Spinal Interneurons

Spinal Interneurons

Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury

1st Edition - October 1, 2022

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  • Editors: Lyandysha Zholudeva, Michael Lane
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192603

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The spinal cord is comprised of four types of neurons: motor neurons, pre-ganglionic neurons, ascending projection neurons, and spinal interneurons. Interneurons are neurons that process information within local circuits, and have an incredible ability for neuroplasticity, whether due to persistent activity, neural injury, or in response to disease. Although, by definition, their axons are restricted to the same structure as the soma (in this case the spinal cord), spinal interneurons are capable of sprouting and rewiring entire neural circuits, and contribute to some restoration of disrupted neural communication after injury to the spinal cord (i.e., “bypassing” the lesion site). Spinal Interneurons provides a focused overview of how scientists classify interneurons in general, the techniques used to identify subsets of interneurons, their roles in specific neural circuits, and the scientific evidence for their neuroplasticity. Understanding the capacity for neuroplasticity and identity of specific spinal interneurons that are optimal for recovery, may help determine cellular candidates for developing therapies. Spinal Interneurons provides neuroscientists, clinicians, and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons, the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal and compromised neural circuits, and highlights the therapeutic potential of these cells by presenting the relevant pre-clinical and clinical work to date. People in industry will also benefit from this book, which compiles the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, what considerations there are for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments can not only be translated to the clinic, but how existing treatments should be appropriately reverse-translated to the bench.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive overview of techniques used to identify, characterize, and classify spinal interneurons and their role in neural circuits
  • Description of the role that spinal interneurons play in mediating plasticity after compromise to spinal neural networks
  • In-depth discussion of therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons for spinal cord injury and/or disease


Neuroscientists, clinicians, and trainees with an interest in the spinal cord

Table of Contents

    1. i. Dedication to Dr. Marion Murray

      ii. Preface - Lyandysha V. Zholudeva and Michael A. Lane

      Section 1: Spinal Interneurons – Motor and Sensory Neuronal Networks

      1. The Neuronal Cell Types of the Spinal Cord
      Stephanie C. Koch and Ariel Levine

      2. Identified Interneurons Contributing to Locomotion in Mammals
      Erik Z. Li, D. Leonardo Garcia-Ramirez, Ngoc T. B. Ha, and Kimberly J. Dougherty

      3. Decoding Touch: Peripheral and Spinal Processing
      Mark A. Gradwell, Manon Bohic, Victoria E. Abraira

      4. Spinal Interneurons and Pain: functional organization of dorsal horn neurons in acute and persistent pain
      Myung-chul Noh, Suh Jin Lee, Cynthia Arokiaraj and Rebecca Seal

      5. Cholinergic Spinal Interneurons
      Patricia E. Phelps and Alexa M. Tierno

      6. Spinal Interneurons, Motor Synergies and Modularity
      Simon Giszter, Trevor S Smith, Andrey P Borisyuk

      Section 2: Spinal Interneurons – Gatekeepers to plasticity following injury

      7. Spinal Interneurons Contribute to Adaptive and Maladaptive Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury
      Alfredo Sandoval Jr, Zhigang He, and Bo Chen

      8. Changes in motor outputs after spinal cord injury
      Amr A. Mahrous, Owen Shelton, Derin Birch, Vicki Tysseling

      9. Respiratory Spinal Interneurons
      Margo L. Randelman, Lyandysha V. Zholudeva, Steven A. Crone and Michael A. Lane

      10. Spinal Interneuronal Control of the Lower Urinary Tract
      Jaclyn H. DeFinis, Shaoping Hou

      11. Spinal interneurons and Autonomic Dysreflexia after Injury
      Felicia M. Michael, Alexander G. Rabchevsky

      12. Human Spinal Networks: Motor Control, Autonomic Regulation and Somatic-Visceral Neuromodulation
      Yury Gerasimenko, Claudia Angeli, and Susan Harkema

      13. Spinal Interneurons post-Injury: Emergence of a different perspective on spinal cord injury
      Bau Pham and V. Reggie Edgerton

      14. The Unified Theory of Central Pattern Generator Function After Spinal Cord Injury
      David S. K. Magnuson

      15. Spinal Interneurons & Cell transplantation
      Ashley Tucker, Miriam Aceves, Jessica C. Butts, Jennifer N. Dulin

      16. Spinal Interneurons and Cellular Engineering
      Nicholas White and Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert

    Product details

    • No. of pages: 474
    • Language: English
    • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
    • Published: October 1, 2022
    • Imprint: Academic Press
    • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192603

    About the Editors

    Lyandysha Zholudeva

    Dr. Lyandysha (Lana) Zholudeva is currently a Scientist at the Gladstone Institutes. Having a broad research experience beginning as an undergraduate in non-invasive imaging techniques for quantifying cellular metabolism (Creighton University), to completing her doctoral work in spinal cord injury, plasticity and repair (Drexel University College of Medicine), has contributed to a drive for translational science. Her current work is focused on engineering human spinal interneurons for spinal cord repair and disease modeling. Her ongoing research, which is supported by government funding, private foundations and philanthropic investments, has led to several patents for her discoveries.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Michael Lane

    Dr. Michael Aron Lane is an Associate Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy at the Drexel University College of Medicine. He is a Primary Investigator in the Marion Murray Spinal Cord Research Center, where his research team is investigating the neuroplastic potential after spinal cord injury, and developing strategies to promote repair and recovery (e.g., activity-based therapies, neuromodulation and cellular transplantation). He is committed to maintaining a translational focus to his pre-clinical research and retains close ties with scientists, engineers, clinical professionals and people living with spinal cord injury. He is also deeply invested in the training of future scientists having served in multiple external workshops and courses on spinal cord injury, serving as co-director of a Neuroscience Summer Camp for High School students, and Co-Director of a graduate training program for spinal cord injury research funded by the National Institutes of Health.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Drexel University College of Medicine, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA, USA

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