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Spine Phenotypes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128227787

Spine Phenotypes

1st Edition

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Editors: Dino Samartzis Jaro Ilari Karppinen Frances Mary Kingsley Williams
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128227787
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st March 2021
Page Count: 300
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Spine Phenotypes is a comprehensive resource that outlines phenotype descriptions, their radiographic measurements and epidemiological classifications. The book provides in-depth discussions on spine pathology and their clinical relevance. Multi-authored, with multidisciplinary contributions from world leaders in the fields of imaging, spine research and clinical practice, each chapter is rich in visual depiction of imaging phenotypes, providing examples of some established phenotypic measurements with a range of normal and pathologic images. This book is a first of its kind reference for researchers, orthopedists, spine specialists, and many more.

Key Features

  • Contains chapters that are devoted to specific imaging phenotypes
  • Provides examples of established phenotypic measurements and a range of normal and pathologic images
  • Presents a multidisciplinary approach, with contributions from world leaders in the fields of imaging, spine research and clinical practice


Researchers, Orthopedists, Spine Specialists (including chiropractors, physiatrists, physical therapists, neurosurgeons, pain management physicians and many rheumatologists and neurologists). Medical Students, Nurses, Residents, Physician Assistants, and Undergraduate Students

Table of Contents

  1. Anatomy of the spine
    2. Biomechanics of the spine
    3. Biomechanical models to study spinal phenotypes
    4. Animal models to study spinal phenotypes
    5. Imaging technologies of the spine
    6. Disc degeneration
    7. Osteophytes and disc space narrowing
    8. Disc displacement
    9. High intensity zones and radial tears
    10. Vertebral endplate changes, abnormalities, and defects
    11. Subchondral bone marrow changes (Modic)
    12. Spinal ligament changes and abnormalities
    13. Spinal stenosis
    14. Facet joint changes and orientation
    15. Muscle morphology, changes and association with spinal phenotypes
    16. Spinal alignment


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2021
1st March 2021
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

Dino Samartzis

Dr. Samartzis obtained his undergraduate degree from Northwestern University, and further pursued graduate studies in biological sciences, evidence-based health care, clinical epidemiology, medical sciences, and international studies at Harvard University, University of Oxford (UK), University of Cambridge (UK), Erasmus University (The Netherlands), Charles University (Czech Republic), and London School of Economics and Political Science (UK). He completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the The University of Hong Kong. He went on to become the Gilbert Beebe Fellow of the Radiation and Nuclear Board of the National Academies of Science in Washington D.C. and the United States Department of Energy, the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (a.k.a. Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission) in Hiroshima, Japan. He has published over 350 peer-reviewed studies in high-impact journals (e.g., Lancet, Arthritis & Rheumatism, JBJS, etc.), book chapters and web-based articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, International Spine Research and Innovation Initiative (ISRII) and an Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush Medical College

Jaro Ilari Karppinen

Jaro Karppinen is Professor of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine at the Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, in Northern Finland. He also works at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health as a specialist of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. He has an academic degree in Biochemistry and has been an investigator in many clinical studies related to low back pain and sciatica. His current research interest has focused on environmental and genetic risk factors of degenerative spinal disorders with a special focus on the etiology and diagnostics of Modic changes. He is the Project Leader of the musculoskeletal subprojects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts and a Member of the Executive Group the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts. He is a member of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, International Association for the Study of Pain, European Spine Society, and AOSpine Research Network.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland

Frances Mary Kingsley Williams

Frances M.K. Williams is a professor at King’s College London and an honorary consultant in rheumatology at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust. She’s been a member of the Royal College of Physicians since 1995, completed her PhD at the University of London in 2002 and is also a Fellow at the Royal College Physicians of Edinburgh since 2007. Dr. Williams performs genetic and epidemiological studies in Twins UK and UK Biobank volunteers, as well as patients, to understand better the genetic basis for common conditions such as back pain, age-related hearing impairment and fibromyalgia. The areas of special interest are: intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain, osteoporosis and vertebral fracture, and chronic pain syndrome. Dr. Williams was the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine prizewinner for clinical studies in both 2015 and 2019 and has authored 120+ articles.

Affiliations and Expertise

King’s College London and Honorary Consultant in Rheumatology, Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

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