Spot Tests in Organic Analysis - 7th Edition - ISBN: 9780444402097, 9780444597977

Spot Tests in Organic Analysis

7th Edition

Authors: F. Feigl V. Anger
eBook ISBN: 9780444597977
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444402097
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 796
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Covering all theoretical and practical aspects of the applications of spot tests to organic analysis, this book includes information on more than 900 tests. It continues to be an indispensable reference to organic and analytical chemists in academia and in industry.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Development, Present State and Prospects of Organic Spot Test Analysis

Chapter 2. Preliminary (Exploratory) Tests

General Remarks

1. Non-Chemical Proofs

2. Burning and Pyrolysis Tests

3. Examination of Ignition Residues

Detection of Nonmetallic and Metallic Elements Bound Directly or Indirectly to Carbon

4. Carbon

5. Hydrogen

6. Halogens

7. Chlorine

8. Bromine

9. Iodine

10. Fluorine

11. Oxygen

12. Sulfur

13. Compounds with Groups Containing Sulfur and Oxygen

14. Selenium

15. Nitrogen

16. Compounds with Groups Containing Nitrogen and Oxygen

17. Sulfur and Nitrogen (Joint Detection)

18. Phosphorus

19. Arsenic

20. Antimony

21. Silicon

22. Mercury

23. Metals

24. Tests for Basic or Acidic Behavior

25. Detection of Occult Acidic Groups

26. Detection of Occult (Non-Basic) Amino Groups

27. Detection of Water-Soluble Salts of Organic Bases and Alkali Salts of Organic Acids

28. Detection of Water-Soluble Salts of Sulfonic and Sulfinic Acids

29. Detection of Water-Insoluble Bases and Acids

30. Detection of Compounds which React with Acids

31. Orientation Tests Based on Redox Reactions

32. The Le Rosen Test for Aromatic Compounds

33. Sulfonation Test for Aromatics

34. Pyrolysis Tests for Aromatic Compounds Containing Oxygen

35. Ehrlich Diazo Test for Compounds Capable of Coupling

36. Colmant Chloranil Test

37. Fuming-Off Test with Concentrated Nitric Acid

38. Fusion Test with Benzoin

39. Sinter Test with Mercuric Cyanide

40. Detection of Compounds which Split Off Water or Ammonia when Heated to 190°

41. Detection of Compounds which Yield Ammonia when Pyrolyzed

42. Detection of Compounds which Yield Ammonia when Heated with Caustic Alkali and Devarda Alloy

43. Detection of Compounds which Split Off Water when Heated to 180°

44. Detection of Compounds Containing Reactive >CH2 and - NH2 Groups

45. Solubility Tests

Chapter 3. Detection of Characteristic Functional Groups in Organic Compounds

General Remarks

A. Groups Containing Carbon and Hydrogen

1. O- and N-Meihyl Compounds (-OCH3 and >NCH3 Groups)

2. Ethylene Derivatives (-CH2-CH2- Group)

3. Vinyl Compounds (-CH=CH2 Group)

4. Propenyl Compounds (-CH=CH-CH3 Group)

5. Allyl Compounds (>C-CH=C< Group)

6. Benzal Compounds (C6H5CH= Group)

B. Organic Halogen Compounds

7. Primary Halogenoalkyls (-CH2Hal Group)

8. Polyhalogen Compounds (-CHal3 and -CHHal2 Groups)

9. Organic Iodine Compounds

C. Oxygen Compounds (Organic Derivatives of Water)

10. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Alcohols

11. Primary and Secondary Alcohols

12. Secondary Alcohols

13. Enols

14. Phenols

15. Ethers (R-O-R Group)

16. Ethoxy Compounds (-OC2H5 Group)

17. Alkyl Phenyl Ethers

18. Carbonyl Compounds (>CO Group)

19. Aromatic and α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds

20. Aldehydes (-CHO Group)

21. Aromatic Aldehydes

22. Aromatic and α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes

23. Aliphatic Ketones (-CH2-CO- Group)

24. Methyl Ketones (CH3-CO- Group)

25. Acetonyl Compounds (CH3-CO-CH2- Group)

26. Carboxylic Acids (-COOH Group)

27. Aliphatic and Aromatic Polycarboxylic Acids and Aralkyl Monocarboxylic Acids

28. Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COO(R, Ar) Group)

