in Hydrogen Peroxide

    16. Detection of Morpholine

    17. Detection of Pyridine Bases in Amyl Alcohol

    18. Detection of Pyridine Bases in Ammonia

    19. Detection of Hydrogen Cyanide in Illuminating Gas

    20. Tests for Added Materials and Undesirable Admixtures in Foods

    21. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Foods, Beverages, Condiments, etc.

    22. Detection of Salts of N-Cyclohexylsulfamic Acid

    23. Distinction of Fermentation Acetic Acid from Synthetic Acetic Acid

    24. Detection of Mineral Acids and Organic Hydroxy Acids in Vinegar

    25. Detection of Vitamin C in Vegetable and Fruit Juices

    26. Detection of Vitamin B1

    27. Detection of Vitamin B2

    28. Tests for Rancidity of Fats and Oils

    29. Test for Pharmaceutical Preparations which Split off Formaldehyde

    30. Detection of Preparations Containing Tannin

    31. Detection of Salol

    32. Detection of Antipyrine

    33. Test for Barbiturates

    34. Detection of Novocaine

    35. Detection of Dial

    36. Detection of Phenacetin

    37. Detection of Pyramidone

    38. Detection of Morphine and Codeine

    39. Detection of Codeine

    40. Detection of Ephedrine

    41. Detection of Adrenaline

    42. Detection of Emetine and Cephaeline

    43. Detection of Cinchonine and Quinine

    44. Detection of Piperine

    45. Detection of Sulfa Drugs

    46. Test for Sulfadiazine

    47. Detection of Quaternizable Sulfa Drugs

    48. Test for Sulfa Drugs Containing Urea Components

    49. Identification of Entobex

    50. Tests for Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide (Isoniazide)

    51. Tests for Penicillin G Salts

    52. Detection of Chloromycetin

    53. Detection of Aminophylline and Euphylline

    54. Detection of Piperazine in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    55. Detection of Quaiacol Carbonate

    56. Tests for Drugs Containing the Dimethylaminoethyl Group

    57. Detection of Plant Materials that Can be Oxidized to Mucic Acid

    58. Detection of Salicin and Populin

    59. Detection of Helicin

    60. Detection of Coumarin in Plant Material

    61. Detection of Antimonial Pharmaceutical Preparations

    62. Detection of Arsenic-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

    63. Detection of Bismuth-Bearing Medicinals

    64. Detection of Mercurial Pharmaceutical Preparations

    65. Detection of Calcium-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

    66. Detection of Iodine-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

    67. Detection of Hippuran

    68. Differentiation of Mercuric Cyanide and Oxycyanide

    69. Differentiation of Sulfur-Bearing and Sulfur-Free Dyes

    70. Detection of Sulfur Dyes Containing Divalent Sulfur

    71. Detection of Dyes Containing di- and Tetravalent Sulfur

    72. Detection of Dyes Containing Hexavalent Sulfur

    73. Distinguishing Between Nitrogen-Bearing and Nitrogen-Free Dyes

    74. Distinction Between Acid and Basic Dyes

    75. Detection of Salts of Basic Dyes and of Dyes with Free Acidic Groups

    76. Detection of Dyes Containing Nitro Groups

    77. Detection of Dyes Containing Amino Groups

    78. Detection of Dyestuffs Containing N-Dialkyl Groups

    79. Differentiation of Dyes with N-Methyl and N-Ethyl Groups

    80. Detection of Azo Dyes

    81. Detection of Azo Dyes Derived from Aniline

    82. Detection and Distinction of Benzidine Dyes

    83. Detection of Dyestuffs with p-Aminophenol(-Naphthol) Structure

    84. Detection of Dyestuffs with p-Phenylenediamine and p-Nitroaniline Structure

    85. Detection and Differentiation of Rhodamine Dyes

    86. Detection of Dyestuffs with Anthraquinone Structure

    87. Test for Hydroxytriphenylmethane Dyes

    88. Detection of p-Phenylenediamine and its Oxidation Products in Hair Dyes

    89. Detection of Phthalocyanines

    90. Detection of Nickel Dimethylglyoxime

    91. Detection of Antimony and Tin Mordants in Fabrics

    92. Testing the Purity of Dimethyl(-Ethyl-) Aniline

    93. Detection of Nitrates of Organic Bases

    94. Detection of Naphthol- and Naphthylamine-Sulfonic Acids

    95. Differentiation of Naphthol- and Naphthylamine-Sulfonic Acids

    96. Differentiation of Naphthylaminemono- and di-Sulfonic Acids

    97. Examination of Gunpowder and Explosives

    98. Detection of Picrylnitromethylamine

    99. Detection of Non-Aromatic Nitroamine Explosives

    100. Differentiation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-s-Triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-l,3,5,7-Tetranitro-s-Tetrazine (HMX)

    101. Differentiation of Animal and Vegetable Fibers

    102. Tests for the Identification of Artificial Fibers

    103. Detection of Urea Resins

    104. Detection of Formol Plastics

    105. Detection of Melamine Resins

    106. Detection of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives

    107. Detection and Differentiation of Methyl- and Ethyl Cellulose

    10S. Tests for Plastics and Lacquers Containing Nitrocellulose

    109. Test for Styrene Resins and Styrene-Containing Copolymers

    110. Test for Epoxy Resins

    111. Differentiation of Chlorinated Rubber and Neoprene

    112. Detection of Naphthalene-1,5-Diisocyanate

    113. Detection of Chromium in Leather

    114. Detection of Oxalic Acid in Leather

    115. Detection of Formaldehyde in Leather

    116. Differentiation of Natural and Synthetic Tanning Agents

    117. Detection and Differentiation of Organic Tanning Agents in Leather

    118. Detection of the Contamination of Fabrics by Mammalian Urine

    119. Test for Alkali Alkyl Sulfates Used as Wetting Agents

    120. Detection of Chloramine Τ (Differentiation from Alkali Hypochlorite)

    121. Detection of Rongalite

    122. Identification of Binders Used in Mineral Coating on Papers

    123. Detection of Adhesives Containing Proteins

    124. Detection of Acetic Acid (Acetate) in Formic Acid (Formate)

    125. Test for Free Acid in Succinic and Phthalic Anhydrides

    126. Detection of Higher Fatty Acids in Paraffin Wax and Vaseline

    127. Detection of Fats and Waxes

    128. Detection of Calcium Cyanamide and Urea in Fertilizers and Soils

    129. Detection of Alkyl Phosphates Used as Insecticides

    130. Detection of Arylmercury Nitrates

    131. Detection of Some Enzymatic Activities

    Appendix. Individual Compounds and Products Examined

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 796
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444402097
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444597977

About the Authors

F. Feigl

V. Anger

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