29. Alkyl Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COOR Group)

30. Phenyl Esters of Carboxylic Acids (-COOAr Group)

31. Alkyl and Aryl Acetates (CH3-COO- Group)

32. Anhydrides and Imides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-(O,NH)-CO- Group)

33. Carboxylic Acid Chlorides (-COCl Group)

D. Sulfur and Selenium Compounds

34. Thioketones and Thiols ( >CS and >CSH Groups)

35. Thiols (-SH Group)

36. Disulfides (-S-S- Group)

37. Xanthates (ROCSS-Group)

38. Aromatic Sulfinic Acids (ArSO2H Group)

39. Sulfones (>SO2 Group)

40. Aryl- and Aralkyl Sulfones

41. Sulfonic Acids (-SO3H Group)

42. Aliphatic Sulfonic Acids (R-SO3H Group)

43. Aromatic Sulfonic Acids (Ar-SO3H Group)

44. Esters and N-Organylamides of Sulfuric Acid

45. Sulfoxylate Compounds (-CH2-O-SONa Group)

46. Diselenides (-Se-Se- Group)

47. Seleninic Acids (-SeO2H Group)

E. Nitrogen Compounds

48. Primary, Secondary and Methyl-Bearing Tertiary Alkyl-, Aryl- and Acyl Amines

49. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines

50. Primary and Secondary Amines

51. Primary and Secondary Alkylamines

52. Primary and Secondary Arylamines and Secondary Vinylamines

53. Salts of Primary Amines

54. Aromatic Primary Amines

55. Secondary Amines

56. Aliphatic Secondary Amines

57. Tertiary Amines

58. Ethyl Amines (>NC2H5 Group)

59. Dialkylarylamines (Ar-NRR Group)

60. Amides of Carboxylic and Sulfonic Acids

61. Amides and Imides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-NH- Group)

62. Amides of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids (R-CONH2 Group)

63. N-Arylamides (RCONHAr Group)

64. Anilides of Carboxylic Acids ((R,Ar)CONHC6H5 G r o u p )

65. Anilides of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids (RCONH-C5H6 Group)

66. Amidines (-C=NH-NH2 Group)

67. Guanidino Compounds (HN= C-NH-NH2 Group)

68. Nitriles (Cyanides) (-C≡N Group)

69. Aliphatic Nitriles (R-C≡N Group)

70. Compounds with -C≡N and >C=N- Groups

71. N-Cyano Compounds (>N-CN Group)

72. Hydrazine Compounds

73. Alkyl-, Aryl- and Acyl-Hydrazines (>N-NH2 Group)

74. Mono and Asym-di-Arylhydrazines (AR,R,H)AR>-N-NH2 Group)

75. Monoarylhydrazines (Ar-NHNH2 Group)

76. Monoarylhydrazones (>C=NNHAr Group)

77. Phenylhydrazones

78. Hydrazides of Carboxylic Acids (-CO-NHNH2 Group)

79. Acylphenylhydrazides (-CO-NH-NH-C6H5 Group)

80. Aldehyde Hydrazones (-CH=N-NH- Group)

81. Hydrazo Compounds (-NH-NH- Group)

82. Azo Compounds (-N=N- Group)

83. Azoxy Compounds (-N=+N<O- Group)

84. Arylhydroxylamines (Ar-NHOH Group)

85. Oximes and Hydroxamic Acids (=NOH Group)

86. Aliphatic Oximes (R2C=NOH Group)

87. Hydroxamic Acids (-CO-NHOH Group)

Nitroso Compounds

88. C-Nitroso Compounds (-NO Group)

89. Nitrosamines (>N-NO Group)

90. Aliphatic Nitrosamines

91. Nitro Compounds (-NO2 Group)

92. Primary Aliphatic Nitro Compounds (R-CH2-NO2 Group)

93. Aromatic Nitro Compounds

94. Aromatic Polynitro Compounds

95. Nitrates, Nitrites, Nitroamines and Nitrosamines (-ONO2, -ΟΝΟ, >NNO2, and >NNO Groups)

96. Esters and Amides of Nitric Acid (-ONO2, and >N-NO2, Groups)

97. Thiocyanates (-SCN Group)

98. Amides of Thiocarboxylic Acids (-CSNH4, Group)

99. Dithiocarbamates (-SCS-NC< Group)

100. Sulfamic Acids (-NHSO2H Group)

101. Arylsulfohydroxamic Acids

102. N-Halosulfonamides (-SO2NHHal Group)

F. Organic Compounds of P, As, Sb, Bi, and Hg

103. Triphenylphosphine, -Arsine, -Stibine, or -Bismuthine

104. Arsonic Acids (-AsO(OH)2 Group)

105. Stibonic Acids (-SbO(OH)2 Group)

106. Arylmercuric Salts (Ar-HgX Group)

107. Mercury Diaryls (Ar2Hg Group)

108. Alkyl Esters of Non-Carboxylie Acids

109. Methyl Esters of Non-Carboxy Lie Acids

Chapter 4. Detection of Structures and Certain Types of Organic Compounds

General Remarks

1. Vicinal Polyalcohols (>C(OH)-(HO)C< Type)

2. 7-Dehydrosterols

3. Phenoxy Compounds (C6H5O- Type)

4. Polyhydroxybenzenes (C6H6-n(OH)n Type)

5. m-Dihydroxybenzene Derivatives

6. m-Dihydroxyaryl Compounds (m-Ar(OH)2 Type)

7. Vic-Trihydroxyaryls

8. p-Hydroxy- and p-Alkoxy-Benzene Derivatives

9. Methylene Ethers of o-Diphenols

10. 1,2-Dioxo Compounds (-CO-CO- Type)

11. Aliphatic 1,2-Dioxo Compounds (R-CO-CO-R Type)

12. Aromatic 1,2-Dioxo Compounds and o-Quinones (Ar-CO-CO-Ar Type)

13. 1,2-Dioxo Compounds and Quinones

14. Quinones

15. o-Quinones

16. Naphthoquinones

17. p-Naphthoquinones

18. Anthraquinones

19. Carbohydrates

20. Reducing Sugars

21. Hexoses

22. Ketohexoses

23. o-Hydroxyaryl Carbonyl Compounds

24. o-Hydroxyarylaldehydes

25. p-Hydroxyarylaldehydes

26. p-Hydroxy- and p-Alkoxyaldehydes

27. Arylvinyl- and p-Hydroxy-(Alkoxy-)Aryl-Aldehydes

28. Polyhydroxyanthraquinones

29. Acyloins (Ar-CHOH-CO-Ar Type)

30. 5-Hydroxyflavonols

31. 1,2-Dicarboxylic Acids (C-COOH—C-COOH Type)

32. α-Halogenofatty Acids (-CHHalCOOH Type)

33. Uronic Acids

34. Salicylic Acid Derivatives

35. Phenoxyacetic Acids (Ar-O-CH2-COOH Type)

36. Phenol- and α-Naphthol-Sulfonic Acids

37. Naphthalenesulfonic Acids

38. Anthraquinonesulfonic Acids

39. N-Alkylanilines

40. N.N-Dialkylanilines

41. Diphenylamine and Derivatives

42. Halogenated Anilines

43. β-Hydroxyethylamines (>N-CH2-CH2-OH Type)

44. Amino Acids

45. Aliphatic Aminocarboxylic and -Sulfonic Acids

46. Aliphatic Aminocarboxylic Acids

47. α-Aminocarboxylic Acids (-CH-COOH-NH3 Type)

48. Proteins

49. Aniline- and Phenolsulfonic Acids

50. Aniline Derivatives Containing Strongly Acidic Groups in the Paraposition

51. Anilinearsonic and Anilinestibonic Acids

52. o- and Peri- Hydroxyarylamines

53. Aromatic Tertiary N-Ring Bases

54. Aromatic Heterocyclic Ring Bases

55. Pyrrole Derivatives

56. Indole Derivatives

57. Carbazole Derivatives

58. Pyridine Derivatives

59. Pyridine-Aldehydes

60. α-Carboxylic Acids of Aromatic Heterocyclic Bases

61. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and Derivatives

62. Urea and Derivatives (OC<NH-NH- Type)

63. Thiourea and Derivatives (SC<NH-NH- Type)

64. Quinonechloroimines

65. Aliphatic 1,2-Dioximes (R-C=HON-C=NOH-R Type)

66. o-Nitrosophenols

67. P-Nitrosophenols

68. o-Nitrosonaphthol Derivatives

69. p-Nitrosoarylamines

70. m-Dinitro Compounds

71. Benzaldehydesulfonic Acids

72. Aminophenols

73. Phenylhydrazinesulfonic Acids

74. Nitro- and Aminobenzaldehydes

Chapter 5. Identification of Individual Organic Compounds

General Remarks

1. Acetylene

2. Naphthalene

3. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

4. Anthracene

5. Phenanthrene

6. Chloroform and Bromoform

7. Bromoform

8. Carbon Tetrachloride

9. Methanol

10. Ethanol

11. Cyclohexanol and Cyclohexanone

12. Glycerol

13. Inositol

14. p-Cresol

15. α-Naphthol

16. β-Naphthol

17. Pyrocatechol

18. Resorcinol

19. Orcinol

20. Naphthoresorcinol

21. Hydroquinone

22. Pyrogallol

23. Hydroxyhydroquinone

24. Phloroglucinol

25. Pentachlorophenol

26. Salicyl Alcohol (Saligenin)

27. Carbon Monoxide

28. Formaldehyde

29. Acetaldehyde

30. Chloral and Bromal

31. Citral

32. Glyoxal

33. o-Phthalaldehyde

34. Furfural

35. Acetone

36. Diacetyl

37. Acetylacetone

38. P-Benzoquinone

39. Chloranil

40. Phenanthraquinone

41. Rhodizonic Acid

42. Formic Acid

43. Acetic Acid

44. Cinnamic Acid

45. Oxalic Acid

46. Esters of Oxalic Acid

47. Malonic Acid

48. Succinic Acid

49. Monochloroacetic Acid

50. Dichloroacetic Acid

51. Trichloroacetic Acid

52. Glycolic Acid

53. Lactic Acid

54. Glyceric Acid

55. Malic Acid

56. Tartaric Acid

57. Mucic Acid

58. Citric Acid

59. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

60. Salicylic Acid

61. Phenoxyacetic Acid

62. Coumarin

63. Glyoxalic Acid (Glyoxylic Acid)

64. Pyruvic Acid

65. Acetoacetic Ester

66. Phosgene

67. Benzoyl Peroxide

68. Carbon Disulfide

69. Thio-Michler's Ketone

70. Thiophene

71. Dixanthogen

72. Benzenesulfonic Acid

73. α-Naphthalenesulfonic Acid

74. Sulfosalicylic Acid

75. l,2-Naphthoquinone-4-Sulfonic Acid

76. Phenylsulfuric Acid

77. Ethylenediamine and Propylenediamine

78. Hexamethylenetetramine (Urotropine, Hexamine)

79. Aminoacetic Acid (Glycine)

80. α-Aminopropionic Acid (α-Alanine)

81. Hippuric Acid

82. Tyrosine

83. Tryptophan

84. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

85. Taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid)

86. Benzylamine

87. α-Naphthylamine

88. o-Phenylenediamine

89. p-Phenylenediamine

90. p-Aminodimethylaniline

91. Tetrabase (4,4'-Tetramethyldiaminodiphenylmethane)

92. Benzidine Sulfate

93. o-Aminophenol

94. m-Aminophenol

95. p-Aminophenol

96. Ν,Ν-Diphenylanthranilic Acid

97. Piperidine

98. Piperazine

99. Carbazole

100. Thiodiphenylamine (Phenothiazine)

101. Pyridine

102. Pyridine-2-Aldehyde

103. 3-Pyridinesulfonic Acid

104. Quinoline

105. Isoquinoline

106. 8-Hydroxyquinoline

107. 8-Hydroxyquinolinesulfonic Acids

108. Urea

109. Guanidine

110. Biguanide

111. Melamine

112. Formamide

113. Ν,Ν-Dimethylformamide

114. Formanilide

115. Benzamide

116. Oxamide

117. Oxanilide and Oxanilic Acid

118. Succinimide

119. N-Bromo(Chloro-)Succinimide

120. Isatin

121. Barbituric Acid

122. Barbituric and Thiobarbituric Acid

123. Alloxan

124. Parabanic Acid (Oxalyiurea)

125. Hydantoin and Allantoin

126. Hydrocyanic Acid (Prussic Acid)

127. Dicyanogen

128. Cyanogen Halides

129. Cyanoacctic Acid

130. Cyanamide

131. Dicyanodiamide (Cyanoguanidine)

132. Benzonitrile (Phenyl Cyanide)

133. Phenylhydrazine

134. Hydrazobenzene

135. Oxalic Acid Hydrazides

136. p-Nitrosophenol

137. α-Nitroso-β-Naphthol

138. p-Nitrosodimethyl(Ethyl)aniline

139. Nitromethane

140. Nitroethane

141. m-Nitrophenol

142. p-Nitrobenzaldehyde

143. m-Nitroaniline

144. p-Nitroaniline

145. Thiocyano-2,4-Dinitrobenzene

146. Phenylisothiocyanate (Phenyl Mustard Oil)

147. N-Phenylsulfamic Acid

148. Triphenylphosphate

Chapter 6. Application of Spot Tests in the Differentiation of Isomers and Homologous Compounds. Determination of Constitutions

General Remarks

1. Anthracene and Phenanthrene

2. Phthalic-Terephthalic Acid. Maleic-Fumaric Acid

3. Naphthols, Aminophenols and Nitroanilines

4. Thiocyanates and Isothiocyanates

5. Eugenol-Isoeugenol. Safrole-Isosafrole

6. Vanillins

7. Differentiation of Dihydroxybenzenes

8. ω-Bromoacetophenone and p-Bromoacetophenone

9. Naphthoquinones

10. Isomeric Monohalogenofatty Acids

11. Phenylsulfuric Acid and Phenolsulfonic Acid

12. Naphthylamines

13. α- and β-Naphthylaminesulfonic Acids

14. Benzylamine, Monomethylaniline and (ο-, m-, p-)Toluidine

15. Phenylenediamines

16. α- and β-Alanine

17. Aminobenzoic Acids

18. Metanilic and Sulfanilic Acid

19. Η-Acid and K-Acid

20. Thiouric Acids

21. Methylindoles

22. Quinoline and Isoquinoline

23. Pyridinemonocarboxylic Acids

24. Hydrobenzamide and Amarine

25. Phenylthiocyanate and Phenylisothiocyanate

26. Phenylacetamide and N-Phenylacetamide

27. Sulfadiazine and Sulfapyrazine

28. p-Aminoazobenzene and Diazoaminobenzene

29. Benzamidine and Benzalhydrazone

30. Phenylhydrazine-4-Sulfonic Acid and Phenylhydrazine-N-Sulfonic Acid

31. Ammonium Thiocyanate and Thiourea

32. Nitrosodiphenylamines

33. Dinitrobenzenes

34. Chloronitrobenzenes

35. Nitrophenols

36. Nitrobenzaldehydes

37. Isomeric Methyl Derivatives of Salicylaldoxime and Constitution of Copper Salicylaldoxime

38. Homologous Aliphatic Aldehydes

39. Homologous Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids

40. Differentiation of Aniline and Benzylamine

41. Cyanamide and Dicyanodiamide

42. Symmetric and Asymmetric Diphenylurea

43. Phenyl- and sym-Diphenylthiourea

44. p-Phenylenediamine and Benzidine

45. Mono- and di-Alkylanilines

46. Constitution of the Reaction Product from Thiosemicarbazide and Nitrous Acid

47. Constitution of 6-Nitroquinoline

48. Constitution of Taurine and Sulfanilic Acid

49. Constitution of Dithiooxalic Acid

50. Constitution of Melamine

51. Constitution of Thiourea

52. Reversibility of the Benzoin Condensation

53. Identification of an Aminophenol Structure in a New Rearrangement Product

54. Differentiation Between ar-Tetralols and Recognition of a New Rearrangement

Chapter 7. Application of Spot Reactions in the Testing of Materials, Examination of Purity, Characterization of Pharmaceutical Products, etc.

General Remarks

1. Detection of Mineral Constituents in Papers (Differentiation of Filter Papers)

2. Detection of Organic Materials in Dusts, Soils, etc.

3. Detection of Sulfide Sulfur in Animal Charcoal and Dyes

4. Detection of Free Sulfur in Solid Organic Products

5. Detection of Traces of Sulfur in Organic Liquids

6. Detection of Carbon Disulfide in Benzene and Carbon Tetrachloride

7. Detection of Thiophene and Thiophene Derivatives in Benzene and Toluene

8. Detection of Ammonium Thiocyanate in Thiourea

9. Detection of Ethanol in Motor Fuels, Benzene, Chloroform, etc.

10. Detection of Low-Boiling Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

11. Differentiation of Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride

12. Detection of Solvents and Products with a Glycolic Structure

13. Detection of Lead Tetraethyl or Lead Tetraphenyl in Motor Fuels

14. Detection of Peroxides in Organic Liquids

15. Detection of Organic Stabilizers in Hydrogen Peroxide

16. Detection of Morpholine

17. Detection of Pyridine Bases in Amyl Alcohol

18. Detection of Pyridine Bases in Ammonia

19. Detection of Hydrogen Cyanide in Illuminating Gas

20. Tests for Added Materials and Undesirable Admixtures in Foods

21. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Foods, Beverages, Condiments, etc.

22. Detection of Salts of N-Cyclohexylsulfamic Acid

23. Distinction of Fermentation Acetic Acid from Synthetic Acetic Acid

24. Detection of Mineral Acids and Organic Hydroxy Acids in Vinegar

25. Detection of Vitamin C in Vegetable and Fruit Juices

26. Detection of Vitamin B1

27. Detection of Vitamin B2

28. Tests for Rancidity of Fats and Oils

29. Test for Pharmaceutical Preparations which Split off Formaldehyde

30. Detection of Preparations Containing Tannin

31. Detection of Salol

32. Detection of Antipyrine

33. Test for Barbiturates

34. Detection of Novocaine

35. Detection of Dial

36. Detection of Phenacetin

37. Detection of Pyramidone

38. Detection of Morphine and Codeine

39. Detection of Codeine

40. Detection of Ephedrine

41. Detection of Adrenaline

42. Detection of Emetine and Cephaeline

43. Detection of Cinchonine and Quinine

44. Detection of Piperine

45. Detection of Sulfa Drugs

46. Test for Sulfadiazine

47. Detection of Quaternizable Sulfa Drugs

48. Test for Sulfa Drugs Containing Urea Components

49. Identification of Entobex

50. Tests for Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide (Isoniazide)

51. Tests for Penicillin G Salts

52. Detection of Chloromycetin

53. Detection of Aminophylline and Euphylline

54. Detection of Piperazine in Pharmaceutical Preparations

55. Detection of Quaiacol Carbonate

56. Tests for Drugs Containing the Dimethylaminoethyl Group

57. Detection of Plant Materials that Can be Oxidized to Mucic Acid

58. Detection of Salicin and Populin

59. Detection of Helicin

60. Detection of Coumarin in Plant Material

61. Detection of Antimonial Pharmaceutical Preparations

62. Detection of Arsenic-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

63. Detection of Bismuth-Bearing Medicinals

64. Detection of Mercurial Pharmaceutical Preparations

65. Detection of Calcium-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

66. Detection of Iodine-Bearing Pharmaceutical Preparations

67. Detection of Hippuran

68. Differentiation of Mercuric Cyanide and Oxycyanide

69. Differentiation of Sulfur-Bearing and Sulfur-Free Dyes

70. Detection of Sulfur Dyes Containing Divalent Sulfur

71. Detection of Dyes Containing di- and Tetravalent Sulfur

72. Detection of Dyes Containing Hexavalent Sulfur

73. Distinguishing Between Nitrogen-Bearing and Nitrogen-Free Dyes

74. Distinction Between Acid and Basic Dyes

75. Detection of Salts of Basic Dyes and of Dyes with Free Acidic Groups

76. Detection of Dyes Containing Nitro Groups

77. Detection of Dyes Containing Amino Groups

78. Detection of Dyestuffs Containing N-Dialkyl Groups

79. Differentiation of Dyes with N-Methyl and N-Ethyl Groups

80. Detection of Azo Dyes

81. Detection of Azo Dyes Derived from Aniline

82. Detection and Distinction of Benzidine Dyes

83. Detection of Dyestuffs with p-Aminophenol(-Naphthol) Structure

84. Detection of Dyestuffs with p-Phenylenediamine and p-Nitroaniline Structure

85. Detection and Differentiation of Rhodamine Dyes

86. Detection of Dyestuffs with Anthraquinone Structure

87. Test for Hydroxytriphenylmethane Dyes

88. Detection of p-Phenylenediamine and its Oxidation Products in Hair Dyes

89. Detection of Phthalocyanines

90. Detection of Nickel Dimethylglyoxime

91. Detection of Antimony and Tin Mordants in Fabrics

92. Testing the Purity of Dimethyl(-Ethyl-) Aniline

93. Detection of Nitrates of Organic Bases

94. Detection of Naphthol- and Naphthylamine-Sulfonic Acids

95. Differentiation of Naphthol- and Naphthylamine-Sulfonic Acids

96. Differentiation of Naphthylaminemono- and di-Sulfonic Acids

97. Examination of Gunpowder and Explosives

98. Detection of Picrylnitromethylamine

99. Detection of Non-Aromatic Nitroamine Explosives

100. Differentiation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-s-Triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-l,3,5,7-Tetranitro-s-Tetrazine (HMX)

101. Differentiation of Animal and Vegetable Fibers

102. Tests for the Identification of Artificial Fibers

103. Detection of Urea Resins

104. Detection of Formol Plastics

105. Detection of Melamine Resins

106. Detection of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives

107. Detection and Differentiation of Methyl- and Ethyl Cellulose

10S. Tests for Plastics and Lacquers Containing Nitrocellulose

109. Test for Styrene Resins and Styrene-Containing Copolymers

110. Test for Epoxy Resins

111. Differentiation of Chlorinated Rubber and Neoprene

112. Detection of Naphthalene-1,5-Diisocyanate

113. Detection of Chromium in Leather

114. Detection of Oxalic Acid in Leather

115. Detection of Formaldehyde in Leather

116. Differentiation of Natural and Synthetic Tanning Agents

117. Detection and Differentiation of Organic Tanning Agents in Leather

118. Detection of the Contamination of Fabrics by Mammalian Urine

119. Test for Alkali Alkyl Sulfates Used as Wetting Agents

120. Detection of Chloramine Τ (Differentiation from Alkali Hypochlorite)

121. Detection of Rongalite

122. Identification of Binders Used in Mineral Coating on Papers

123. Detection of Adhesives Containing Proteins

124. Detection of Acetic Acid (Acetate) in Formic Acid (Formate)

125. Test for Free Acid in Succinic and Phthalic Anhydrides

126. Detection of Higher Fatty Acids in Paraffin Wax and Vaseline

127. Detection of Fats and Waxes

128. Detection of Calcium Cyanamide and Urea in Fertilizers and Soils

129. Detection of Alkyl Phosphates Used as Insecticides

130. Detection of Arylmercury Nitrates

131. Detection of Some Enzymatic Activities

Appendix. Individual Compounds and Products Examined

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Elsevier Science 1966
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

F. Feigl

V. Anger

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